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1.
Talanta ; 222: 121506, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167219

RESUMO

The present study proposed a novel and highly selective and sensitive method for Ag+ ion detection based on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) anti-aggregation. Thiamazole can induce AuNPs aggregation due to electrostatic interactions, which result in color transitions in the AuNPs solution from red to blue. However, the presence of Ag+ ions results in the preferential combination of the pyridinic nitrogen of thiamazole with the Ag+ ions. In addition, the Ag+ ions oxidize the sulfhydryl groups(-SH), which inhibit AuNPs aggregation and prompt a color change from blue to red. As a result, the present study established a method for Ag+ ion determination by AuNPs-thiamazole colorimetric probe based on the aforementioned anti-aggregation mechanism. The probe dynamic range was easily tuned via adjustments of the thiamazole amount. The relationship between the Ag+ concentration and AuNPs aggregation was monitored by ultraviolet-visible light (UV-Vis) spectroscopy at a dynamic range of 0.1 nM-9 µM and at a detection limit of 0.042 nM. The river water and tap water recovery analysis validated the successful operation of this colorimetric sensor in environmental monitoring.

2.
Talanta ; 221: 121607, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076137

RESUMO

Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) has been a hot issue of public health, owing to its unpredictability and serious harm to public health. Peroxynitrite (ONOO-) is an important biomarker for the assessment and diagnosis of DILI. In this article, based on a kind of rhodamine analogue with a near-infrared (NIR) emission (610 nm-800 nm) and a two-photon absorption cross section (54 GM), a two-photon excited NIR fluorescence probe (NIR-ONOO) for ONOO- was developed. With a high selectivity and a high sensitivity to ONOO-, NIR-ONOO has a linear range for detection of ONOO- from 5.0 × 10-8 to 1.0 × 10-5 M, a good detection limit (15 nM) and a large fluorescence enhancement (340-fold). In addition, NIR-ONOO has been used to monitor ONOO- in cells with satisfactory results. Because of its two-photon excied NIR emission, NIR-ONOO also showed excellent performances for imaging ONOO- including low autofluorescence, stable and persistent fluorescence, and a deep penetration (204 µm). Finally, NIR-ONOO was successfully employed to image ONOO- in inflammatory mouse, drug-induced hepatotoxicity in cells and its remediation. All the results indicated that NIR-ONOO is a powerful chemical tool to image ONOO- and assay drug-induced hepatotoxicity.

3.
Food Chem ; 339: 127855, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858384

RESUMO

A magnetic o-hydroxyazobenzene (M-HAzo) porous organic polymer was facilely prepared by a green azo coupling reaction in aqueous solution. The prepared M-HAzo was applied as a new adsorbent for the first time to pre-concentrate phthalate esters (PAEs) from plastic bottled juice, followed by their determination with high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection. The effects of various parameters, i.e., the mass ratio of the Fe3O4@SiO2 to HAzo, extraction time, ionic strength, pH of the sample, desorption conditions were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the M-HAzo based method exhibited good performance in terms of linear range (0.3-50.0 µg L-1), detection limit (0.08-0.50 µg L-1), accuracy (recovery of 78.0-115.0%) and repeatability (relative standard deviation of 2.9-7.8%). This work provides a sensitive method for analysis of PAEs at trace levels in drinks, which is featured with high sensitivity, simple operation and environmentally-friendly merit and will have a promising potential in analysis of other organic pollutants.

4.
Gene ; 765: 145076, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860899

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) play vital roles in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). In this study, we investigated the function of circ_0037128 and molecular mechanism via which it regulates diabetic nephropathy development. It was found that expression of circ_0037128 was significantly increased in mouse DN model and high glucose treated mesangial cells (MCs), and circ_0037128 loss-of-function led to reduced cell proliferation and fibrosis in vitro. Moreover, miR-17-3p acts as competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) that directly interacts with circ_0037128 through its miRNA response elements (MREs). Consistently, expression of miR-17-3p was remarkably down-regulated in DN model, and negatively regulated cell proliferation and fibrosis. Further investigations revealed that AKT3 was the putative target of miR-17-3p, whose expression was elevated in DN model. In conclusion, we have characterized the function of a novel circ_0037128 and illustrated the significance of circ_0037128-miR-17-3p-AKT3 axis in DN pathogenesis.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186106

RESUMO

Cross-modal clustering aims to cluster the high-similar cross-modal data into one group while separating the dissimilar data. Despite the promising cross-modal methods have developed in recent years, existing state-of-the-arts cannot effectively capture the correlations between cross-modal data when encountering with incomplete cross-modal data, which can gravely degrade the clustering performance. To well tackle the above scenario, we propose a novel incomplete cross-modal clustering method that integrates canonical correlation analysis and exclusive representation, named incomplete Cross-modal Subspace Clustering (i.e., iCmSC). To learn a consistent subspace representation among incomplete cross-modal data, we maximize the intrinsic correlations among different modalities by deep canonical correlation analysis (DCCA), while an exclusive self-expression layer is proposed after the output layers of DCCA. We exploit a ℓ1,2-norm regularization in the learned subspace to make the learned representation more discriminative, which makes samples between different clusters mutually exclusive and samples among the same cluster attractive to each other. Meanwhile, the decoding networks are employed to reconstruct the feature representation, and further preserve the structural information among the original cross-modal data. To the end, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed iCmSC via extensive experiments, which can justify that iCmSC achieves consistently large improvement compared with the state-of-the-arts.

6.
Chemosphere ; : 128938, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199108

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) pollution is a key concern globally that affects plant growth and productivity. Boron (B) is a micronutrient that helps in the formation of the primary cell wall (CW) and alleviates negative effects of toxic elements on plant growth. Nonetheless, knowledge about how B can reduce Cd toxicity in rice seedlings is not enough, particularly regarding CW-Cd adsorption. Therefore, the current experiment investigated the alleviative role of B on Cd toxicity in rice seedling. The experiment was carried out with 0 µM and 30 µM H3BO3 under 50 µM Cd toxicity in hydroponics. The results showed that Cd exposure alone inhibited plant growth parameters and caused lipid peroxidation. Moreover, Cd toxicity led to obvious visible toxicity symptoms on the leaves. However, increasing the availability of B alleviated Cd toxicity by reducing Cd concentration in plant tissues and improving antioxidative system. Moreover, cell wall pectin and hemicellulose adsorbed a significant amount of Cd. Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra exhibited that cell wall functional groups were increased by B application. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis confirmed the higher Cd binding onto CW. The findings of this investigation showed that B could mitigate Cd stress by decreasing Cd uptake and encouraging Cd adsorption on CW, and activation of the protective mechanisms. The present results might help to increase rice productivity on Cd polluted soils.

7.
Theranostics ; 10(26): 11950-11962, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33204322

RESUMO

Rationale: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been the focus of many studies because of their abilities to modulate immune responses, angiogenesis, and promote tumor growth and metastasis. Our previous work showed that gastric cancer MSCs (GCMSCs) promoted immune escape by secreting of IL-8, which induced programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in GC cells. Mounting evidence has revealed that PD-L1 expression is related to intrinsic tumor cell properties. Here, we investigated whether GCMSCs maintained a pool of cancer stem cells (CSCs) through PD-L1 signaling and the specific underlying molecular mechanism. Methods: Stem cell surface markers, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, migration and sphere formation abilities were tested to evaluate the stemness of GC cells. PD-L1-expressing lentivirus and PD-L1 specific siRNA were used to analyze the effects of PD-L1 on GC cells stemness. Annexin V/PI double staining was used to assess apoptosis of GC cells induced by chemotherapy. Co-Immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and Mass spectrometry were employed to determine the PD-L1 binding partner in GC cells. PD-L1Negative and PD-L1Positive cells were sorted by flow cytometry and used for limiting dilution assays to verify the effect of PD-L1 on tumorigenic ability in GC cells. Results: The results showed that GCMSCs enhanced the CSC-like properties of GC cells through PD-L1, which led to the resistance of GC cells to chemotherapy. PD-L1 associated with CTCF to contribute to the stemness and self-renewal of GC cells. In vivo, PD-L1Positive GC cells had greater stemness potential and tumorigenicity than PD-L1Negative GC cells. The results also indicated that GC cells were heterogeneous, and that PD-L1 in GC cells had different reactivity to GCMSCs. Conclusions: Overall, our data indicated that GCMSCs enriched CSC-like cells in GC cells, which gives a new insight into the mechanism of GCMSCs prompting GC progression and provides a potential combined therapeutic target.

8.
Virus Res ; : 198232, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207264

RESUMO

Senecavirus A (SVA), previously known as Seneca Valley virus, is classified into the genus Senecavirus in the family Picornaviridae. SVA is not pathogenic to normal human cells, but has potent oncolytic activity in some tumor cells with neuroendocrine feature, such as small cell lung cancer (SCLC) NCI-H446 cell line. In this study, we rescued and characterized a recombinant SVA that could efficiently express a novel luciferase, NanoLuc® luciferase (NLuc), which was smaller and "brighter" than others. This NLuc-tagged recombinant SVA (rSVA-NLuc) exhibited high capacity for viral replication, whereas genetic instability of NLuc during serial virus passages. The NLuc as a reporter facilitated oncolytic analysis of rSVA-NLuc in H446 cells. The rSVA-NLuc-infected H446 cells exhibited an oncolytic phenotype characterized by cell rounding, swelling, detachment and lysis at 48 hours post infection. Kinetic curve showed that the NLuc rapidly expressed in H446 cells during an exponential phase of viral growth. Because the NLuc offered several advantages over fluorescent proteins for assay scalability in vivo, the rSVA-NLuc would play a potential role in facilitating in vivo imaging studies of oncolytic virotherapy.

9.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(89): 13848-13851, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084649

RESUMO

Herein, we have managed to conceive and fabricate a core-shell structured triangle-like array, where a selenylation-treated MOF array was grown in situ on a conducting substrate as a highly conductive framework to support a high loading of Mo-doped nickel-cobalt LDH nanoflakes. This hierarchical electrode integrates the advantages of a defect-rich electronic state, large active area and rich reaction sites, delivering a high areal capacity of 5.16 C cm-2 and a high rate capability.

10.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(5): 918-926, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031070

RESUMO

The appearance of extreme weather causes frequent airport flooding, which has a serious impact on the normal operation of an airport. In this study, three simulation scenarios are set in order to study the effect of low impact development (LID) facilities (green roof and vegetative swale) on the water depth of overflow junctions and total inflow to the study area outlet in an airport at different rainfall return periods (2 a, 5 a, 20 a and 50 a). Vegetative swale has better reduction effect on water depth of overflow junctions than has green roof. The reduction rate of vegetative swale is about 25-52% at different rainfall return periods, but the effect of green roof is not obvious. For the double peak rainstorm, the reduction effect on the water depth of overflow junctions after setting vegetative swale for the first rain peak is better than that for the second rain peak. Under the condition of 2 a, 5 a, and 20 a, the total inflow reduction rates of study area outlet after applied green roof and vegetative swale are 16.85%, 20% and 22.17% respectively, and the effect is poor (only 2.26%) at low-frequency return period (50 a). This study can provide theoretical guidance for the design of LID facilities of a sponge airport.


Assuntos
Aeroportos , Chuva , Inundações , Água , Movimentos da Água
11.
Protoplasma ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106960

RESUMO

As the by-products of edible oil production with rich lignin, the reserves of Camellia oleifera shell were abundant and had a great economic value. Lignin was the most important limiting factor during the conversion of plant biomass to pulp or biofuels, which mainly deposited in the stone cells of C. oleifera shells. Thus, its lignin deposition made the function of stone cells in the ripening process of the shell clearer, and provided a theoretical basis for the potential utilization of the biomass of C. oleifera shells. In this study, the paraffin embedding method was used to investigate the development and difference of stone cell in the fruitlet. The lignin deposition characteristics of stone cell were analyzed by the fluorescence microscopy and Wiesner and Mäule method. The chemical-functional group types of lignin in the stone cell of C. oleifera shell were examined by the ultraviolet spectrophotometer and transform infrared spectroscopy. The stone cells, vessels, parenchyma, and vascular tissue had existed during the young fruit growing period. The anatomical characteristics and the cell tissue ratio inverse relationship between stone cell and parenchymal cell suggested that stone cells developed from parenchymal cells. With the growth of shell, the stone cell wall thickened, and thickness-to-cavity ratio from 0 to 3.6. The fluorescent results showed that lignin content increased continuously; during shell development, the mean brightness of stone cell wall from 0 to 77.9 sections was stained with phloroglucinol-HCl, and Mäule revealed the presence of G-S-lignin in stone cells, and ImageJ results showed that G-lignin was distributed in the entire stone cell wall, while S-lignin deposition accounted for 48.59% of the cell wall area. In the FTIR spectra, the shell was identified as containing G-S-lignin.

12.
Discov Med ; 29(157): 119-128, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Recently, several studies demonstrated that serum HBV RNA levels were associated with liver disease progression in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This study aimed to determine whether serum HBV RNA levels were correlated with liver fibrosis. METHODS: 319 treatment-naïve patients with chronic HBV infection were included. The correlation between serum HBV RNA levels and liver histological fibrosis stages was analyzed, and calculations of the area under the receiver operating curve (AUROC) were performed for serum HBV RNA. RESULTS: Serum HBV RNA levels were an independent predictor for significant liver fibrosis both in HBeAg-positive patients (OR=0.514, p<0.001) and HBeAg-negative patients (OR=3.574, p<0.001). In 153 HBeAg-positive patients, HBV RNA had a better diagnostic performance than APRI and FIB-4 (AUROC of 0.77, 0.66, and 0.66 for HBV RNA, APRI, and FIB-4, respectively; p=0.045 for HBV RNA vs. APRI; p=0.043 for HBV RNA vs. FIB-4) for the diagnosis of significant liver fibrosis. In 166 HBeAg-negative patients, HBV RNA also had a better diagnostic performance than APRI and FIB-4 (AUROC of 0.78, 0.68, and 0.62 for HBV RNA, APRI, and FIB-4, respectively; p=0.036 for HBV RNA vs. APRI; p=0.003 for HBV RNA vs. FIB-4) for the diagnosis of significant liver fibrosis. CONCLUSION: Serum HBV RNA levels were a more accurate noninvasive test than APRI and FIB-4 for the diagnosis of significant liver fibrosis in treatment-naïve patients with chronic HBV infection.

13.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; : e22639, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051984

RESUMO

Doxorubicin (DOX) is a very effective broad-spectrum anticancer drug, yet its clinical application is badly restricted due to its serious side effects. Citronellal (CT), a specialized metabolite of plants found in Cymbopogon spp., is proved to exhibit many beneficial properties. In the current study, we intended to investigate the effect of CT on DOX-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Rats were treated with CT (200 mg/kg b.w./day orally), and given DOX (2.5 mg/kg b.w./week, intraperitoneally) to induce hepatotoxicity for six consecutive weeks. The results showed that CT administration could attenuate the DOX-induced pathological changes of liver tissues and ameliorated the inappropriate alteration of liver function biomarkers (serum glutamic aspartate aminotransferase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, and albumin) in serum and oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and reduced glutathione) in the liver. Moreover, CT mitigated the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase-3 expression to inhibit cell apoptosis. Further study indicated that CT therapy could enhance the protein levels of p-PI3K, p-Akt, and CD31 in the liver. These results demonstrate that CT can ameliorate DOX-induced hepatotoxicity in rats mediated by antioxidative stress, antiapoptosis, and proangiogenesis.

14.
Analyst ; 145(22): 7191-7196, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007057

RESUMO

In this work, we prepared a type of multiplexing upconversion nanoparticle (UCNP). There are three fluorescence emission peaks when our UCNPs are excited with 980 and 808 nm lasers. These fluorescence peaks of UCNPs can be quenched ("turn off") to varying degrees via fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) when the UCNPs are coated with a polydopamine (PDA) layer, which is a universal quencher self-polymerized from dopamine (DA). Here, we create a novel single-component nanoprobe that can be used for the pattern recognition of antioxidants in a "turn on" manner by integrating with the prevention of PDA formation with an antioxidant. Our sensing strategy is based on the recovery of the fluorescence intensity of three emission peaks to different degrees due to different antioxidants with differential inhibition of PDA formation. Then, these three fluorescence emission peaks of UCNPs are innovatively selected as the sensor array, which enables us to discriminate multiple antioxidants and their mixtures. Simultaneously, the sensor array shows excellent performance in the chiral discrimination of cysteine enantiomers. This is a novel, innovative sensor array that requires only a single component to achieve the upconversion fluorescence pattern and recognize chiral molecules, and it elucidates a more innovative concept towards widespread applications.

15.
NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes ; 6(1): 45, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127920

RESUMO

Plant disease is one of the most important causes of crop losses worldwide. The effective control of plant disease is related to food security. Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR) caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum leads to serious yield losses in rapeseed (Brassica napus) production. Hypovirulent strain DT-8 of S. sclerotiorum, infected with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirulence-associated DNA virus 1 (SsHADV-1), has the potential to control SSR. In this study, we found rapeseed bio-priming with strain DT-8 could significantly decrease the disease severity of SSR and increase yield in the field. After bio-priming, strain DT-8 could be detected on the aerial part of the rapeseed plant. By 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing technique, the microbiome on different parts of the SSR lesion on bioprimed and non-bioprimed rapeseed stem was determined. The results indicated that SSR and bio-priming treatment could influence the structure and composition of fungal and bacterial communities. Bio-priming treatment could reduce the total abundance of possible plant pathogens and enhance the connectivity and robustness of the interaction network at the genus level. This might be one of the mechanisms that rapeseed bioprimed with strain DT-8 had excellent tolerance on SSR. It might be another possible mechanism of biocontrol and will provide a theoretical guide for agricultural practical production.

16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e21363, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991399

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Functional constipation is a chronic disease that is common in children and adults around the world. The treatments for functional constipation include diet and lifestyle interventions, medications, and surgery. The diet pattern plays an important role in the occurrence of constipation. We found in clinical practice that simple application of drugs cannot achieve long-term relief of constipation, and a large number of patients are not satisfied with the existing treatment. We have concluded that Qingjiang Tiaochang Recipe (QJTCR) and light vegetarian diet (LVD) can effectively improve constipation. However, there is no enough evidence for the description of the effect. This protocol aims at exploratorily investigating effectiveness and safety of LVD and QJTCR following a rigorous clinical trial. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will recruit 90 patients to participate in this prospective, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, and exploratory study at the China-Japan Friendship Hospital, including traditional Chinese medicine group, placebo + diet group, traditional Chinese medicine + diet group. Patients in the diet intervention group must strictly abide by LVD, and the study will continue for 28 days. During the intervention period, we need to record a designed diary to assess diet quality and defecation. The primary outcomes for this clinical study were weekly complete spontaneous bowel movements. The secondary outcomes were constipation-related symptom rating scale, traditional Chinese medicine syndrome scale, and 48-hour gastrointestinal transit time, high-resolution anorectal manometry, Bristol stool score, constipation quality of life assessment scale, constipation symptoms self-assessment scale, short-chain fatty acids in feces. In addition, the study will determine the safety of the intervention.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal/terapia , Dieta Vegetariana , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , China , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
17.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is a major quarantine pest in forestry . It is widely distributed throughout many regions such as Asia, Europe, and North America, and has enormous destructive potential for forests. The larvae of A. glabripennis overwinter in a dormant state with strong cold tolerance, and whether the larvae survive winter determines the population density in the following year. However, the molecular mechanisms of this process are not clear. RESULTS: RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis of A. glabripennis larvae at five overwintering stages identified 6876 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Among these, 46 functional genes that might respond to low temperature were identified. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis revealed that the MEturquoise module was correlated with the overwintering process. The STPK, PP2A, DGAT, and HSF genes were identified as hub genes using visualization of gene network. In addition, four genes related to sugar transport, gluconeogenesis and glycosylation were screened, which may be involved in the metabolic regulation of overwintering larvae. The protein-protein interaction network indicated that ribosomal protein and ATP synthase may play an important role in connecting with other proteins. The expression levels of fifteen hub genes were further validated by quantitative RT-PCR, and the results were consistent with RNA-Seq. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates key genes that may reveal the molecular mechanism of overwintering in A. glabripennis larvae. The genes may be the potential targets to prevent larvae from surviving the cold winter by developing new biological agents using genetic engineering.

18.
Mol Plant ; 13(10): 1420-1433, 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998002

RESUMO

Mycoviruses are viruses that infect fungi, and hypovirulence-associated mycoviruses have the potential to control fungal diseases. However, it is unclear how mycovirus-mediated hypovirulent strains live and survive in the field, and no mycovirus has been applied for field crop protection. In this study, we found that a previously identified small DNA mycovirus (SsHADV-1) can convert its host, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, from a typical necrotrophic pathogen to a beneficial endophytic fungus. SsHADV-1 downregulates the expression of key pathogenicity factor genes in S. sclerotiorum during infection. When growing in rapeseed, the SsHADV-1-infected strain DT-8 significantly regulates the expression of rapeseed genes involved in defense, hormone signaling, and circadian rhythm pathways. As a result, plant growth is promoted and disease resistance is enhanced. Field experiments showed that spraying DT-8 at the early flowering stage can reduce the disease severity of rapeseed stem rot by 67.6% and improve yield by 14.9%. Moreover, we discovered that SsHADV-1 could also infect other S. sclerotiorum strains on DT-8-inoculated plants and that DT-8 could be recovered from dead plants. These findings suggest that the mycoviruses may have the ability to shape the origin of endophytism. Our discoveries suggest that mycoviruses may influence the origin of endophytism and may also offer a novel strategy for disease control in which mycovirus-infected strains are used to improve crop health and release mycoviruses into the field.

19.
Toxicon ; 187: 35-46, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871160

RESUMO

We characterized and compared the venom protein profiles of Hydrophis curtus (synonyms: Lapemis hardwickii, Lapemis curtus and Hydrophis hardwickii) and Hydrophis cyanocinctus, the two representatives of medically important venomous sea snakes in Chinese waters using proteomic approaches. A total of 47 and 38 putative toxins were identified in H. curtus venom (HcuV) and H. cyanocinctus venom (HcyV), respectively, and these toxins could be grouped into 15 functional categories, mainly proteinases, phospholipases, three-finger toxins (3FTxs), lectins, protease inhibitors, ion channel inhibitors, cysteine-rich venom proteins (CRVPs) and snake venom metalloproteases (SVMPs). The constituent ratio of each toxin category varied between HcuV and HcyV with 3FTx (54% in HcuV/69% in HcyV) and PLA2 (38% in HcuV/22% in HcyV) unanimously ranked as the top two most abundant families. Both HcuV and HcyV exhibited relatively high lethality (LD50 values in mice of 0.34 µg/g and 0.24 µg/g, respectively), specific PLA2 activity and hemolytic activity. On the basis of several previous reports of HcuV and HcyV collected from other areas, these findings greatly expand our understanding of geographical variation and interspecies diversity of the two sea snake venoms and can provide a scientific basis for the development of specific sea snake antivenom in the future.


Assuntos
Venenos Elapídicos , Hydrophiidae , Proteoma/metabolismo , Animais , Toxinas Biológicas
20.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 7(16): 2001077, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32832361

RESUMO

The ability to successfully regulate negative emotions such as fear and anxiety is vital for mental health. Intranasal administration of the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) has been shown to reduce amygdala activity but to increase amygdala-prefrontal cortex connectivity during exposure to threatening stimuli suggesting that it may act as an important modulator of emotion regulation. The present randomized, between-subject, placebo-controlled pharmacological study combines the intranasal administration of OXT with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during an explicit emotion regulation paradigm in 65 healthy male participants to investigate the modulatory effects of OXT on both bottom-up and top-down emotion regulation. OXT attenuates the activation in the posterior insular cortex and amygdala during anticipation of top-down regulation of predictable threat stimuli in participants with high trait anxiety. In contrast, OXT enhances amygdala activity during the bottom-up anticipation of unpredictable threat stimuli in participants with low trait anxiety. OXT may facilitate top-down goal-directed attention by attenuating amygdala activity in high anxiety individuals, while promoting bottom-up attention/vigilance to unexpected threats by enhancing amygdala activity in low anxiety individuals. OXT may thus have the potential to promote an adaptive balance between bottom-up and top-down attention systems depending on an individual's trait anxiety level.

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