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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 3): 151261, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715222

RESUMO

The Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study (TMICS) was launched with the aim to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to phthalic acid esters (PAEs) on infant health. A total of 1102 pregnant women were enrolled in this study from 2012 to 2015. All participants completed a structured questionnaire, and provided urine specimens. The urinary concentrations of PAE metabolites in the third trimester were measured using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Generalized additive model-penalized regression splines and logistic regression models were employed to determine the risk for low birth weight (LBW) or small for gestational age (SGA) among pregnant women exposed to PAEs. After adjustments for other covariates, each incremental unit of ln-transformed mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) for pregnant women increased the odds of SGA in male neonates by 1.44 (95% CI: 0.92-2.23). An inverse association between SGA and maternal MnBP exposure level was observed in female neonates. An increase in one ln-transformed MnBP concentration unit decreased the risk of female SGA to 0.50 (95% CI: 0.24-0.97). In the penalized regression splines, increased risks of LBW/SGA in male neonates were presented while pregnant women exposed to increased MnBP levels. However, an association in the opposite direction was observed between maternal MnBP and LBW or SGA for male and female neonates. This study indicated that high maternal MnBP exposure in the third trimester was associated with LBW or SGA for male infants. Adverse effects on susceptible populations exposed to high levels of PAEs should be of concern.


Assuntos
Ácidos Ftálicos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Masculino , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Ftálicos/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan/epidemiologia
2.
Orthop Traumatol Surg Res ; 106(8): 1605-1611, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160878

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The incidence of distal radius fractures (DRFs) is increasing as the number of people in recreational or sporting activities rises, due to a combination of increased leisure time and greater public awareness of the health-related benefits of sports. Despite the increases in sports-related distal radius fractures (SR-DRFs), there are limited studies regarding the characteristics of treatment and recovery. HYPOTHESIS: There are characteristics specific to SR-DRF treated with conservative or operative management. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective review was carried out between January 2010 and December 2017. Overall, 1706 patients were included in the study analysis. Among them, 317 patients were injured during sports activity (18.6%) and 1389 were injured during non-sports activity (81.4%). Demographic data were compared between the two groups. The type of sports was investigated in SR-DRF. Also, we compared surgically treated DRF patients to describe differences in patient characteristics, fracture characteristics, and postoperative complications. RESULTS: The mean age of patients with SR-DRFs was significantly younger (28 vs. 52 years). The proportion of men was also significantly higher in SR-DRF group compared to NSR-DRF group (62.8 vs. 33.8%). We identified 27 kinds of sports associated with DRFs and the 5 sports topping the list associated were soccer (22.7%), cycling (17.7%), snowboarding (11.0%), ice-skating (9.1%), and mountain hiking (9.1%). There was no difference in terms of the treatment method. However, SR-DRF group had higher proportion of AO/OTA type A fracture (32.6 vs. 13.7%), and NSR-DRF group had higher proportion of type C fracture (79.5 vs. 64.2%). Postoperative complications showed no significant differences, except higher implant removal rate in SR-DRF. DISCUSSION: Patients with SR-DRF were significantly younger and had higher proportion of men. Proportion of AO/OTA type A was higher in SR-DRF group and proportion of AO/OTA type C was higher in NSR-DRF group. Proportion of surgical treatment was similar in two groups. Given the growing population participating in sports activity worldwide, SR-DRFs are predicted to increase and further study is required. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III; retrospective, epidemiological study.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Rádio , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Fraturas do Rádio/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Rádio/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
J Bone Metab ; 27(1): 71-75, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32190611

RESUMO

In terms of management of Paget's disease of bone (PDB), early diagnosis and proper management achieving remission is essential with lifelong specialist follow-up. We present the case of a 40-year-old woman with PDB affecting mainly the distal extremities (ankle and wrist). The patient visited our hospital in 2012 with heel pain. Plain radiography revealed osteoporosis, and a bone scan revealed hot uptake. Initial laboratory investigations showed normal serum calcium, 25-hydroxy-vitamin D, and parathyroid hormone levels; however, osteocalcin, C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen, and bone alkaline phosphatase levels were elevated. A bone mineral density scan showed T- and Z-scores of -2.5 and -2.7, respectively, and bisphosphonate treatment was initiated. Biopsy performed on the calcaneal lateral wall revealed inconclusive findings. Follow-up biopsy on the left distal radius was performed 7 years later to investigate wrist pain, and this examination led to a final diagnosis as PDB. We suggest inconclusive biopsy result during the early phase of PDB and highly recommend follow-up evaluation in osteoporosis with atypical behavior.

4.
J Korean Med Sci ; 34(32): e206, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Meniscus surgeries are frequently performed in orthopaedics. However, their current status is not well known in many countries, including Korea. This study aimed to investigate the national trends of meniscus surgery in Korea. METHODS: Information from the national database was acquired through the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service from 2010 to 2017. All cases coded as meniscectomy or meniscus repair were included. The total number and incidence of cases of meniscus surgery per 100,000 persons were determined, and the results were stratified by age and gender. The meniscus repair ratio for the total number of meniscus surgeries was evaluated. RESULTS: The total number and incidence of meniscectomy cases were 65,752 and 137, respectively, in 2010, which increased to 74,088 and 154, respectively, in 2017. The number of meniscectomies increased by 12.67% in 8 years. The total number and incidence of meniscus repair cases were 9,055 and 18, respectively, in 2010, which increased to 14,947 and 31 in 2017. The number of meniscus repairs increased by 65.04%. The meniscus repair ratio was 12.1% in 2010, which increased to 16.8% in 2017. The highest peak was noted for patients who underwent meniscus surgeries in their 50s and 60s. Meniscectomy was performed more frequently in women (57%) than in men (43%), whereas repair was performed more frequently in men (54%) than in women (46%) over the study period. CONCLUSION: The total number and incidence of meniscus surgeries increased from 2010 to 2017; the number and incidence of meniscus repair procedures increased more rapidly than those of meniscectomy, with the peak treatment age for both surgeries being in the 50s and 60s. The current study will contribute to understanding the epidemiology of meniscus surgery, its prevention, and cost-saving measures in Korea.


Assuntos
Meniscectomia/tendências , Menisco/cirurgia , Lesões do Menisco Tibial/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Meniscectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Meniscos Tibiais/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Lesões do Menisco Tibial/epidemiologia
5.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 222(6): 955-964, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248753

RESUMO

Parabens are a group of esters of parahydroxybenzoic acid and are utilized as antimicrobial preservatives in the majority of personal care products (PCPs). Epidemiological studies regarding the adverse effects of parabens on fetuses are still limited. The aim of this study was to determine the association between maternal paraben exposure and birth outcomes. One hundred and ninety-nine pregnant women were enrolled, and maternal urine was collected in the third trimester. The urine concentrations of four parabens (methyl (MP), ethyl (EP), propyl (PP), and butyl (BP)) were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Generalized additive model-penalized regression splines and a multivariable regression model were employed to determine the association between paraben exposure levels and birth outcomes. A causal mediation analysis was conducted to determine the mediation effect of oxidative stress on birth outcomes. The geometric means of urinary MP, EP, PP, and BP were 51.79, 1.26, 4.21, and 1.25 µg/g cre., respectively. In the penalized regression splines, sex-specific associations between maternal MP levels and birth outcomes were observed; a downward curvature was observed between the MP level and birth weight, length, head circumference, and thoracic circumference among female newborns. Pregnant women in the group with MP levels above the third quartile had neonates with significantly lower body weight (ß = -215.98 g, p value = 0.02) compared to those in the group with MP levels lower than the third quartile. No significant mediation of oxidative stress was observed between maternal MP exposure and female birth weight. The estimated proportion mediated ranged from -6% to 15%. The negative association between maternal paraben exposure and female birth outcomes in relation to child development should be carefully considered.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/urina , Tamanho Corporal , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Exposição Materna , Parabenos/análise , Adulto , Monitoramento Biológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Troca Materno-Fetal , Estresse Oxidativo , Gravidez , Caracteres Sexuais , Taiwan
6.
Chemosphere ; 226: 290-297, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933738

RESUMO

This study determined whether maternal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure influences birth outcomes through oxidative stress and estimated the daily intake of BPA through breast milk for infants. One hundred and eighty-six pregnant women without pregnancy complications were enrolled and maternal urine was collected in the third trimester. Postnatal breast milk was collected in the first and third months after delivery. Concentrations of BPA were determined through ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Generalized additive model-penalized regression splines and a multivariable regression model were employed to determine the effects of BPA exposure and oxidative stress levels on birth outcomes. A causal mediation analysis was conducted to clarify the mediation effects of oxidative stress due to maternal BPA exposure on birth outcomes. The daily intake of BPA in breast milk was calculated using probabilistic risk assessment methods. The geometric means (geometric standard deviation) of BPA levels for maternal urine and first- and third-month breast milk were 2.19 (2.88) µg/g creatinine., 1.35 (3.53) ng/g, and 3.17 (2.97) ng/g, respectively. No significant mediation existed among maternal BPA exposure, oxidative stress level, and neonatal head circumference. Three percent of 1-monthold babies and 1% of 3-month-old babies exceeded the BPA tolerable daily intake of 4 µg/kg-bw/day proposed by the European Food Safety Authority. This study revealed the BPA exposure profile for pregnant women and infants in northern Taiwan. The marginally significant correlation between maternal BPA exposure and neonatal head circumference should be considered.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Leite Humano/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/análise , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Saúde do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Espectrometria de Massas , Gravidez , Análise de Regressão , Medição de Risco , Taiwan
7.
Environ Res ; 167: 567-574, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30165327

RESUMO

Nonylphenol (NP) and/or bisphenol A (BPA) may have reproductive effects. Although the mechanisms of action remain unclear, steroid hormones biosynthesis, hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis activity, oxidative stress, and crosstalk interaction of NP and BPA mixture and its pathways may play a contributory role. This cross-sectional study examined whether the interactive effects of NP/BPA and oxidative stress biomarkers played a role in reproductive indices (penis length and anogenital distance (AGD)) in 244 mother-fetus pairs. Four biomarkers of oxidative stress, (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 8-nitroguanine (8-NO2Gua), 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-isoPF2α), and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-mercapturic acid (HNE-MA)) were simultaneously analyzed using the high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method. No significant associations were found between reproductive indices and NP/BPA or oxidative stress biomarkers. Maternal exposure to a mixture of NP and BPA may enhance 8-OHdG. Interactive effects were found in the high 8-isoPF2α group, and prenatal NP exposure was inversely associated with penis length (ß = -3.68 mm; p = 0.01). Similar results were noted among boys who were born to mothers in the high 8-isoPF2α group, in which BPA was inversely associated with penis length (ß = -4.43 mm; p = 0.005). Our findings suggest important implications for prenatal exposure to oxidative stress, as evidenced by the 8-isoPF2α level. Thus, NP and BPA may interact to shape fetal reproductive tract development, particularly in boys. The interactive effects of NP/BPA, oxidative stress, and reproductive indices should be considered.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Genitália Masculina/anatomia & histologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Feto/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez
8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(11): 6422-6429, 2017 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28490175

RESUMO

Prenatal exposure to nonylphenol (NP) and/or bisphenol A (BPA) has been reported to be associated with adverse birth outcomes; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The primary mechanism is endocrine disruption of the binding affinity for the estrogen receptor, but oxidative stress and inflammation might also play a contributory role. We aimed to investigate urinary NP and BPA levels in relation to biomarkers of oxidative/nitrative stress and inflammation and to explore whether changes in oxidative/nitrative stress are a function of prenatal exposure to NP/BPA and inflammation in 241 mother-fetus pairs. Third-trimester urinary biomarkers of oxidative/nitrative stress were simultaneously measured, including products of oxidatively and nitratively damaged DNA (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and 8-nitroguanine (8-NO2Gua)) as well as products of lipid peroxidation (8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-isoPF2α) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-mercapturic acid (HNE-MA)). The antioxidant glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and inflammation biomarkers, including C-reactive protein (CRP) and a panel of cytokines (interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)), were analyzed in maternal and umbilical cord plasma samples. In adjusted models, we observed significant positive associations between NP exposure and 8-OHdG and 8-NO2Gua levels, between BPA and 8-isoPF2α levels, and between maternal CRP levels and HNE-MA levels. Additionally, BPA and TNF-α levels in cord blood were inversely associated with maternal and GPx levels in cord blood as well as maternal TNF-α levels were inversely associated with maternal GPx levels. These results support a role for exposure to NP and BPA and possibly inflammation in increasing oxidative/nitrative stress and decreasing antioxidant activity during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Dano ao DNA , Inflamação , Estresse Oxidativo , Fenóis/toxicidade , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Humanos , Exposição Materna , Gravidez , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
9.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 38(3): 331-341, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28112175

RESUMO

Myocardial injury and ensuing fibrotic alterations impair normal heart architecture and cause cardiac dysfunction. Oxidative stress has been recognized as a key player in the pathogenesis of cardiac injury and progression of cardiac dysfunction, and promoting fibrosis. In the current study we investigated whether luteolin-7-diglucuronide (L7DG), a naturally occurring antioxidant found in edible plants, could attenuate isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial injury and fibrosis in mice and the underlying mechanisms. Myocardial injury and fibrosis were induced in mice via injection of ISO (5 mg·kg-1·d-1, ip) for 5 or 10 d. Two treatment regimens (pretreatment and posttreatment) were employed to administer L7DG (5-40 mg·kg-1·d-1, ip) into the mice. After the mice were euthanized, morphological examinations of heart sections revealed that both L7DG pretreatment and posttreatment regimens significantly attenuated ISO-induced myocardial injury and fibrosis. But the pretreatment regimen caused better protection against ISO-induced myocardial fibrosis than the posttreatment regimen. Furthermore, L7DG pretreatment blocked ISO-stimulated expression of the genes (Cyba, Cybb, Ncf1, Ncf4 and Rac2) encoding the enzymatic subunits of NADPH oxidase, which was the primary source of oxidant production in mammalian cells. Moreover, L7DG pretreatment significantly suppressed ISO-stimulated expression of collagen genes Col1a1, Col1a2, Col3a1, and Col12a1 and non-collagen extracellular matrix genes fibrillin-1, elastin, collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 and connective tissue growth factor. In addition, L7DG pretreatment almost reversed ISO-altered expression of microRNAs that were crosstalking with TGFß-mediated fibrosis, including miR-29c-3p, miR-29c-5p, miR-30c-3p, miR-30c-5p and miR-21. The current study demonstrated for the first time that L7DG is pharmacologically effective in protecting the heart against developing ISO-induced injury and fibrosis, justifying further evaluation of L7DG as a cardioprotective agent to treat related cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cardiomiopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Glucuronatos/farmacologia , Luteolina/farmacologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Cardiomiopatias/induzido quimicamente , Cardiomiopatias/patologia , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Fibrose/induzido quimicamente , Fibrose/patologia , Fibrose/prevenção & controle , Glucuronatos/isolamento & purificação , Glucuronatos/uso terapêutico , Isoproterenol , Lamiaceae/química , Luteolina/isolamento & purificação , Luteolina/uso terapêutico , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Necrose/induzido quimicamente , Necrose/tratamento farmacológico , Necrose/patologia
10.
Free Radic Res ; 49(12): 1469-78, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26514441

RESUMO

Animal studies have shown that exposure to nonylphenol (NP) increases oxidative/nitrative stress, but whether it does so in humans is unknown. This study examines prenatal exposure to NP and its effects on oxidatively/nitratively damaged DNA, lipid peroxidation, and the activities of antioxidants. A total of 146 urine and blood specimens were collected during gestational weeks 27-38 and hospital admission for delivery, respectively. Urinary NP was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Urinary biomarkers of oxidatively/nitratively damaged DNA and lipid peroxidation, including 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), 8-nitroguanine (8-NO(2)Gua), 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2α) (8-isoPF(2α)) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-mercapturic acid (HNE-MA), were simultaneously analyzed using isotope-dilution liquid-chromatography/electron spray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The activities of maternal plasma superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Urinary NP level was significantly associated with 8-oxodG and 8-NO(2)Gua levels in late pregnancy, suggesting that NP may enhance oxidatively and nitratively damaged DNA. The adjusted odds ratios for high 8-oxodG level exhibited a significantly dose-response relationship with NP levels, stratified into four quartiles. 8-oxodG appears to be a more sensitive and effective biomarker of NP exposure than 8-NO(2)Gua. These relationships suggest NP may play a role in the pregnancy complications.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/urina , Desoxiguanosina/análogos & derivados , Guanina/análogos & derivados , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina , Adulto , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Dano ao DNA/fisiologia , Desoxiguanosina/urina , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Guanina/urina , Humanos , Nitrosação , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Gravidez , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
11.
Environ Pollut ; 207: 145-51, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26367708

RESUMO

Data concerning the effects of prenatal exposures to nonylphenol (NP) and oxidative stress on neonatal birth outcomes from human studies are limited. A total of 146 pregnant women were studied (1) to investigate the association between prenatal NP exposure and maternal oxidative/nitrative stress biomarkers of DNA damage (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 8-nitroguanine (8-NO2Gua)) and lipid peroxidation (8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-isoPF2α), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-mercapturic acid (HNE-MA)) and (2) to explore the associations among oxidative stress biomarkers, NP exposure, and neonatal birth outcomes, including gestational age, birth weight, length, Ponderal index, and head and chest circumferences. NP significantly increased the 8-OHdG and 8-NO2Gua levels. All infants born to mothers with urinary 8-OHdG levels above the median exhibited a significantly shorter gestational duration (Badjusted = -4.72 days; 95% CI: -8.08 to -1.36 days). No clear association was found between NP levels and birth outcomes. Prenatal 8-OHdG levels might be a novel biomarker for monitoring fetal health related to NP exposure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Exposição Materna , Fenóis , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina , Acetilcisteína/análogos & derivados , Acetilcisteína/urina , Adulto , Biomarcadores/urina , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos de Coortes , Dano ao DNA , Desoxiguanosina/análogos & derivados , Desoxiguanosina/urina , Dinoprosta/análogos & derivados , Dinoprosta/urina , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Guanina/análogos & derivados , Guanina/urina , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Taiwan/epidemiologia
12.
Mol Med Rep ; 12(4): 5321-7, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26238503

RESUMO

Hypertension is a chronic disease with a high prevalence, and is associated with a high risk of vascular disease and premature death. Traditional Chinese medicine has been administered to treat hypertension for many years. In the present study, the effects of Yiqi Huaju formula (YQ; a compound used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine) were observed in salt­sensitive hypertension, which was induced by a high­salt and high­fat (HSF) diet and the potential mechanism was investigated. YQ was prepared from five plant extracts and was dissolved in normal sodium chloride prior to use. Male Sprague­Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups, and fed either a normal diet (control), an HSF diet or an HSF diet with YQ. At week eight, blood pressure was measured and 24­h urine samples were collected from all of the rats. The rats were subsequently sacrificed, and their blood was collected for biochemical analyses and kidney tissue samples were dissected for the immunohistochemical assay. YQ was observed to decrease the high arterial pressure and serum total cholesterol level, which had been induced by the HSF diet. It also enhanced the excretion of urinary angiotensinogen, Na+, and decreased the loss of urinary aldosterone, K+ and microalbuminuria. In addition, YQ inhibited the high mRNA expression level of renal renin, angiotensin II (Ang II), and Ang II receptor, type 1 (AT1R), and inhibited the protein expression of renal AT1R and Ang II receptor type 2, which had been induced by the HSF diet. These results indicate that YQ may reduce the arterial pressure in salt­sensitive hypertension via the inhibition of renin­angiotensin system activation.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Angiotensina II/genética , Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Expressão Gênica , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Ratos , Receptores de Angiotensina/genética , Receptores de Angiotensina/metabolismo , Renina/genética , Renina/metabolismo
13.
Environ Res ; 134: 143-8, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25127525

RESUMO

As the predominant environmental biodegradation product of nonylphenol (NP) ethoxylates and with proven estrogenic effects, NP is formed during the alkylation process of phenols. The purposes of this study were (1) to examine maternal and prenatal exposure to NP in Taiwan, (2) to determine the level of placental protection against NP exposure as well as the level of NP in breast milk, and (3) to assess the potential risk for breastfed newborns exposed to NP through the milk. Thirty pairs of maternal and fetal blood samples, placenta, and breast milk during the 1st and the 3rd months of lactation were collected. External NP exposures of these specimens were then analyzed by using high-performance liquid chromatography coupling with fluorescence detection. Next, the socio-demographics, lifestyle, delivery method, dietary and work history were collected using a questionnaire. In addition, the daily intake of NP from consuming breast milk in the 1st and 3rd months for newborns was studied through deterministic and probabilistic risk assessment methods. The geometric means and geometric standard deviation of NP levels in maternal blood, fetal cord blood, placenta, and breast milk in the 1st and 3rd months were 14.6 (1.7) ng/ml, 18.8 (1.8) ng/ml, 19.8 (1.9) ng/g, 23.5 (3.2) ng/ml, and 57.3 (1.4) ng/ml, respectively. The probabilistic percentiles (50th, 75th, and 95th) of daily intake NP in breast milk were 4.33, 7.79, and 18.39 µg/kg-bw/day in the 1st month, respectively, and were 8.11, 10.78, 16.08 µg/kg-bw/day in the 3rd month, respectively. The probabilistic distributions (5th, 25th, and 50th) of risk for infants aged 1 month old were 0.27, 0.64, and 1.15, respectively, and that for infants aged 3 month old were 0.31, 0.46, and 0.62, respectively. Through repeated exposure from the dietary intake of expectant mothers, fetuses could encounter a high NP exposure level due to transplacental absorption, partitioning between the maternal and fetal compartments. Daily NP intake via breast milk in three month-old babies exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 5 µg/kg bw/day indicated a potential risk for Taiwan infants.


Assuntos
Feto/metabolismo , Troca Materno-Fetal , Fenóis/farmacocinética , Placenta/metabolismo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
14.
Pediatr Neonatol ; 55(2): 114-9, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24126010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to compare the growth and effect of growth on cognitive performance at 5 years of age of a group of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants and a group of healthy full-term infants. METHODS: Beginning in 1995, under the sponsorship of the Premature Baby Foundation, the Society of Neonatology, Taiwan, conducted a multicenter follow-up study of VLBW infants in Taiwan. The study enrolled 322 VLBW infants and 103 controls for assessment of growth data and cognitive performance at several time points from birth through to 5 years of age. Growth data were assessed with measurements of weight, height, and head circumference taken at the ages of 6 months, 12 months, 24 months, and 60 months. Cognitive performance was assessed at the age of 5 years. The VLBW infants were regarded as "failed" if a measurement was 2 standard deviations below the mean measurement of the control group. Neonatal and perinatal data had been collected prospectively as part of a longitudinal study. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Chinese version of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI-R). RESULTS: From 6 months to 5 years, VLBW infants had lower weight, height, and head circumference than the controls. Two hundred twenty-four VLBW infants (69.6%) returned for assessment at 5 years old. Of the 224 VLBW infants, complete sets of measurements of weight, height, and head circumference were obtained for 126 cases (56.3%), 127 cases (56.7%), and 106 cases (47.3%), respectively. Of these, 13 patients (10.3%) failed in weight, 11 patients (8.7%) failed in height, and 17 patients (16.0%) failed in head circumference at the age of 5 years. The mean WPPSI-R scores at the age of 5 years for VLBW children were: 94.1 ± 16.4 (performance IQ), 87.2 ± 12.8 (verbal IQ), and 89.5 ± 14.6 (full IQ). All of these values were also lower than those of the control group, with the differences being statistically significant (p < 0.05). The WPPSI-R scores of VLBW children who failed in head circumference were notably lower than those of VLBW children whose head circumference had caught up with that of their peers. CONCLUSION: The growth of VLBW infants was lower than that of healthy full-term infants through 5 years of age. The cognitive performance for VLBW children was also decreased compared to that of the control group, and there was an association between slower growth and decreased cognitive ability.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peso ao Nascer , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Taiwan
15.
Pediatr Int ; 52(3): 432-7, 2010 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19919635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surfactant lavage has been used to remove meconium debris in meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), but the influence of surfactant lavage on pro-inflammatory cytokines and cellular apoptosis is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of pro-inflammatory cytokine and the influence on alveolar cellular apoptosis using therapeutic bronchoalveolar lavage with diluted surfactant to treat MAS. METHODS: Twelve newborn piglets were anesthetized, intubated via tracheostomy, and artificially ventilated. MAS was induced by intratracheal instillation of 3-5 mL/kg of 20% human meconium. The piglets were then randomly assigned to a surfactant lavage group (n= 6) or a control group (n= 6). Piglets in the lavage group received bronchoalveolar lavage with 30 mL/kg diluted surfactant (5 mg/mL) in two aliquots. Cardiopulmonary parameters were monitored continuously. Serum was obtained hourly to measure concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-I beta, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Lung tissue was histologically examined after experiments, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling assay for apoptotic cell death was also performed. RESULTS: The animals in the lavage group displayed significantly better gas exchange and lower serum concentrations of IL-1 beta than the animals in the control group (P < 0.05). The number of apoptotic cells in lung tissues was significantly lower in the lavage group than the control group, and also in the nondependent than the dependent site. CONCLUSION: Therapeutic surfactant lavage improves oxygenation, decreases production of systemic pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1 beta, and alleviates the severity of lung cell apoptosis in newborn piglets with experimentally-induced MAS.


Assuntos
Lavagem Broncoalveolar/métodos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/biossíntese , Síndrome de Aspiração de Mecônio/metabolismo , Síndrome de Aspiração de Mecônio/terapia , Surfactantes Pulmonares/farmacologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Apoptose , Citocinas/análise , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Interleucina-1beta/análise , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Alvéolos Pulmonares/patologia , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar , Surfactantes Pulmonares/uso terapêutico , Distribuição Aleatória , Suínos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Liver Int ; 29(7): 1086-93, 2009 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19302182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pathogenetic basis for the association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and type-2 diabetes remains uncertain. It has been reported that insulin resistance (IR) plays an essential role. We investigated the association of inflammatory [tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6] and anti-inflammatory cytokines (adiponectin and IL-10) with IR in chronic HCV infection. METHODS: Eighty-one consecutive non-diabetic chronic hepatitis C patients (37 men and 44 women, mean age of 51.9+/-12.2 years) and 40 age, sex and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy individuals were collected. IR was evaluated by the homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Serum levels of cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Patients with chronic hepatitis C have a higher HOMA-IR, TNF-alpha, IL-6, adiponectin and IL-10, as compared with controls. By multiple linear regression analysis, moderate/severe steatosis grade, total cholesterol level and adiponectin was significantly associated with HOMA-IR, whereas, TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 was not. Male gender, BMI and HOMA-IR was inversely correlated with the serum adiponectin level. Serum adiponectin was positively correlated with TNF-alpha level, which was significantly associated with higher degree of hepatic necroinflammation. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that chronic HCV infection is associated with increased IR, which is correlated inversely with the serum adiponectin level. The complex role of adiponectin in the pathogenesis of IR and hepatic necroinflammation in chronic HCV infection merit further investigation.


Assuntos
Citocinas/sangue , Hepatite C Crônica/imunologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Adiponectina/sangue , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Hepatite C Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite C Crônica/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Interleucina-10/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , RNA Viral/sangue , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Regulação para Cima , Carga Viral
17.
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi ; 43(11): 824-7, 2008 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19087564

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between different expression of gastrocolic omentum visfatin(VF) mRNA and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in late trimester pregnancy. METHODS: One hundred cases of pregnant women in late trimester were divided into two groups, including 45 GDM women (GDM group) and 55 normal glucose tolerance women (NGT group). Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was applied to determine the expression of VF mRNA in gastrocolic omentum. Fast-blood glucose, insulin, cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels were measured. The progestational body mass index (BMI) and the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) insulin resistance (IR) were calculated in these cases. RESULTS: The expression of gastrocolic omentum VF mRNA in GDM group and NGT group were 0.8 +/- 0.4, 0.5 +/- 0.3. Fast-blood glucose levels were (4.12 +/- 0.14), (3.65 +/- 0.13) mmol/L. Insulin levels were (72 +/- 5), (61 +/- 5) pmol/L. TG levels were (5.6 +/- 0.3), (3.8 +/- 0.3) mmol/L. TC levels were (5.6 +/- 0.9), (3.9 +/- 0.3) mmol/L. HOMA-IR were 12.5 +/- 5.9, 9.5 +/- 0.8. The progestational BMIs were (22.6 +/- 0.8), (20.9 +/- 0.4) kg/m(2). All the indices in the GDM group were significantly higher than NGT group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the expression of gastrocolic omentum VF mRNA had a positive correlation with BMI (r = 0.32, P < 0.01), but had no association with insulin resistance or metabolic parameters. CONCLUSION: The experiment demonstrates that different expression of VF mRNA has a strong correlation with GDM and obesity.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Gestacional/metabolismo , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase/metabolismo , Omento/metabolismo , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase/genética , Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
18.
Acta Paediatr Taiwan ; 46(4): 196-200, 2005.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16381332

RESUMO

Survival rate of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants has much improved in recent years. However, neurodevelopmental outcomes are still of the most concerned to such infants' parents. In order to survey survival rate, neurodevelopmental outcome and prognostic factors in these infants, we did a retrospective study of VLBW infants who were admitted to neonatal intensive care unit of Taipei City Hospital, Branch for Women and Children from 1st January 2001 to 31th October 2004. We reviewed their medical records and analyzed the data. A total of 68 cases were enrolled in this study, and overall one-year survival rate was 70.3% (45/64). The unfavorable outcome group had lower birth weight, lower gestational age, lower Apgar scores at 1-minute and 5-minute, higher rate of vaginal delivery, more respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), and higher IVH grades (all p value < 0.05). However, with multiple logistic regression analysis, only low birth weight and higher IVH grades were the significant predictors of unfavorable outcome. Univariate analysis showed that RDS increased but Cesarean section (C/S) decreased the risk of severe IVH. According to the result, we can make the conclusion that the survival rate of VLBW infants in our hospital was similar to that in other medical centers in Taiwan. In order to prevent severe grades of IVH and subsequent unfavorable outcome in VLBW infants, prenatal therapies to prevent RDS and perhaps choice of C/S as delivery mode are the best strategies.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso/fisiologia , Análise de Variância , Índice de Apgar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/mortalidade , Hemorragias Intracranianas/fisiopatologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Idade Materna , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Prognóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/mortalidade , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Taiwan
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