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1.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131852, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416594

RESUMO

Two representative DNA adducts from acrylamide exposure, N7-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl) guanine (N7-GA-Gua) and N3-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl) adenine (N3-GA-Ade), are important long-term exposure biomarkers for evaluating genotoxicity of acrylamide. Catechins as natural antioxidants present in tea possess multiple health benefits, and may also have the potential to protect against acrylamide-induced DNA damage. The current study developed an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous analysis of N7-GA-Gua and N3-GA-Ade in tissues and urine. The validated UHPLC-MS/MS method showed high sensitivity, with limit of detection and limit of quantification ranging 0.2-0.8 and 0.5-1.5 ng/mL, respectively, and achieved qualified precision (RSD<14.0%) and spiking recovery (87.2%-110.0%) with elution within 6 min, which was suitable for the analysis of the two DNA adducts in different matrices. The levels of N7-GA-Gua and N3-GA-Ade ranged 0.9-11.9 and 0.6-3.5 µg/g creatinine in human urine samples, respectively. To investigate the interventional effects of catechins on the two DNA adducts from acrylamide exposure, rats were supplemented with three types of catechins (tea polyphenols, epigallocatechin gallate, and epicatechin) 30 min before administration with acrylamide. Our results showed that catechins effectively inhibited the formation of DNA adducts from acrylamide exposure in both urine and tissues of rats. Among three catechins, epicatechin performed the best inhibitory effect. The current study provided evidence for the chemo-preventive effect of catechins, indicating that dietary supplement of catechins may contribute to health protection against exposure to acrylamide.


Assuntos
Catequina , Adutos de DNA , Acrilamida/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores , Catequina/farmacologia , Ratos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2398: 205-213, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34674178

RESUMO

Split firefly luciferase complementation assay (FLCA) is one of the most widely used sensitive and reliable methods for the analysis of constitutive and dynamic protein-protein interactions (PPIs). Here, we report a method for long-term in vivo detects plant protein-protein interactions in Arabidopsis F1 hybrids via Topcount™ Microplate Scintillation Counter or Deep-Cooled CCD camera. Following these protocols, we successfully detected time-dependent PPIs of EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3) and EARLY FLOWERING 4 (ELF4); both of them with LUX ARRHYTHMO (LUX) belong to an evening complex which has been found to play a key role in circadian rhythms, flowering, and growth.

3.
Front Neurol ; 12: 715455, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34721258

RESUMO

Objective: The objective of this study was to use functional connectivity and graphic indicators to investigate the abnormal brain network topological characteristics caused by Parkinson's disease (PD) and the effect of acute deep brain stimulation (DBS) on those characteristics in patients with PD. Methods: We recorded high-density EEG (256 channels) data from 21 healthy controls (HC) and 20 patients with PD who were in the DBS-OFF state and DBS-ON state during the resting state with eyes closed. A high-density EEG source connectivity method was used to identify functional brain networks. Power spectral density (PSD) analysis was compared between the groups. Functional connectivity was calculated for 68 brain regions in the theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-13 Hz), beta1 (13-20 Hz), and beta2 (20-30 Hz) frequency bands. Network estimates were measured at both the global (network topology) and local (inter-regional connection) levels. Results: Compared with HC, PSD was significantly increased in the theta (p = 0.003) frequency band and was decreased in the beta1 (p = 0.009) and beta2 (p = 0.04) frequency bands in patients with PD. However, there were no differences in any frequency bands between patients with PD with DBS-OFF and DBS-ON. The clustering coefficient and local efficiency of patients with PD showed a significant decrease in the alpha, beta1, and beta2 frequency bands (p < 0.001). In addition, edgewise statistics showed a significant difference between the HC and patients with PD in all analyzed frequency bands (p < 0.005). However, there were no significant differences between the DBS-OFF state and DBS-ON state in the brain network, except for the functional connectivity in the beta2 frequency band (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Compared with HC, patients with PD showed the following characteristics: slowed EEG background activity, decreased clustering coefficient and local efficiency of the brain network, as well as both increased and decreased functional connectivity between different brain areas. Acute DBS induces a local response of the brain network in patients with PD, mainly showing decreased functional connectivity in a few brain regions in the beta2 frequency band.

4.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 735952, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34721295

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the associations of sleep duration, wake-up time, bedtime, and childhood abdominal obesity, and to test whether there is a weekday/weekend difference and the potential modifying role of sex. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on the Students' Constitution and Health Survey and included 9559 students (4840 boys and 4719 girls) aged 7-18 years (7227 aged 7-12 years, 2332 aged 13-18 years). They were divided into two groups (control group and group with abdominal obesity). The physical measurements included children and youth body height, body weight, and waist circumference (WC). A parent-report questionnaire was used to collect the information about parent characteristics as well as lifestyle and sleep patterns (sleep duration, bedtime, and wake-up time of weekdays and weekends) of children and youth. Results: The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 30.57% and the percentages of sleep duration <9 hours/day, wake-up time before 07:00 am on weekdays and weekends, bedtime after 10:00 pm on weekends were significantly higher in the group with abdominal obesity. After adjusting for confounders, sleep duration <9 hours/day on weekends was inversely related to abdominal obesity in the overall subjects, regardless of their sex and age, while bedtime after 10:00 pm on weekends was inversely related to abdominal obesity only in the overall subjects, boys, and children aged 7-12 years. Logistic regression models in all subjects showed that shorter hours of weekends sleep duration were associated with greater risks of abdominal obesity, even after adjusting for all confounders, including wake-up time and bedtime. The adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of abdominal obesity (with ≥10 hours/day as the reference group) for children with 9-10 hours/day, 8-9 hours/day, and <8 hours/day of weekend sleep duration were 1.23 (1.04-1.46), 1.59 (1.32-1.91) and 1.83 (1.42-2.36), respectively. Specifically, after stratification by sex and age, this phenomenon was only observed in boys and children aged 7-12 years. Conclusions: Sleep duration and bedtime on weekends were independently associated with the risk of childhood abdominal obesity, particularly in boys and children aged 7-12 years.

5.
Cancer Med ; 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) is a rare malignant tumor with increasing incidence. The goal of our study was to analyze the treatment outcome and prognostic factors of ASCC in South China in the past half-century. METHODS: This study retrospectively included 59 patients with ASCC admitted from 1975 to 2018 in Sun Yat-sen University cancer center. The clinical records and follow-up information of all patients were collected. Survival analysis and univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed using the "survival" and "survminer" packages of R software. RESULTS: In 59 patients, 5 patients had distant metastasis at diagnosis. Among 54 M0 stage patients, 33 patients received chemoradiotherapy (CRT), 19 patients received local surgery, and 2 patients refused curative treatment and received the best supportive treatment (BST). The most common grade 3-4 acute toxicities during treatment were myelosuppression and radiation dermatitis. The median follow-up time was 32 months. For the whole group, the 3-year and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates and disease-free survival (DFS) were 71.1% and 63.6%, and 73.4% and 69.0%, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the T3-4 stage was an independent prognostic risk factor for OS, progression-free survival (PFS), and DFS. And M1 was an independent prognostic risk factor for PFS and DFS. Patients in stage M0 mainly treated with CRT had better local control than those mainly treated with surgery (p = 0.027). For M0 patients, induction chemotherapy combined with CRT tends to prolong OS compared with CRT alone (p = 0.26). The 3-year colostomy-free survival for the whole group was 81.1%. CONCLUSIONS: CRT is recommended as the first choice for the treatment of M0 stage ASCC. Induction chemotherapy may bring better survival benefits for some patients. Patients with ASCC in China seem to have a better local control rate, which suggested different treatment strategies may be needed in China.

6.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(18): 1444, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733996

RESUMO

Background: To evaluate whether MicroPure imaging, an ultrasound (US) image-processing technique with computer-aided analysis, can quantitatively detect crystal dissolution during urate-lowering therapy (ULT) in gout. Methods: This was a prospective study of gout patients requiring ULT. The first metatarsophalangeal joints were examined using US and MicroPure before and after 3 months of ULT. Elementary lesions of gout, including the double contour sign (DCS), aggregates, tophi, erosion, and other US features were recorded at baseline and 3 months. MicroPure imaging features were automatically calculated by a self-developed software. Patients were divided into goal-achieved and goal-not-achieved groups according to their urate levels at 3 months. The US and MicroPure imaging features of the two groups were analyzed at baseline and 3 months. Results: A total of 55 consecutive patients were enrolled (25: goal-achieved group; 30: goal-not-achieved group). US findings demonstrated that the power Doppler signal grade decreased at 3 months, regardless of the group (both P<0.05). From baseline to 3 months, tophi size and the DCS reduced in the goal-achieved group (both P<0.05), while the US aggregate features showed no difference (P=0.250). However, on the MicroPure imaging, the number and density of aggregates at 3 months decreased in the goal-achieved group (both P<0.05). There were no significant changes at 3 months in any of the MicroPure imaging features in the goal-not-achieved group (all P>0.05). Conclusions: In comparison with B-mode US, computer-aided MicroPure imaging can sensitively and quantitatively detect aggregate dissolution during effective ULT after only 3 months of treatment.

7.
Zool Res ; 42(6): 825-833, 2021 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755501

RESUMO

As a top predator, the Eurasian otter ( Lutra lutra) is an indicator of healthy freshwater ecosystems and a flagship species for conservation. Once widespread in China, the species is now distributed mainly in the upper reaches of the great rivers of western China. However, a lack of knowledge on local otter populations continues to hinder their conservation in China. Here, we conducted a detailed study on habitat use of Eurasian otters in Yushu City and Tangjiahe National Nature Reserve in western China using transect surveys. At both study sites, otters preferred to defecate on large rocks close to or protruding from the river and about 50 cm above the waterline. In Yushu, no spraints were found along the 5 km river bank section in the downtown area, with otters preferring sprainting sites with natural banks, riparian zones, and lower human population density. However, this pattern was not obvious at Tangjiahe, where river transformation and human disturbance are minor. Otter river use intensity was negatively correlated with elevation and human population density in Yushu in both seasons. In Tangjiahe, otter river use intensity was positively correlated with prey mass and flow rate and negatively correlated with human population in spring, but positively correlated with human population and negatively correlated with flow rate in autumn. These results reflect the flexible habitat use strategies of otters at different sites, underlining the necessity to study otters living in different regions and habitat types. We provide suggestions for river modification and call for more site-specific studies to promote otter conservation in China.

8.
Clin Rheumatol ; 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767108

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to identify the potential diagnostic biomarkers of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to explore the potential pathological relevance of immune cell infiltration in this disease. METHODS: Three previously published datasets containing gene expression data from 35 RA patients and 29 controls (GSE55235, GSE55457, and GSE12021) were downloaded from the GEO database, after which a weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA) approach was utilized to clarify differentially abundant genes. Candidate biomarkers of RA were then identified via the use of a LASSO regression model and support vector machine recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE) analyses. Data were validated based upon the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) values, with hub genes being identified as those with an AUC > 85% and a P value < 0.05. Lastly, the CIBERSORT algorithm was used to assess immune cell infiltration of RA tissues, and correlations between immune cell infiltration and disease-related diagnostic biomarkers were assessed. RESULTS: The green-yellow module containing 87 genes was found to be highly correlated with RA positivity. FADD, CXCL2, and CXCL8 were identified as potential RA diagnostic biomarkers (AUC > 0.85), and these results were validated using the GSE77298 dataset. Immune cell infiltration analyses revealed the expression of hub genes to be correlated with mast cells, monocytes, activated NK cells, CD8 T cells, resting dendritic cells, and plasma cells. CONCLUSION: These data indicate that FADD, CXCL2, and CXCL8 are valuable diagnostic biomarkers of RA, offering new insight that can guide future studies of RA incidence and progression.

9.
Ultrasonography ; 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794212

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This prospective study explored the value of synchronous tele-ultrasound (US) to aid doctors inexperienced in US with breast US examinations. METHODS: In total, 99 patients were enrolled. To trainee doctors who were inexperienced in US (trainee A [TA] and trainee B [TB]) and one doctor who was an expert in US completed the US examinations sequentially. TA completed the US examinations independently, while TB was instructed by the expert using synchronous tele-US. Subsequently, the expert performed on-site US examinations in person. Separately, they selected the most clinically significant nodule as the target nodule. Consistency with the expert and image quality were compared between TA and TB to evaluate tele-US. Furthermore, TB and the patients evaluated tele-US through questionnaires. RESULTS: TB demonstrated higher consistency with the expert in terms of target nodule selection than TA (93.3% vs. 63.3%, P<0.001). TB achieved good inter-observer agreement (>0.75) with the expert on five US features (5/9, 55.6%), while TA only did so for one (1/9, 11.1%) (P=0.046). TB's image quality was higher than TA's in gray value, time gain compensation, depth, color Doppler adjustment, and the visibility of key information (P=0.018, P<0.001, P<0.001, P=0.033, and P=0.006, respectively). The comprehensive assessment score was higher for TB than for TA (3.96±0.82 vs. 3.09±0.87, P<0.001). Tele-US was helpful in 69.7% of US examinations and had a training effect in 68.0%. Furthermore, 63.6% of patients accepted tele-US and 60.6% were willing to pay. CONCLUSION: Tele-US can help doctors inexperienced in US to perform breast US examinations.

10.
Planta ; 254(6): 124, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34800184

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative stress results in low success or even total failure of cryopreservation. Better understanding of how the plant establishes resistance/tolerance to ROS-induced oxidative stress facilitates developments of robust cryopreservation procedures. Cryopreservation provides a safe and efficient strategy for long-term preservation of plant genetic resources. ROS-induced oxidative stress caused damage to cells and reduced the ability of the plant to survive following cryopreservation, eventually resulting in low success or even total failure. This paper provides updated and comprehensive information obtained in the past decade, including the following: (1) ROS generations and adaptive responses of antioxidant systems during cryopreservation; (2) expressions of oxidative stress-associated genes and proteins during cryopreservation; (3) ROS-triggered programmed cell death (PCD) during cryopreservation; and (4) exogenous applications of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in improving success of cryopreservation. Prospects for further studies are proposed. The goal of the present study was to facilitate better understanding of the mechanisms by which the plant establishes resistance/tolerance to oxidative stress during cryopreservation and promote further studies toward the developments of robust cryopreservation procedures and wider application of plant cryobiotechnology.


Assuntos
Criopreservação , Estresse Oxidativo , Antioxidantes , Plantas , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
11.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(28): 8349-8357, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34754844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Decreased ovarian reserve function is an ovarian hypofunction disease that occurs in women before 40 years of age, leading to a decline in fertility and perimenopausal symptoms, such as irregular menstruation, amenorrhea, infertility, decreased libido, and autonomic nervous dysfunction. Fenmatong (FMT) is a compound mixture of estradiol tablets and estradiol didroxyprogesterone tablets, which can improve ovarian reserve function by supplementation of exogenous estrogen. However, this treatment has also been shown to cause breast pain, gastrointestinal discomfort, irregular vaginal bleeding, and changes in sexual desire. In severe cases, FMT can promote the development of breast cancer, endometrial cancer, and venous embolic disease. AIM: To observe the effects of Kuntai capsules and FMT on endocrine indexes and uterine artery blood circulation in patients with decreased ovarian reserve function. METHODS: Patients (130) with decreased ovarian reserve function, who were treated in our hospital from May 2018 to May 2020, were divided into two groups: The FMT group, in which patients were treated with FMT, and the observation group, in which patients were treated with Kuntai capsules. Chinese medicine symptom scores, uterine artery blood flow parameters, ovarian ultrasound test indexes, pictorial blood loss assessment chart (PBAC) scores, and hormone levels were recorded, and total effective rates were calculated for both groups. RESULTS: The total effective rate in the observation group was higher than that in the FMT group (P < 0.05).After treatment, primary symptoms, including low menstrual volume, delayed menstruation, red color and thick consistency of menses, dizziness, palpitation, weakness at the waist and knee, insomnia and excessive dreaming, irritability, and dryness and astringency of the pudendal canal in the observation group decreased, and scores for primary and secondary symptoms in the observation group were significantly lower than those in the FMT group (P < 0.05).The systolic peak flow rate (PSV), end-diastolic flow rate (EDV), ovarian diameter, sinus follicle count, and resistance index (RI) of the uterine arteries in the observation group and FMT group increased after treatment. Notably, the PSV, EDV, ovarian diameter, and antral follicle count in the observation group were higher than those in the FMT group, whereas the RI in the observation group was lower than that in the FMT group (P < 0.05).The PBAC scores in the observation and FMT groups increased after treatment, with that in the observation group becoming significantly higher than that in the FMT group (P < 0.05). After treatment, estradiol (E2) and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels increased, whereas follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels decreased in the observation group and FMT group; E2 and AMH levels became significantly higher and FSH levels became significantly lower in the observation group than in the FMT group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Compared with FMT, Kuntai capsules promoted uterine artery blood circulation, improved menstruation, relieved symptoms, regulated endocrine function, and improved curative effects.

12.
Bioanalysis ; 13(19): 1487-1499, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601888

RESUMO

Aim: The pharmacokinetic study of the brimonidine tartrate in situ gel in the anterior chamber of the rabbit eye was studied by microdialysis technique, and samples were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. Materials & methods: It was monitored in ESI mode at transition 291.9→212.0 and 296.0→216.0 for brimonidine and internal standard, respectively. Acetonitrile and 0.1% aqueous formic acid (50:50, v/v) were used as the mobile phase at 0.4 ml/min. Results & conclusion: It showed a good linear correlation between 5 and 5000 ng/ml in microdialysis solution, and the inter- and intra-day precision (relative standard deviation) was less than 4.0%. The pharmacokinetic study showed that the AUC(0-t) of in situ gel was 3.5-times than that of eyedrops, which significantly improve the bioavailability of brimonidine.

13.
Inorg Chem ; 60(21): 16558-16569, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668700

RESUMO

Doping chemistry has become one of the most effective means of tuning materials' properties for diverse applications. In particular for scheelite-type CaWO4, high-oxidation-state doping is extremely important, since one may expand the scheelite family and further create prospective candidates for novel applications and/or useful spectral signatures for nuclear forensics. However, the chemistry associated with high-valence doping in scheelite-type CaWO4 is far from understanding. In this work, a series of scheelite-based materials (Ca1-x-y-zEuxKy□z)WO4 (□ represents the cation vacancy of the Ca2+ site) were synthesized by hydrothermal conditions and solid-state methods and comparatively studied. For the bulk prepared by the solid-state method, occupation of high-oxidation-state Eu3+ at the Ca2+ sites of CaWO4 is followed by doping of the low-oxidation-state K+ at a nearly equivalent molar amount. The Eu3+ local symmetry is thus varied from the original S4 point group symmetry to C2v point group symmetry. Surprisingly different from the cases in bulk, for the nanoscale counterparts prepared by hydrothermal conditions, the high-oxidation-state Eu3+ was incorporated in CaWO4 at two distinct sites, and its amount is higher than that of the low-oxidation-state K+ even though KOH was used as a mineralizer, creating a certain amount of cation vacancies. Consequently, an apparent split emission of 5D0 → 7F0 was first demonstrated for (Ca1-x-y-zEuxKy□z)WO4. The doping chemistry of high oxidation states uncovered in this work not only provides an explanation for the commonly observed spectral changes in rare-earth-ion-modified scheelite structures, but also points out an advanced direction that can guide the design and synthesis of novel functional oxides by solution chemistry routes.

14.
Sci Total Environ ; : 151008, 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662604

RESUMO

Using microalgae to treat swine wastewater (SW) can achieve wastewater purification and biomass recovery at the same time. The algae species suitable for growth in SW were screened in this study, and the response surface combined with the desirability function method was used for multi-objective optimization to obtain high algal biomass and pollutant removal. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and biomass composition were analyzed to evaluate the cell physiological activity and its application potential. Chlorella sp. HL was selected as the most suitable species for growth in SW, and after 9 d of cultivation, the maximum specific growth rate and highest algal density were achieved 0.51 d-1 and 2.43 × 107 cells/mL, respectively. In addition, the removal of total phosphate and chemical oxygen demand were reached 69.13% and 72.95%, respectively. The optimum conditions for maximum algal density and highest pollutant removal were determined as the light intensity of 58.73 µmol/m2/s, inoculation density of 5.0 × 106 cells/mL, and a light/dark ratio of 3 using response surface model, and the predicted overall desirability value was 0.96. The potential maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) of Chlorella sp. HL in the early stage of cultivation was 0.60-0.70, while under high light and long photoperiod, the value of Fv/Fm and performance index of Chlorella decreased, trapped and dissipated energy flux per reaction center increased. The higher heating value of 18.25 MJ/kg indicated that the Chlorella cultivated in SW could be a good feedstock for biofuel production.

15.
Food Funct ; 12(22): 11378-11386, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34671796

RESUMO

Plant ferritin has a natural cage-like nanospace for carrying bioactive ingredients. By taking advantage of the calcium binding ability of casein phosphopeptide (CPP) and the cage-like conformation of plant ferritin, a ferritin-CPP shell-core complex (FC) was fabricated with the reversible self-assembly character of ferritin induced by a pH 2.0/7.0 transition strategy. The FC-calcium composite (FCC) was further fabricated by binding of the FC with calcium ions. When the same amount of calcium was loaded, the calcium binding capacity of the FCC was 28.13 ± 1.65%, which was significantly higher than that of ferritin and CPP alone. Fluorescence and Fourier transform infrared analysis indicated that the CPP encapsulation and the calcium binding in the FCC influenced the ferritin structure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) results showed that the spherical morphology and the 12 nm-diameter size were sustained in the FC and FCC. Moreover, the FCC as a transport carrier could increase the precipitation time of calcium phosphate, and the encapsulated calcium could be released in a more sustained manner as compared with ferritin and CPP under simulated in vitro gastrointestinal conditions. This study presents a novel calcium delivery strategy based on the ferritin cage and CPP, which will improve the applicability of ferritin and CPP and enhance the bioavailability of calcium ions.

16.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 144: 112293, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634559

RESUMO

Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common serious acute condition of the digestive system that remains a clinical challenge. Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in particular is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of Galangin (Gal), a natural flavonol obtained from lesser galangal, on L-arginine-induced SAP in mice and in AR42J cells. Amylase and lipase activities were measured and the histopathology of the pancreas, lung, and kidney was evaluated. Inflammation and oxidative stress were assessed using ELISA, western blotting, RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry. Gal was shown to reduce proinflammatory cytokine production and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in vivo and in vitro. L-arginine treatment reduced the expression of components of the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway and the downstream protein heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in mice, whereas Gal increased their expression. Furthermore, the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway inhibitor brusatol prevented the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Gal in mice with SAP. Taken together, our results imply that Gal has protective effects in L-arginine-induced SAP that are induced by the upregulation of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, which has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Thus, Gal may represent a promising treatment for SAP.

17.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(10)2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34685999

RESUMO

Grapevine (Vitis spp.) is one of the most economically important temperate fruit crops. Grapevine breeding programs require access to high-quality Vitis cultivars and wild species, which may be maintained within genebanks. Shoot tip cryopreservation is a valuable technique for the safe, long-term conservation of Vitis genetic resources that complements traditional field and in vitro germplasm collections. Vitis is highly susceptible to virus infections. Virus-free plants are required as propagation material for clonally propagated germplasm, and also for the global exchange of grapevine genetic resources. Shoot tip cryotherapy, a method based on cryopreservation, has proven to be effective in eradicating viruses from infected plants, including grapevine. This comprehensive review outlines/documents the advances in Vitis shoot tip cryopreservation and cryotherapy that have resulted in healthy plants with high regrowth levels across diverse Vitis species.

18.
Protein Cell ; 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554412

RESUMO

New threats posed by the emerging circulating variants of SARS-CoV-2 highlight the need to find conserved neutralizing epitopes for therapeutic antibodies and efficient vaccine design. Here, we identified a receptor-binding domain (RBD)-binding antibody, XG014, which potently neutralizes ß-coronavirus lineage B (ß-CoV-B), including SARS-CoV-2, its circulating variants, SARS-CoV and bat SARSr-CoV WIV1. Interestingly, antibody family members competing with XG014 binding show reduced levels of cross-reactivity and induce antibody-dependent SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein-mediated cell-cell fusion, suggesting a unique mode of recognition by XG014. Structural analyses reveal that XG014 recognizes a conserved epitope outside the ACE2 binding site and completely locks RBD in the non-functional "down" conformation, while its family member XG005 directly competes with ACE2 binding and position the RBD "up". Single administration of XG014 is effective in protection against and therapy of SARS-CoV-2 infection in vivo. Our findings suggest the potential to develop XG014 as pan-ß-CoV-B therapeutics and the importance of the XG014 conserved antigenic epitope for designing broadly protective vaccines against ß-CoV-B and newly emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern.

19.
Front Genet ; 12: 723519, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34567076

RESUMO

Background: The liver is the central metabolic organ of animals. In chicken, knowledge on the relationship between gene expression in the liver and fat deposition during development is still limited. A time-course transcriptomic study from the embryonic (day 12) to the egg-producing period (day 180 after hatch) was performed to profile slow-growing meat type chicken liver gene expression and to investigate its correlation with abdominal fat deposition. Results: The transcriptome profiles showed a separation of the different developmental stages. In total, 13,096 genes were ubiquitously expressed at all the tested developmental stages. The analysis of differentially expressed genes between adjacent developmental stages showed that biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids pathway was enriched from day 21 to day 140 after hatch. The correlation between liver gene expression and the trait abdominal fat weight (AFW) was analyzed by weighted gene co-expression network analysis. The genes MFGE8, HHLA1, CKAP2, and ACSBG2 were identified as hub genes in AFW positively correlated modules, which suggested important roles of these genes in the lipid metabolism in chicken liver. Conclusion: Our results provided a resource of developmental transcriptome profiles in chicken liver and suggested that the gene ACSBG2 among other detected genes can be used as a candidate gene for selecting low AFW chickens.

20.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(9)2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579200

RESUMO

(1) Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases the susceptibility to the presence of herpes zoster (HZ). Little is known about the risk factors of HZ in CKD patients; (2) Methods: This is a case-control study. CKD patients diagnosed with HZ between January 2015 and June 2021 in a tertiary hospital were identified. One age- and gender- matched control was paired for each case, matched to the date of initial HZ diagnosis. Conditional multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate the risk factors associated with the presence of HZ; (3) Results: Forty-seven HZ patients and controls were identified. In general, about 73.40% (69 out of 94) patients were classified at IV to V stages of CKD. Immunosuppressive agents (p = 0.0012) and dialysis therapy (p = 0.021) were reported more frequently in the HZ cohort. Compared with the control group, the total white cell count and lymphocyte count were significantly lower in the HZ group (p value of 0.032 and 0.003, respectively). The conditional logistics regression model revealed that previous immunosuppressants administration (odds ratio: 10.861, 95% CI: 2.092~56.392, p = 0.005) and dialysis therapy (odds ratio: 3.293, 95% CI: 1.047~10.355, p = 0.041) were independent risk factors of HZ in the CKD population; (4) Conclusions: Dialysis and immunosuppressants therapy were associated with greater risk of HZ disease in CKD patients. Further guideline may highlight the necessity of zoster vaccine for patients with CKD, who undertake associated treatment.

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