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1.
Neurorehabil Neural Repair ; 33(8): 643-655, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286828

RESUMO

Background. Although recent evidence has shown a new role of fluoxetine in motor rehabilitation, results are mixed. We conducted a randomized clinical trial to evaluate whether combining repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) with fluoxetine increases upper limb motor function in stroke. Methods. Twenty-seven hemiparetic patients within 2 years of ischemic stroke were randomized into 3 groups: Combined (active rTMS + fluoxetine), Fluoxetine (sham rTMS + fluoxetine), or Placebo (sham rTMS + placebo fluoxetine). Participants received 18 sessions of 1-Hz rTMS in the unaffected primary motor cortex and 90 days of fluoxetine (20 mg/d). Motor function was assessed using Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function (JTHF) and Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) scales. Corticospinal excitability was assessed with TMS. Results. After adjusting for time since stroke, there was significantly greater improvement in JTHF in the combined rTMS + fluoxetine group (mean improvement: -214.33 seconds) than in the placebo (-177.98 seconds, P = 0.005) and fluoxetine (-50.16 seconds, P < 0.001) groups. The fluoxetine group had less improvement than placebo on both scales (respectively, JTHF: -50.16 vs -117.98 seconds, P = 0.038; and FMA: 6.72 vs 15.55 points, P = 0.039), suggesting that fluoxetine possibly had detrimental effects. The unaffected hemisphere showed decreased intracortical inhibition in the combined and fluoxetine groups, and increased intracortical facilitation in the fluoxetine group. This facilitation was negatively correlated with motor function improvement (FMA, r2 = -0.398, P = 0.0395). Conclusion. Combined fluoxetine and rTMS treatment leads to better motor function in stroke than fluoxetine alone and placebo. Moreover, fluoxetine leads to smaller improvements than placebo, and fluoxetine's effects on intracortical facilitation suggest a potential diffuse mechanism that may hinder beneficial plasticity on motor recovery.

2.
Clin Rehabil ; 33(9): 1479-1491, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081365

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to validate a novel pictorial-based Longshi Scale for evaluating a patient's disability by healthcare professionals and non-professionals. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Rehabilitation departments from a grade A, class 3 public hospital, a grade B, class 2 public hospital, and a private hospital and seven community rehabilitation centers. SUBJECTS: A total of 618 patients and 251 patients with functional disabilities were recruited in a two-phase study, respectively. MAIN MEASURES: Outcome measure: pictorial scale of activities of daily living (ADLs, Longshi Scale). Reference measure: Barthel Index. The Spearman correlation coefficient was used to analyze the validity of Longshi Scale against Barthel Index. RESULTS: In phase 1 study, from March 2016 to August 2016, the results demonstrated that the Longshi Scale was both reliable and valid (intraclass correlation coefficient based on two-way random effect (ICC2,1) = 0.877-0.974 for intra-rater reliability; ICC2,1 = 0.928-0.979; κ = 0.679-1.000 for inter-rater reliability; intraclass correlation coefficient based on one-way random effect (ICC1,1) = 0.921-0.984 for test-retest reliability and Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.836-0.899). In the second phase, in March 2018, results further demonstrated that the Longshi Scale had good inter-rater and intra-rater reliability among healthcare professionals and non-professionals including therapists, interns, and personal care aids (ICC1,1 = 0.822-0.882 on Day 1; ICC1,1 = 0.842-0.899 on Day 7 for inter-rater reliability). In addition, the Longshi Scale decreased assessment time significantly, compared with the Barthel Index assessment (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The Longshi Scale could potentially provide an efficient way for healthcare professionals and non-professionals who may have minimal training to assess the ADLs of functionally disabled patients.

3.
Eur Neurol ; 80(3-4): 138-148, 2018 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30448848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the United States, stroke continues to be the cause for long-term disability. Of the patients with a first stroke, up to 75% will experience post-stroke fatigue (PSF) in the first year following stroke. PSF is one of the most disabling symptoms in stroke survivors; it decreases quality of life, increases mortality, and is a barrier to stroke rehabilitation. Given the incidence of stroke and the prevalence and detrimental impact of PSF on quality of life, independent living, and overall survival, efficient management of PSF must be a priority in stroke rehabilitation. The cause of PSF remains unknown. The burden of fatigue in stroke survivors is influenced by other stroke-related symptoms, most notably post-stroke depression (PSD). It is well known that stroke induces a systemic inflammatory response that is the trigger for sickness behavior, of which fatigue and depression are predominant symptoms. SUMMARY: To date, only a handful of studies have sought to explore the relationship between stroke-induced inflammation and PSF and PSD. In this review, we describe this evidence, highlight the strengths and weaknesses of these existing studies, and suggest further experiments that may further support the association between stroke-related inflammatory processes and stroke-related symptoms. Key Messages: The current concept and further research are important for a more specific therapeutic intervention for PSF and PSD.

4.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 27(11): 3320-3327, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30174226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate whether fluoxetine improves poststroke dysphagia and to detect the potential relationship between serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and fluoxetine effects. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 159 stroke patients who met our study criteria were included. In total, 110 patients were placed in the control group, and 49 patients were placed in the fluoxetine group. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients were collected for the baseline assessment. Functional independence measure scores and American speech-language-hearing association/functional communication measures scores for swallowing were collected to evaluate the patients' swallowing function. Patients' serums were collected at weeks 1 and 3 after admission, and serum BDNF levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. T test, chi-squared test, and general linear model analysis were performed to determine the differences between the two groups. RESULTS: A significantly higher improvement of swallowing function was observed in the fluoxetine group compared with that of the control group (P = .023). In addition, a general linear model analysis showed that the treatment of fluoxetine has a statistically significant effect on swallowing improvement after adjustment of swallowing score on admission, stroke types, and interval between the onset of stroke and admission (P = .022, R2 = .46, adjusted R2 = .446). There is no significant difference in the change of serum BDNF levels in the two groups (P = .269). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that treatment with fluoxetine in stroke patients with dysphagia may improve swallowing function. A placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial is warranted to confirm this finding.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição/tratamento farmacológico , Deglutição/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoxetina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/sangue , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Transtornos de Deglutição/sangue , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Fluoxetina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasticidade Neuronal/efeitos dos fármacos , Projetos Piloto , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Transl Stroke Res ; 2018 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30074228

RESUMO

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in neuroplasticity and neurogenesis following ischemic and non-ischemic brain injury. The predictive value of BDNF for short-term outcome after stroke is controversial. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship among serum BDNF level, fractional anisotropy (FA), and functional outcome during post-acute stroke rehabilitation. Serum BDNF levels were measured on admission to an acute inpatient rehabilitation hospital. The primary functional outcome was functional independence measure (FIM) motor subscore at discharge. The secondary outcome measures were FIM total score at discharge, FIM motor subscore on admission, length of stay in the hospital, and discharge destination. We investigated the relationship among the level of serum BDNF and FA as well as functional outcome measures. Three hundred forty-eight consecutive stroke subjects were included in the analysis. Serum BDNF levels on admission were statistically but not clinically correlated with FIM motor subscore at discharge (r = 0.173, P = 0.001) and FIM total score at discharge (r = 0.155, P = 0.004). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of BDNF as a predictor for FIM motor subscore improvement showed low accuracy of prediction with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.581 (P = 0.026). Serum BDNF significantly correlated with FA in the high FIM motor group (n = 10, r = 0.609, P = 0.031) but not in the low FIM motor group (n = 11, r = - 0.132, P = 0.349). The serum BDNF level alone offers minimum predictive value for recovery of motor function during post-acute rehabilitation. Our findings suggest that serum BDNF level may be correlated with FA.

6.
Behav Neurol ; 2018: 8740284, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29854022

RESUMO

Acupuncture has been widely used in China to treat neurological diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, its mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, eighty healthy Wistar rats were divided into a normal control group (n = 15) and premodel group (n = 65). Forty-five rats that met the criteria for the AD model were then randomly divided into the model group (MG), the nonacupoint group (NG), and the acupoint group (AG). All rats received positron emission tomography (PET) scanning, and the images were analyzed with Statistical Parametric Mapping 8.0. MG exhibited hypometabolism in the olfactory bulb, insular cortex, orbital cortex, prelimbic cortex, striatum, parietal association cortex, visual cortex, cingulate gyrus, and retrosplenial cortex. AG exhibited prominent and extensive hypermetabolism in the thalamus, hypothalamus, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, cerebral peduncle, midbrain tegmentum, and pontine tegmentum compared to NG. These results demonstrated that acupuncturing at GV24 and bilateral GB13 acupoints may improve the learning and memory abilities of the AD rats, probably via altering cerebral glucose metabolism (CGM) in the hypothalamus, thalamus, and brain stem. The observed effects of acupuncture may be caused by regulating the distribution of certain kinds of neurotransmitters and enhancing synaptic plasticity.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Tronco Encefálico/metabolismo , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Bulbo Olfatório/metabolismo , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Tálamo/metabolismo , Pontos de Acupuntura , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Tronco Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Corpo Estriado/diagnóstico por imagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotálamo/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Bulbo Olfatório/diagnóstico por imagem , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Tálamo/diagnóstico por imagem
7.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 97(7): 492-499, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29406402

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cognitive dysfunction and dementia are common following ischemic stroke. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) has been found to play an important role in neurologic function and cognition. The purpose of the present study was to assess the specific role of eNOS in cognitive performance after stroke. DESIGN: Male wild-type and mice lacking eNOS (eNOS) underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion or sham-surgery. Primary outcomes were repeated measures of neurologic score, limb asymmetry, sensory/motor function, and spatial memory/learning assessed at intervals up to 28 days postsurgery. Group differences in brain microglia activation and infiltration and levels of interferon-gamma were examined. RESULTS: There was no genotype × surgery interaction effect on the pattern of change in neurologic score, limb asymmetry, or sensory motor function across the 28 days postsurgery. In the Morris water maze, eNOS middle cerebral artery occlusion mice displayed learning and memory deficits not evident in wild-type middle cerebral artery occlusion mice. Poorer spatial memory and learning in eNOS middle cerebral artery occlusion mice was associated with a reduction in the number of activated microglia in the striatum on the lesion side and decreased brain tissue levels of interferon-gamma. CONCLUSIONS: This study's data support a role for eNOS in cognitive performance after stroke. This finding may lead to the development of novel interventions to treat poststroke cognitive deficits.

8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(13): 12507-12514, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29464599

RESUMO

To better monitor and remediate environments contaminated by cadmium (Cd), plants are used as hyperaccumulators or biomonitors; however, few have been identified for aquatic Cd pollution. In our study, two aquatic ornamental plants, Microsorum pteropus (Blume) Copel. and Echinodorus grisebachii Small, were studied for their Cd accumulation capacity, morphological characteristics, and leaf physiological indexes. Microsorum pteropus (Blume) Copel. leaf has the potential to hyperaccumulate Cd (166 mg/kg dry weight for 1 mg/L exposure), with no significant physiological difference under exposure. Echinodorus grisebachii Small had sensitive diagnostic responses to Cd toxicity, such as significant decreases in Chl (a + b) and Chl-a/b, increased peroxidase (POD) activity, greater malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and increased soluble sugar content. These results suggest that Microsorum pteropus (Blume) Copel. could have the potential to be a Cd hyperaccumulator, while Echinodorus grisebachii Small could serve as a biomonitor for Cd-contaminated water bodies.

9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(36): 30373-30386, 2017 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28816035

RESUMO

Surface biomimetic modification with extra-cellular matrix (ECM)-derived biomolecules is an emerging potential method of accelerating the healing of vascular stent lesions. However, insufficient capacity of the constructed biofunctional layer in maintaining its long-term efficiency and preventing thrombus and neointimal hyperplasia continue to be major limitations in clinical application. On the basis of the structure and function of ECM, in this study, we constructed a novel stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α)/laminin-loaded nanocoating on the 316L stainless steel (SS) surface to provide improved function in modulation of vascular remodeling. The modified surface was found to control delivery of biomolecules and exhibit promising potential to provide stage-adjusted treatment after injury. An in vitro biocompatibility study suggested that the constructed layer may effectively prevent thrombosis formation by inhibiting platelet adhesion and activation, while accelerating endothelium regeneration by inducing endothelial cell (EC) migration and endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) aggregation. An in vivo animal test further demonstrated that the nanocoating may prevent thrombus and neointimal hyperplasia after implantation for 3 months. Therefore, the ECM-inspired nanocoating described in this study is a promising novel approach for vascular stent surface modification.

10.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 97(9): 1487-1495, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27178097

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between fractional anisotropy (FA), a suggested biomarker for tissue integrity, and motor recovery in patients with stroke after postacute rehabilitation. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Acute rehabilitation hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Subjects (N=43) diagnosed with ischemic stroke (n=28) and hemorrhagic stroke (n=15). The average age for subjects was 68±14 years. INTERVENTIONS: Magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging were conducted on all patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The admission and discharge motor subscores of the FIM were obtained from medical records, and relative gain was calculated using the Montebello Rehabilitation Factor Score (MRFS). K-means cluster analysis (K=3) using both the MRFS and the gain of the FIM motor subscore (ΔFIM) was performed. Analysis of variance was used to determine the difference in FA among the clusters. Spearman analysis was conducted to examine the relation between FA, ΔFIM, and MRFS in each cluster. RESULTS: FA was significantly higher in the clusters of good and moderate recovery in the corticospinal tract (CST), peduncle, and posterior limb of the internal capsule bilaterally (all P<.05) compared with the poor recovery group. Significant positive correlations were observed in multiple regions along the CST between FA, ΔFIM, and MRFS in the clusters of good and moderate recovery, but not in the poor recovery group. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed an association between FA values within the corticospinal tract and motor recovery in patients with stroke undergoing postacute rehabilitation. This finding may help to identify novel targets for new interventions to promote stroke recovery.


Assuntos
Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Movimento/fisiologia , Tratos Piramidais/fisiopatologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anisotropia , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Tratos Piramidais/diagnóstico por imagem , Centros de Reabilitação , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 23(11): 10393-405, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26330308

RESUMO

The residual levels of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the surface and two core sediments from Lake Chaohu were measured with a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The temporal-spatial distributions, compositions of PAEs, and their effecting factors were investigated. The results indicated that di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were three dominant PAE components in both the surface and core sediments. The residual level of total detected PAEs (∑PAEs) in the surface sediments (2.146 ± 2.255 µg/g dw) was lower than that in the western core sediments (10.615 ± 9.733 µg/g) and in the eastern core sediments (5.109 ± 4.741 µg/g). The average content of ∑PAEs in the surface sediments from the inflow rivers (4.128 ± 1.738 µg/g dw) was an order of magnitude higher than those from the lake (0.323 ± 0.093 µg/g dw), and there were similar PAE compositions between the lake and inflow rivers. This finding means that there were important effects of PAE input from the inflow rivers on the compositions and distributions of PAEs in the surface sediments. An increasing trend was found for the residual levels of ΣPAEs, DnBP, and DIBP from the bottom to the surface in both the western and eastern core sediments. Increasing PAE usage with the population growth, urbanization, and industrial and agricultural development in Lake Chaohu watershed would result in the increasing production of PAEs and their resulting presence in the sediments. The significant positive relationships were also found between the PAE contents and the percentage of sand particles, as well as TOC contents in the sediment cores.


Assuntos
Dibutilftalato/análise , Dietilexilftalato/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Agricultura , China , Dibutilftalato/análogos & derivados , Ésteres/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Lagos , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Rios , Urbanização
12.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2015: 931398, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26166952

RESUMO

Fatigue is a major debilitating symptom after stroke. The biological mechanisms underlying poststroke fatigue (PFS) are unknown. We hypothesized that PSF is associated with an alteration in the balance between Th17 and Treg cells. To test this hypothesis we assessed fatigue in 30 stroke survivors using the Fatigue Scale for Motor and Cognitive Functions (FSMC). Peripheral blood was collected for assessment of Th17 and Treg cell populations and measurement of interleukin-10 (IL-10). Participants were dichotomized into severe fatigue (n = 14) and low-moderate fatigue (n = 16) groups by K-mean cluster analysis of FSMC scores. There were no group differences in age, gender, stroke type, stroke severity, or time since stroke. Stroke survivors in the severe fatigue group reported greater anxiety (p = 0.004) and depression (p = 0.001) than in the low-moderate fatigue group. The ratio of Th17 to Treg cells was significantly increased in the severe fatigue group relative to the mild-moderate fatigue group (p = 0.035). Serum levels of IL-10 negatively correlated withTh17/Treg ratio (r = -0.408, p = 0.025). Our preliminary findings suggest that an imbalance in the Th17/Treg ratio is associated with the severity of PSF.


Assuntos
Fadiga/imunologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/etiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Fadiga/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-10/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
13.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 94(12): 1083-94, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26135366

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that exercise training promotes motor recovery after stroke by facilitating axonal remodeling via inhibition of the Nogo-A/NgR1 and Rho-A pathway. DESIGN: A distal middle cerebral artery occlusion model was generated in stroke-prone renovascular hypertensive rats. Stroke-prone renovascular hypertensive rats were randomly divided into a control group, an exercise training group, and a sham group. Motor function was measured using the grip strength test. Axon and myelin remodeling markers, growth-associated protein 43, myelin basic protein, Tau, and amyloid precursor protein were detected by immunofluorescence. The expression of Nogo-A, NgR1, and Rho-A was demonstrated by immunofluorescence and Western blotting in the peri-infarction area at 7, 14, 28, and 52 days after distal middle cerebral artery occlusion. RESULTS: Grip strength was higher in the exercise training group (P < 0.05). Exercise training increased the expression of growth-associated protein 43, myelin basic protein (at 7, 14, and 28 days), and Tau (at 7 and 14 days), and decreased the expression of axonal damage amyloid precursor protein (at 7 and 14 days), compared with the control group. The protein levels of Nogo-A (at 7 and 14 days), NgR1 (at 7, 14, and 28 days), and Rho-A (at 14 and 28 days) were reduced after exercise training. CONCLUSIONS: Exercise training promotes axonal recovery, which is associated with functional improvement after cerebral infarction. Down-regulation of the Nogo-A/NgR1/Rho-A may mediate the axonal remodeling induced by exercise training.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício , Proteínas da Mielina/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/metabolismo , Proteína rhoA de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Animais , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Isquemia Encefálica/reabilitação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas Nogo , Receptor Nogo 1 , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
14.
PLoS One ; 10(6): e0129881, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26086994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effects of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) treatment on acute cerebral inflammation and injuries after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), though they have shown promising therapeutic potentials in ischemic stoke. METHODS: An ICH model was established by stereotactic injection of collagenase VII into the left striatum of male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Six hours later, ICH rats were randomly divided into two groups and received intracerebrally 10 µl of PBS with or without 1 × 10(6) of iPSCs. Subsequently, neural function of all ICH rats was assessed at days 1, 3, 7, 14, 28 and 42 after ICH. Inflammatory cells, cytokines and neural apoptosis in the rats' perihematomal regions, and brain water content were determined on day 2 or 3 post ICH. iPSC differentiation was determined on day 28 post ICH. Nissl(+) cells and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)(+) cells in the perihematoma and the survival rates of rats in two groups were determined on post-ICH day 42. RESULTS: Compared with control animals, iPSCs treatment not only improved neurological function and survival rate, but also resulted in fewer intracephalic infiltrations of neutrophils and microglia, along with decreased interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and increased IL-10 in the perihematomal tissues of ICH rats. Furthermore, brain oedema formation, apoptosis, injured neurons and glial scar formation were decreased in iPSCs-transplanted rats. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that iPSCs transplantation attenuate cerebral inflammatory reactions and neural injuries after ICH, and suggests that multiple mechanisms including inflammation modulation, neuroprotection and functional recovery might be involved simultaneously in the therapeutic benefit of iPSC treatment against hemorrhagic stroke.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/terapia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/transplante , Inflamação/terapia , Animais , Apoptose , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/imunologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/imunologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/patologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Interleucinas/análise , Interleucinas/imunologia , Masculino , Neurogênese , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/imunologia , Neurônios/patologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/análise , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
15.
Neurosci Lett ; 591: 115-20, 2015 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25703227

RESUMO

Cerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a serious stroke subtype, currently lacking effective treatment. Recent research has shown that CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a key role in the immune response of ischemic stroke. However, Tregs in human hemorrhagic stroke are poorly investigated. In this study, a total of 90 ICH patients and 60 healthy controls were recruited. The frequency of circulating Tregs, plasma levels of TGF-ß and IL-10, and the severity of neural dysfunction in ICH patients were investigated at different time points post ICH. We found that the peripheral frequency of Tregs in ICH patients was significantly increased, accompanied by boosted activated T cells. Importantly, the elevation of circulating Tregs in patients with severe dysfunction was much higher than that in less-severe patients, suggesting that disease severity affects circulating Tregs to exert regulatory function. Furthermore, both TGF-ß and IL-10 that are related to the function of Tregs, were also increased in the peripheral blood of ICH patients. Our results demonstrate that Tregs-mediated immune imbalance might affect the development and severity of ICH, and suggest that Tregs may be used as tools and targets of cellular immunotherapy to effectively treat acute hemorrhagic stroke.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral/sangue , Linfócitos T Reguladores/patologia , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Hemorragia Cerebral/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-10/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/sangue
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 496: 414-423, 2014 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25103197

RESUMO

The residual levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the water, suspended particular matter (SPM) and sediment from Lake Chaohu were measured with a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The spatial-temporal distributions and the SPM-water partition of PAHs and their influencing factors were investigated. The potential sources and contributions of PAHs in the sediment were estimated by positive matrix factorization (PMF) and probabilistic stable isotopic analysis (PSIA). The results showed that the average residual levels of total PAHs (PAH16) in the water, SPM and sediment were 170.7 ± 70.8 ng/L, 210.7 ± 160.7 ng/L and 908.5 ± 1878.1 ng/g dry weight, respectively. The same spatial distribution trend of PAH16 in the water, SPM and sediment was found from high to low: river inflows>western lake>eastern lake>water source area. There was an obvious seasonal trend of PAH16 in the water, while no obvious seasonal trend was found in the SPM. The residues and distributions of PAHs in the water, SPM and sediment relied heavily on carbon content. Significant Pearson correlations were found between LogKoc and LogKow as well as some hydro-meteorological factors. Three major sources of PAHs including coal and biomass combustions, and vehicle emissions were identified.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Lagos/química , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China
17.
Neurosci Lett ; 577: 61-5, 2014 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24937270

RESUMO

Transcranial pulsed current stimulation (tPCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that employs weak, pulsed current at different frequency ranges, inducing electrical currents that reach cortical and subcortical structures. Very little is known about its effects on brain oscillations and functional connectivity and whether these effects are dependent on the frequency of stimulation. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of tPCS with different frequency ranges in cortical oscillations indexed by high-resolution qEEG changes for power and interhemispheric coherence. Thirty-eight healthy subjects were enrolled and received a single 20-min session of either sham or active stimulation with 1 Hz, 100 Hz or random frequency (1-5 Hz). We conducted an exploratory analysis to detect changes in mean power for theta, alpha and beta, and interhemispheric coherence for alpha and theta and four different sub-bands cognitive and non-specific adverse effects were recorded. We found that active stimulation with a random frequency ranging between 1 and 5 Hz is able to significantly increase functional connectivity for the theta and low-alpha band as compared to sham and active stimulation with either 1 or 100 Hz. Based on these findings, we discuss the possible effects of tPCS on resting functional connectivity for low-frequency bands in fronto-temporal areas. Future studies should be conducted to investigate the potential benefit of these induced changes in pathologic states.


Assuntos
Ondas Encefálicas , Sincronização de Fases em Eletroencefalografia , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Environ Pollut ; 192: 232-43, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24703896

RESUMO

Atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were monitored monthly from 2010 to 2013 at rural and urban sites near a large shallow Chinese lake (Lake Chaohu). The urban areas had higher air PBDEs than the rural areas because of endogenic pollution. The highest and lowest concentrations of Σ13BDEs were observed in the winter and in the summer, respectively. A weak temperature dependence and significant positive correlations between certain PBDE congeners and the PM10 (p < 0.01) suggest transport with particulate matter. Using air-mass back-trajectories, we determined that the main sources of the PBDEs were the areas to the north, such as Shandong Province, and to the east, such as Zhejiang Province. PBDEs did not pose an appreciable risk to human health based on the inhalation exposure assessment. The residents in urban areas were exposed to higher levels of PBDEs, and wintertime exposures posed the greatest human health risk.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Atmosfera/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Humanos , Lagos , Material Particulado/análise , População Rural , Estações do Ano , População Urbana
19.
Neurosci Lett ; 569: 6-11, 2014 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24631567

RESUMO

Noninvasive transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and methylphenidate (MP) are associated with motor recovery after stroke. Based on the potentially complementary mechanisms of these interventions, we examined whether there is an interactive effect between MP and tDCS. In this preliminary study, we randomized subacute stroke subjects to receive tDCS alone, MP alone or combination of tDCS and MP. A blinded rater measured safety, hand function, and cortical excitability before and after treatment. None of the treatments caused any major or severe adverse effects or induced significant differences in cortical excitability. Analysis of variance of gain score, as measured by Purdue pegboard test, showed a significant between-group difference (F(2,6)=12.167, p=0.008). Post hoc analysis showed that the combination treatment effected greater Purdue pegboard gain scores than tDCS alone (p=0.017) or MP alone (p=0.01). Our preliminary data with nine subjects shows an interesting dissociation between motor function improvement and lack of motor corticospinal plasticity changes as indexed by transcranial magnetic stimulation in subacute stroke subjects.


Assuntos
Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico , Metilfenidato/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Adulto , Idoso , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Mãos/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Destreza Motora , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 126(12): 829-835, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24351102

RESUMO

Recent animal and human studies have demonstrated the importance of the ROCK (RhoA/Rho-associated kinase) pathway in IsST (ischaemic stroke). Whether the genetic variation within ROCK-associated genes modulates the risk of IsST remains elusive. The association between 66 tSNPs [tagging SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms)] of three ROCK-associated genes [ROCK1, ROCK2 and ARHGEF10 (Rho guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor 10)] and the incidence of IsST was investigated in 23294 Caucasian female participants of the prospective WGHS (Women's Genome Health Study). All were free of known cancer and cardiovascular disease at baseline. During a 15-year follow-up period, 323 participants developed their first ever IsST. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between genotypes and risk of IsST assuming an additive genetic model. Haplotype-block analysis was also performed. A total of ten tSNPs were associated with the risk of IsST (three in ARHGEF10 and seven in ROCK1; P<0.050). Further investigation using the haplotype-block analysis revealed a similar significant association of pre-specified haplotypes of ROCK1 with the risk of IsST (P=0.005). If corroborated in other large prospective studies, the findings of the present study suggest that genetic variation within the ROCK-associated pathway gene loci examined, and in particular ROCK1 gene variation, may influence the risk of IsST.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma Humano , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Quinases Associadas a rho/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
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