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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 134304, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514024

RESUMO

To mitigate the grassland degradation in the Mongolian Plateau (MP), both China and Mongolia governments have carried out a series of new policies and ecological projects. However, the effect of such restoration measures on the productivity of grassland in the MP under different political systems remains unclear. Here we study the effects of land use and land cover change, human activities and climate change on the net primary productivity (NPP) of grassland in Mongolia (MG) and Inner Mongolia (IM) from 2001 to 2014. Results showed that the area of grassland increased in both MG and IM, accounted for 4.45 × 104 and 10.31 × 104 km2, respectively. The extended grassland contributed 4.34 × 108 Gg C (Gg = 109 g) to the total NPP, while the loss of grassland led to a decrease of 0.19 × 108 Gg C. The total NPP of grasslands in 2014 increased about 17.88% and 30.49% respectively in MG and IM since 2001. Specifically, IM exhibited a higher increase in land converted NPP than MG. The area of grassland restoration in IM and MG accounted for 90.21% and 81.45%, respectively, indicating that the grassland of the MP was restored. Although human activity was the dominant factor on grassland degradation, which was accounted for 9.79% and 18.55% in IM and MG, it has a positive effect on most of the grassland NPP in the MP. Overall, policy measures and ecological projects in IM brought a more positive effect compared with that in MG.

2.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(2): 1339-1348, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256441

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the roles of metformin (MET) and Sorafenib (SOR) in the treatment of endometrial hyperplasia (EH) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Effects of MET and SOR on the area of endometrium and myometrium were detected. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry assays were carried out to detect the levels of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), mTORC2, LC3-II, P62, and Caspase-3 in rats and cultured cells. Furthermore, cell counting kit-8 assay and flow cytometry analysis was carried out to determine the apoptotic profiles of treated cells. MET and SOR could apparently decrease the areas of endometrium and myometrium in PCOS. MET notably enhanced the expression of LC3-II and Caspase-3 in PCOS while substantially reducing the level of mTORC1 and P62. Similarly, SOR also enhanced the expression of LC3-II and Caspase-3 in PCOS while substantially reducing the level of mTORC2 and P62. Treatment with MET and SOR significantly inhibited the proliferation of HCC-94 and HEC-1-A cells while promoting their apoptosis by upregulating the expression of Caspase-3. In cells treated with MET, the expression of mTORC1 and LC3-II was upregulated while the expression of P62 was downregulated. Similarly, in cells treated with SOR, the expression of mTORC2 and LC3-II was also upregulated while the expression of P62 was also downregulated. Furthermore, MET showed no effect on mTORC2 expression, while SOR showed no effect on mTORC1 expression. In this study, we suggested that MET and SOR alleviated the risk of EH in PCOS via the mTORC1/autophagy/apoptosis axis and mTORC2/autophagy/apoptosis axis, respectively.

3.
Cancer Lett ; 468: 14-26, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600529

RESUMO

Deregulation of SOX9 in esophageal cancer has been reported. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying SOX9 during esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) progression remain poorly understood. Here, we independently confirmed the increased SOX9 expression in two ESCC cohorts and its correlation with poor prognosis. We demonstrated that SOX9 was required for maintaining self-renewal, motility, and chemoresistance in vitro and that ectopic expression of SOX9 promoted tumorigenicity in vivo. Screening for potential SOX9-regulated miRNAs revealed that target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs were enriched in the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and identified the downregulated miR-203a as a candidate. Mechanistically, SOX9 activation caused repression of miR-203a transcription by binding to miR-203a promoter, thus preventing the miR-203a-mediated inhibition of multiple PI3K/AKT/mTOR components, including PIK3CA, AKT2, and RPS6KB1. The association between SOX9 expression and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling was further validated in clinical samples. Moreover, rapamycin treatment attenuated the SOX9-mediated malignant phenotypes and potentiated cisplatin-mediated inhibition of tumor growth. Together, these findings uncover a novel activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway by the SOX9/miR-203a axis and define a subgroup of patients who may benefit from targeted therapy.

4.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(4): 2308-2315, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492241

RESUMO

While most of the fluorescent nanoparticles used in stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy have a long excitation wavelength, many applications need shorter wavelength fluorophores, which are yet to be developed for STED microscopy applications. Here, three kinds of fluorescent nanoparticles, namely silica nanoparticles (NFv465), fluoro-max blue aqueous fluorescent nanoparticles (FBs) and light yellow nanoparticles (LYs) with short excitation wavelength in violet band have been studied to assess whether they are applicable in STED microscopy. The experimental configuration utilizes a 405 nm continuous wave (CW) laser as excitation beam and a 532 nm CW laser as depletion beam. We compare the photostability, photobleaching and depletion efficiency of three kinds of fluorescent nanoparticles in a series of experiments. Light yellow nanoparticles are proved to be a good candidate as fluorophore in STED microscopy.

5.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(4): 2416-2422, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492256

RESUMO

In this paper, loofah sponge-based activated carbon (LAC) is prepared via loofah sponge as precursors and KOH as activator. N2 adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to characterize the surface morphology and the structure of loofah sponge-based activated carbon. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge cycle and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were utilized to test electrochemical properties of loofah spongebased activated carbon. The results showed that loofah sponge-based activated carbon (LAC-700) prepared at 700 °C has the highest specific surface area (936 m²·g-1). The material delivers specific capacitance of 152.89 F·g-1 at the current density of 0.1 A·g-1, and specific capacitance of 116.69 F·g-1 at the current density of 5 A·g-1 in 30 wt% KOH aqueous electrolyte.

7.
Metallomics ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670356

RESUMO

Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is one of the most effective drugs for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), and induces the degradation of chimeric oncoprotein PML/RARα (P/R) and APL cell differentiation. Recent evidence has suggested that P/R fusion protein degradation by arsenic occurs through two steps, namely, rapid solubility change/shift of the P/R fusion protein following arsenic treatment (i.e., transfer of P/R protein from the soluble fraction to the insoluble pellet fraction), and subsequent degradation of these insoluble proteins. However, there is little information regarding the reversibility of arsenic induced P/R fusion protein solubility change as well as protein degradation in the insoluble fraction after removing arsenic. In this study, we used APL cell line NB4 or P/R and PML over-expressed 293T cells as well as HeLa cells to reveal the solubility change of P/R and PML by arsenic exposure, and further determined the fate of these insoluble proteins after the removal of arsenic. Here, for the first time, we found that arsenic induced P/R or PML protein solubility change is an irreversible process. Once arsenic induces a P/R or PML protein solubility change, these insoluble proteins could be degraded by the proteasomal pathway even without continuous arsenic treatment. However, PML and P/R proteins can be newly synthesized after the removal of arsenic, suggesting that great caution should be taken in the clinical therapy of APL patients before ending arsenic treatment.

8.
Neural Netw ; 122: 1-23, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675624

RESUMO

Human action recognition is one of the most challenging tasks in computer vision. Most of the existing works in human action recognition are limited to single-label classification. A real-world video stream, however, often contains multiple human actions. Such a video stream is usually annotated collectively with a set of relevant human action labels, which leads to a multi-label learning problem. Furthermore, there are a great number of meaningful human actions in reality but it would be extremely difficult, if not impossible, to collect/annotate sufficient video clips regarding all these human actions for training a supervised learning model. In this paper, we formulate a real-world human action recognition task as a multi-label zero-shot learning problem. To address this problem, a joint latent ranking embedding framework is proposed. Our framework holistically tackles the issue of unknown temporal boundaries between different actions within a video clip for multi-label learning and exploits the side information regarding the semantic relationship between different human actions for zero-shot learning. Specifically, our framework consists of two component neural networks for visual and semantic embedding respectively. Thus, multi-label zero-shot recognition is done by measuring relatedness scores of concerned action labels to a test video clip in the joint latent visual and semantic embedding spaces. We evaluate our framework in different settings, including a novel data split scheme designed especially for evaluating multi-label zero-shot learning. The experimental results on two weakly annotated multi-label human action datasets (i.e. Breakfast and Charades) demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774632

RESUMO

In the current study, we investigated how skeletal stem cells (SSCs) modulate inflammatory osteoclast (OC) formation and bone resorption. Notably, we found that intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) play a synergistic role in SSC-mediated suppression of inflammatory osteoclastogenesis. The effect of SSCs on inflammatory osteoclastogenesis was investigated using a lipopolysaccharide-induced mouse osteolysis model in vivo and human osteoarthritis synovial fluid (OASF) in vitro. OC formation was determined by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. Bone resorption was evaluated by microcomputerized tomography, serum C-terminal telopeptide assay, and pit formation assay. The expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and OPG in SSCs and their contribution to the suppression of osteoclastogenesis were determined by flow cytometry or enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Gene modification, neutralization antibodies, and tumor necrosis factor-α knockout mice were used to further explore the mechanism. The results demonstrated that SSCs remarkably inhibited inflammatory osteoclastogenesis in vivo and in vitro. Mechanistically, inflammatory OASF stimulated ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression as well as OPG secretion by SSCs. In addition, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 recruited CD11b+ OC progenitors to proximity with SSCs, which strengthened the inhibitory effects of SSC-derived OPG on osteoclastogenesis. Furthermore, it was revealed that tumor necrosis factor α is closely involved in the suppressive effects. In summary, SSCs express a higher level of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 and produce more OPG in inflammatory microenvironments, which are sufficient to inhibit osteoclastogenesis in a "capture and educate" manner. These results may represent a synergistic mechanism to prevent bone erosion during joint inflammation by SSCs.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776835

RESUMO

CircRNAs are essential factors that have been verified to regulate various forms of carcinogenesis. However, the role of circRNAs in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) tumourigenesis is not well clarified. In this study, we explored the circRNA expression profiles and possible modulation mechanism of circRNAs on triple negative breast cancer tumourigenesis. We used three pairs of triple negative breast cancer tissues and adjacent noncancerous tissues to perform a human circRNA microarray for screening of circRNA expression patterns in TNBC. The results showed that circ-TFCP2L1 was significantly up-regulated in TNBC tissues and cells, tending to have a shorter disease-free survival of TNBC patients. In vitro loss-of-function experiments showed that knockdown of circ-TFCP2L1 significantly suppressed the proliferation and migration of TNBC cells. Moreover, the results showed that the proliferation and migration capabilities and PAK1 expression in TNBC cells treated with si-circ-TFCP2L1 + miR-7 mimics were significantly suppressed compared with the normal group. Therefore, circ-TFCP2L1 was identified as a sponge of miR-7 functionally targeting PAK1 and further promoting the proliferation and migration of TNBC cells. Taken together, the results from our study reveal a novel regulatory mechanism and offer novel insight into the role of circ-TFCP2L1 in progression of triple negative breast cancer.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777242

RESUMO

Generally, low bandgap materials-based photovoltaic devices have reduced open circuit voltage (VOC), and how to realize the trade-off between the low bandgap (Eg<1.6 eV) and high VOC (>0.9 V) could be critical to give efficient polymer solar cells, especially for high-performance semitransparent PSCs and tandem solar cells. Although lots of efforts have been made to address the issue, most results may be not gratifying. In this work, the polymer PTBTz-Cl based on the chlorination method and efficient thiazole-induced strategy was designed and synthesized, aiming at the deep HOMO energy level, and the enhanced backbone planarity caused by the weak noncovalent Cl···S interaction. In addition, the methyl-substituted polymer PTBTz-Me was constructed as the reference due to the similar van der Waals radius of side chain (CH3: 0.20 nm vs Cl: 0.18 nm). Encouragingly, in comparison with that of PTBTz-2, the newly synthesized polymers exhibit the red-shifted absorption spectra ranging from 300 to 770 nm, with obviously reduced Eg of ∼1.6 eV. However, the function of Cl and Me substituent is different. Compared to the polymer PTBTz-Me, PTBTz-Cl exhibits a lower HOMO value, stronger crystallinity, and more compact intramolecular interactions. Consequently, the polymer PTBTz-Cl exhibits excellent photovoltaic performance with a notable VOC of 0.94 V and a PCE of 10.35%, which is ∼11% higher than the 9.12% efficiency based on PTBTz-Me, and is also one of the highest values among polymer/fullerene solar cells. Moreover, a smaller photo energy loss (Eloss) of 0.64 eV is achieved, which is rare among the current high-performance polymer systems.

12.
Mol Neurodegener ; 14(1): 43, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dysfunctional autophagy is implicated in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) pathogenesis. The alterations in the expression of many autophagy related genes (ATGs) have been reported in AD brains; however, the disparity of the changes confounds the role of autophagy in AD. METHODS: To further understand the autophagy alteration in AD brains, we analyzed transcriptomic (RNAseq) datasets of several brain regions (BA10, BA22, BA36 and BA44 in 223 patients compared to 59 healthy controls) and measured the expression of 130 ATGs. We used autophagy-deficient mouse models to assess the impact of the identified ATGs depletion on memory, autophagic activity and amyloid-ß (Aß) production. RESULTS: We observed significant downregulation of multiple components of two autophagy kinase complexes BECN1-PIK3C3 and ULK1/2-FIP200 specifically in the parahippocampal gyrus (BA36). Most importantly, we demonstrated that deletion of NRBF2, a component of the BECN1-PIK3C3 complex, which also associates with ULK1/2-FIP200 complex, impairs memory in mice, alters long-term potentiation (LTP), reduces autophagy in mouse hippocampus, and promotes Aß accumulation. Furthermore, AAV-mediated NRBF2 overexpression in the hippocampus not only rescues the impaired autophagy and memory deficits in NRBF2-depleted mice, but also reduces ß-amyloid levels and improves memory in an AD mouse model. CONCLUSIONS: Our data not only implicates NRBF2 deficiency as a risk factor for cognitive impairment associated with AD, but also support the idea of NRBF2 as a potential therapeutic target for AD.

13.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 103(23-24): 9557-9568, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686145

RESUMO

Although poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, as anti-tumor drugs targeting the DNA damage response (DDR), have been used for the therapy of various tumors, few researches reported their effect on laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). Here, we first discovered that the PARP-1/2 inhibitor Niraparib could simultaneously induce cell growth inhibition and autophagy in LSCC TU212 and TU686 cells. Niraparib decelerated cell cycle of LSCC by arresting G1 phase and preventing the cells from entering S phase. DNA lesions were also observed upon Niraparib treatment as evidenced by the accumulation of γH2AX and abatement of pRB expression. In addition, autophagy generation was confirmed by the observation of autophagosomes, LC3-positive autophagy-like vacuoles, and obvious conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II. Moreover, blocking autophagy enhanced Niraparib-induced growth inhibition and DNA lesions. Further studies suggested that autophagy suppression could obstruct the activation of checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) through elevating proteasomal activity and then impair the capacity of homologous recombination (HR), thereby improving the anti-LSCC efficiency of Niraparib. Collectively, these findings suggested that simultaneous targeting of Niraparib and autophagy might be a promising therapeutic schedule for LSCC in clinic.

14.
Drug Metab Dispos ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748224

RESUMO

Piperine (PPR) is the representative alkaloid component of piper species (family: Piperaceae). Our rapid screening study found PPR caused time-dependent inhibition of cytochrome P450s (CYP) 3A and 2D6, and CYP3A was inactivated the most. Further study demonstrated PPR is a time-, concentration-, and NADPH-dependent inhibitor of CYP3A, and significant loss (49.5 ± 3.9%) of CYP3A activity was observed after 20 min incubations with 80 µM PPR at 37 °C. The values of K I and k inact were 30.7 µM and 0.041 min-1, respectively. CYP3A competitive inhibitor ketoconazole showed protective effect against the enzyme inactivation. Superoxide dismutase/catalase and GSH displayed minor protection against the PPR caused enzyme inactivation. Ferricyanide partially reduced the enzyme inhibition by PPR. Additionally, NADPH-dependent formation of reactive metabolites from PPR were found in human liver microsomal incubation mixtures. An ortho-quinone intermediate was trapped by NAC in microsomal incubations with PPR. DM-PPR, demethylene metabolite of PPR, showed weak enzyme inactivation relative to that caused by PPR. It appears that both carbene and ortho-quinone intermediates were involved in the inactivation of CYP3A caused by PPR. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: CYP3A subfamily members (mainly CYP3A4 and CYP3A5) play a critical role in drug metabolism. Piperine (PPR), a methylenedioxyphenyl derivative combined with an unsaturated ketone, is the major active ingredient of pepper. PPR revealed time- and concentration-, and NADPH-dependent inhibitory effect on CYP3A. Carbene and quinone metabolites were both involved in the observed CYP3A inactivation by PPR. Apparently, the unsaturated ketone moiety did not participate in the enzyme inactivation. The present study sounds an alert of potential risk for food-drug interactions.

15.
Pediatr Res ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on the host factors that contribute to infection of young children by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are limited. The human chemokine receptor, CX3CR1, has recently been implicated as an RSV receptor. Here we evaluate a role for CX3CR1 in pediatric lung RSV infections. METHODS: CX3CR1 transcript levels in the upper and lower pediatric airways were assessed. Tissue localization and cell-specific expression was confirmed using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. The role of CX3CR1 in RSV infection was also investigated using a novel physiological model of pediatric epithelial cells. RESULTS: Low levels of CX3CR1 transcript were often, but not always, expressed in both upper (62%) and lower airways (36%) of pediatric subjects. CX3CR1 transcript and protein expression was detected in epithelial cells of normal human pediatric lung tissues. CX3CR1 expression was readily detected on primary cultures of differentiated pediatric/infant human lung epithelial cells. RSV demonstrated preferential infection of CX3CR1-positive cells, and blocking CX3CR1/RSV interaction significantly decreased viral load. CONCLUSION: CX3CR1 is present in the airways of pediatric subjects where it may serve as a receptor for RSV infection. Furthermore, CX3CR1 appears to play a mechanistic role in mediating viral infection of pediatric airway epithelial cells in vitro.

16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730989

RESUMO

A novel acid polysaccharide (PPRLMF-2) with the Mw of 137,123 Da and a triple-helix conformation was first isolated from the pulp of Rosa laevigata Michx fruit. Structural characterization showed that PPRLMF-2 consisted of rhamnose (7.6%), arabinose (26.5%), xylose (3.5%), mannose (0.9%), glucose (5.7%), galactose (31.9%) and galacturonic acid (23.9%). The methylation and NMR (1D and 2D) analysis revealed that PPRLMF-2 contained 16 types of glycosidic linkages. The immunomodulatory activity assays indicated that PPRLMF-2 could significantly enhance phagocytosis, the secretion and mRNA expression of cytokines in RAW 264.7 cells. Additionally, SR, GR, TLR-2, and TLR-4 were the main pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of PPRLMF-2 to upregulate the p-ERK, p-JNK, p-p38, and p-p65. These results suggested that PPRLMF-2 could recognize the PRRs of the macrophages to enhance the immunomodulatory activity via activation of the MAPKs and NF-κB signaling pathways. This study provides important implications of PPRLMF-2 as an attractive immunomodulatory functional food.

17.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755006

RESUMO

In order to solve a series of problems brought about by rapid development of science and technology, it is necessary not only to conduct in-depth research on science and technology ethics, but also to strengthen ethics education in science and technology. China's five technical universities (5TU) exemplify the specific situation and characteristics of ethics at Chinese technical universities, and can be compared to the situation in South Africa. China's ethics education in the 5TU emphasizes the use of traditional ideological and cultural resources, and practical cases. The teaching methods focus on combining traditional Chinese ethics with foreign experience and teaching methods, aiming at cultivating students' ability to solve specific problems in the real world. This paper also evaluates and reflects on the short-term and long-term effects of China's ethics education in science and technology, revealing some special problems. Ethics education in science and technology at the 5TU is based on the principle of "unity of knowledge and behaviour". It is hoped that China's ethics education founded on traditional Chinese thought, can make a valuable contribution to the development of global engineering ethics.

18.
J Fish Biol ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755106

RESUMO

A continuous cell line MPF derived from the fin of black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus was established and characterized in this study. Mylopharyngodon piceus fin (MPF) cells were subcultured for more than 80 passages with high viability recovery after long-term storage. The karyotyping analysis revealed that MPF had a modal diploid chromosome number (2n = 48) and identical ribosomal RNA sequence with black carp. In addition, the expression of pluripotency-associated markers including nanog, oct4 and vasa, were detected in MPF. The transient transfection efficiency of MPF reached 23% with a fluorescent reporter by modified electroporation and stable expression of red fluorescent MPF was established by the baculovirus system, indicating that MPF is an ideal platform for studying gene functions in vitro. Lastly, cytopathic effects were also observed and RNA transcripts of a viral gene increased after infection by spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV), suggesting that MPF could be an alternative tool for investigating pathogen-host interactions in black carp. In conclusion, a fin cell line that is susceptible to SVCV was established as a potential adult stem-cell line, providing a suitable tool for future genetic analyses and pathogen-host studies in black carp. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

19.
Cancer Genet ; 240: 33-39, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726270

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs), resulting from the non-canonical splicing of linear pre-mRNAs, have permanently altered our perspectives toward cancer recently, especially in carcinogenesis and cancer progression. However, the roles of circRNAs in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remain largely unknown. In the current study, circRNAs expression profiles are screened in ESCC, using plasma samples from 10 ESCC patients, including different TNM stages and 5 normal controls. Characteristics of circRNAs including length, types, and the possibility of binding to proteins are analyzed. Candidate tumor-related circRNAs are then quantitated in ESCC tissues, plasmas and cell lines. ESCC tissues can secret circRNAs into plasma and patients with high plasma circ-SLC7A5 are associated with high TNM stage, tending to have shorter overall survival than those with high levels. In addition, the biological characteristics of circ-SLC7A5 including location, miRNAs binding, m6A modification were analyzed. Our study reveals a novel prognosis biomarker of circ-SLC7A5, providing a preliminary landscape of circRNA expression for detection of ESCC.

20.
J Xray Sci Technol ; 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The screening of baggage using X-ray scanners is now routine in aviation security with automatic threat detection approaches, based on 3D X-ray computed tomography (CT) images, known as Automatic Threat Recognition (ATR) within the aviation security industry. These current strategies use pre-defined threat material signatures in contrast to adaptability towards new and emerging threat signatures. To address this issue, the concept of adaptive automatic threat recognition (AATR) was proposed in previous work. OBJECTIVE: In this paper, we present a solution to AATR based on such X-ray CT baggage scan imagery. This aims to address the issues of rapidly evolving threat signatures within the screening requirements. Ideally, the detection algorithms deployed within the security scanners should be readily adaptable to different situations with varying requirements of threat characteristics (e.g., threat material, physical properties of objects). METHODS: We tackle this issue using a novel adaptive machine learning methodology with our solution consisting of a multi-scale 3D CT image segmentation algorithm, a multi-class support vector machine (SVM) classifier for object material recognition and a strategy to enable the adaptability of our approach. Experiments are conducted on both open and sequestered 3D CT baggage image datasets specifically collected for the AATR study. RESULTS: Our proposed approach performs well on both recognition and adaptation. Overall our approach can achieve the probability of detection around 90% with a probability of false alarm below 20%. CONCLUSIONS: Our AATR shows the capabilities of adapting to varying types of materials, even the unknown materials which are not available in the training data, adapting to varying required probability of detection and adapting to varying scales of the threat object.

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