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1.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 40(3): 484-496, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506864

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), by examining the active components, potential targets and synthetic pathways of Bulao Elixir (BLE). METHODS: The Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion (ADME) / Toxicology (T) calculation was used to screen the active components of Bulao Elixir. Based on the TCM Systems Pharmacology Analysis Platform (TCMSP database) and a text mining tool (GoPubMed database), we predicted and screened the active components of Bulao Elixir and its therapeutic targets for AD. Using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID), we obtained the targets for AD. Cytoscape software was used to establish a network map of the active component-target and target-pathway of Bulao Elixir. Gene function, related biological processes and signaling pathways were analyzed using the DAVID database. RESULTS: Twelve active components were selected from 196 components of Bulao Elixir. Among 2209 targets, 102 effective targets were selected, and 30 important targets were identified via matching with the disease targets. After further analysis, 14 core targets were identified. Enrichment analysis revealed that most of these important targets were involved in multiple biological processes, including apoptosis, inflammatory reactions, and cell regulation cycles. The synthetic pathways for AD treatment were identified after analyzing and confirming the relevant pathways, providing potentially useful information for diagnosis and treatment methods for AD. CONCLUSION: The current study elucidated the potential treatment mechanisms of Bulao Elixir in AD using network pharmacology, providing a foundation for further clarification of its treatment targets.

2.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; PP2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554334

RESUMO

In this article, we search for polynomial Lyapunov functions beyond the quadratic form to investigate the synchronization problems of nonlinearly coupled complex networks. First, with a relaxed assumption than the quadratic condition, a synchronization criterion is established for nonlinearly coupled networks with asymmetric coupling matrices. Compared with the existing synchronization criteria, our results are less conservative and have a wider application. Second, the synchronization problem for polynomial networks is characterized as the sum-of-squares (SOS) optimization one. In this way, polynomial Lyapunov functions can be obtained efficiently with SOS programming tools. Furthermore, it is shown that the local synchronization of certain nonpolynomial networks can also be analyzed by using the SOS optimization method through the Taylor series expansion. Finally, three numerical examples are presented to verify the effectiveness and less conservatism of our analytical results.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324572

RESUMO

This article is concerned with the tracking control problem for uncertain high-order nonlinear systems in the presence of input saturation. A finite-time control strategy combined with neural state observer and command filtered backstepping is proposed. The neural network models the unknown nonlinear dynamics, the finite-time command filter (FTCF) guarantees the approximation of its output to the derivative of virtual control signal in finite time at the backstepping procedure, and the fraction power-based error compensation system compensates for the filtering errors between FTCF and virtual signal. In addition, the input saturation problem is dealt with by introducing the auxiliary system. Overall, it is shown that the designed controller drives the output tracking error to the desired neighborhood of the origin at a finite time and all the signals in the closed-loop system are bounded at a finite time. Two simulation examples are given to demonstrate the control effectiveness.

4.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 40(2): 253-266, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242391

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of Sini powder for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats and the molecular mechanisms involved. METHODS: A rat model of stress-induced NAFLD was established by a combination of long-term tethering and feeding of a high-fat, high-calorie diet. These rats were then intragastrically administered with either simvastatin, Sini powder, or vehicle for 1 week. The body mass and field test scores for each group were recorded weekly. Serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities, and triglyceride, total cholesterol, and free fatty acid concentrations were measured. Liver tissue histopathology was examined on hematoxylin and eosin-stained paraffin sections and oil red O-stained frozen sections. The hepatic mRNA expression of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), NOD-, LRR-, and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC), and caspase-1 were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The hepatic protein concentrations of NF-κB and NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the serum concentrations of IL-1ß and IL-6 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Compared with the Blank group, rats in the Compound model group showed significant pathologic manifestations of NAFLD, and the expression of NF-κB, NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1ß and IL-6 were significantly higher (all P < 0.01). Both simvastatin and Sini powder significantly ameliorated the NAFLD pathology and the abnormal expression of NF-κB, NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1ß, and IL-6 (all P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Sini powder inhibits the inflammatory response in rats with NAFLD, which is mediated by NF-κB/NLRP3, IL-1ß, and IL-6, reduces the effects of psychological stress, and improves lipid metabolism. Therefore, Sini powder may be effective for the treatment of stress-related NAFLD through multiple mechanisms.

5.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32287031

RESUMO

This article is concerned with the containment control of multiple manipulators with uncertain parameters. A novel distributed adaptive backstepping strategy is given in the finite-time control framework. The finite-time command filters (FTCFs) used in the strategy can avoid the explosion of complexity problem for conventional backstepping. To further improve the control performance, the filtering errors caused by the used FTCFs are removed by using the error compensation mechanism (ECM). The proposed virtual control signal, the control torque, and the adaptive updating law can guarantee the set tracking errors converge to an adjustable neighborhood of the origin in finite time in the presence of uncertain parameters. Because the virtual control signal and ECM only use the local information, the established method is completely distributed. Two simulation examples are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(8): 2467-2476, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031791

RESUMO

Enzymatic browning is a major issue affecting the quality of processed potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). To understand the molecular mechanism of browning, transcriptional analyses were performed by employing potatoes that differed in browning. Coexpression analysis indicated that 9 out of 15 upregulated genes in browning-less groups encoded for potato protease inhibitors (StPIs). In addition, gene otology analysis showed that the enriched terms were mainly involved in protease inhibitors. Overexpression of cysteine StPI 143 and StPI 146 individually reduced browning and lowered protease activities and tyrosine and total free amino acid (FAA) contents, but they could not decrease polyphenol oxidase activity. Moreover, supplementing exogenous tyrosine or total FAAs into transgenic potato mash to wild-type amounts promoted mash browning, browning with total FAAs, more than with tyrosine, resembling wild-type levels. These results implied that cysteine StPIs reduced browning via lowering the accumulation of FAAs in addition to tyrosine. Our findings have enriched the knowledge about the roles and mechanisms of protease inhibitors in regulating enzymatic browning of potato, which provide new ways for controlling potato browning.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteases/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Catecol Oxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Catecol Oxidase/genética , Catecol Oxidase/metabolismo , Cor , Cisteína Proteases/genética , Cisteína Proteases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Solanum tuberosum/enzimologia , Solanum tuberosum/genética
7.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 152: 137-146, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092422

RESUMO

In this study, the antioxidant ability of peanut shell and skin extracts and their effects on the physical and structure properties of starch-chitosan film were investigated. The results showed that the DPPH radical scavenging ability of peanut skin extracts was significantly higher than the peanut shell extracts. This could be due to the rich rutin and 4-O-caffeoulquinic acid existed in the peanut skin extracts. When added the peanut skin and shell extracts into the starch-chitosan film, the apparent viscosity of film forming solution at 100 s-1 decreased. Moreover, water vapor permeability and swelling of film decreased with the addition of peanut skin and shell extracts. Two peanut extracts also increased the color L* and opacity of film. The tensile strength of film increased with the addition of peanut skin extracts, and decreased with peanut shell extracts. The addition of two extracts also resulted in the increase of endothermic temperature of starch-chitosan film. But there were no new peaks appeared in the FTIR image. Only the peaks at 3276 cm-1, 1382 cm-1, 1249 cm-1 shifted to 3273 cm-1, 1385 cm-1 and 1258 cm-1, which implied the peanut shell and skin extracts disturbed the hydrogen bond and vibration of molecular chain in film matrix.

8.
ISA Trans ; 101: 281-294, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964540

RESUMO

In this paper, a new disturbance rejection proportional-integral-derivative (DR-PID) scheme is proposed for a class of minimum phase plants with low relative order. The essential active disturbance rejection (ADR) mechanism that is otherwise hidden in PID control structure has been illuminated and clarified in this paper for the first time.The proposed DR-PID scheme is derived on the basis of a modified disturbance observer to embed the active disturbance rejection mechanism seamlessly in the classical PID structure. Such a DR-PID scheme is implemented in a typical two-degree-of-freedom control structure that contains a standard PID controller and a pre-filter. The internal stability condition is established by investigating the closed-loop poles according to Rouche's theorem. The ensuing internal stability condition provides effective guidelines for DR-PID design that has infinite gain margin with minimum plant information. Five numerical comparisons are performed to illustrate the effectiveness of the new DR-PID scheme. The physical realizability of the proposed DR-PID scheme is also demonstrated by experiments on a magnetic levitation system.

9.
Plant Sci ; 290: 110318, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779898

RESUMO

Plant receptor-like kinase (RLKs) are serine/threonine protein kinases that play fundamental roles in development, innate immunity, and abiotic stress response. Here, we identified an S-domain receptor-like kinase OsESG1 from rice (Oryza sativa), and identified its involvement in early crown root (CR) development and drought response. The OsESG1 kinase domain possessed auto-phosphorylation activity and was able to phosphorylate MBP and His proteins. OsESG1 was expressed ubiquitously in all tissues that were examined, with relatively higher expression in the embryo. And it could be induced to express by treating with PEG, NaCl and ABA. Transgenic plants carrying anti-sense (AS) OsESG1 were generated by knockdown of OsESG1 expression. At the early seedling stage, AS lines had fewer CRs and shorter shoot compared with wild type (WT) plants. IAA flux and the genes' expressions of the auxin responsive and efflux carrier were infected in the AS lines. These results indicated that auxin signaling and polar auxin transport (PAT) were disrupted. The AS lines were more sensitive to osmotic stress compared to WT, and showed excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), lower activities of antioxidant enzymes, and impaired expressions of stress-related genes under PEG treatment. Results above suggested that OsESG1 may regulate CR initiation and development by controlling auxin response and distribution, and participate in stress response by regulating the activities of antioxidants and expressions of stress-regulated genes.


Assuntos
Secas , Oryza/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética
10.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 320, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebral ischemia is the second-leading cause of death and the main cause of permanent adult disabilities worldwide. Qingkailing (QKL) injection, a patented Chinese medicine approved by the China Food and Drug Administration, has been widely used in clinical practice to treat cerebral ischemia in China. The NOD-like receptor pyrin 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is activated in cerebral ischemia and thus, is an effective therapeutic target. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important regulator inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation. METHODS: We investigated the potential of QKL injection to provide neuroprotection after cerebral ischemia in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (210-230 g) were randomly divided into three groups which consist of sham, MCAO and 3 ml/kg QKL. Rats in the QKL group received intraperitoneal injections of 3 ml/kg QKL, while rats in other groups were given saline in the same volumes. After 90 min ischemia and 24 h reperfusion, neurological function, laser speckle imaging, brain infarction, brain water content and brain blood barrier permeability were examined and cell apoptosis at prefrontal cortex were evaluated 24 h after MCAO, and western blot and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was also researched, respectively. RESULTS: Intraperitoneal administration of QKL alleviated neurological deficiencies, cerebral infarction, blood-brain barrier permeability, brain oedema and brain cell apoptosis after MCAO induction. QKL decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1ß, and increased anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-4 and IL-10. Furthermore, QKL activated phosphorylated AMPK, decreased oxidative stress and decreased NLRP3 inflammasome activation. CONCLUSIONS: QKL relieved cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury and suppressed the inflammatory response by inhibiting AMPK-mediated activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. These results suggest that QKL might have potential in treating brain inflammatory response and attenuating the cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Inflamassomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Animais , Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
11.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425061

RESUMO

This paper is concerned with the problem of reachable set estimation for discrete-time Markovian jump neural networks with generally incomplete transition probabilities (TPs). This kind of TP may be exactly known, merely known with lower and upper bounds, or unknown. The aim of this paper is to derive a precise reachable set description for the considered system via the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (LKF) approach. By constructing an augmented LKF, using an equivalent transformation method to deal with the unknown TPs and utilizing the extended reciprocally convex matrix inequality, and the free matrix weighting approach to estimate the forward difference of the constructed LKF, several sufficient conditions that guarantee the existence of an ellipsoidal reachable set are established. Finally, a numerical example with simulation results is given to demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed results.

12.
Polymers (Basel) ; 11(9)2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466330

RESUMO

Using novel biodegradable elastomer particles (BEP) prepared by the technologies of melt polycondensation, emulsification, and irradiation vulcanization, we successfully prepared advanced poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/BEP composites with higher toughness, higher biodegradability, and better cytocompatibility than neat PLA by means of the melt blending technology. The experimental results revealed that the elongation at break of the PLA/BEP composites containing 8 parts per hundred rubber (phr) by weight BEP increased dramatically from 2.9% of neat PLA to 67.1%, and the notched impact strength increased from 3.01 to 7.24 kJ/m2. Meanwhile, the biodegradation rate of the PLA/BEP composites increased dramatically in both soil environment and lipase solution, and the crystallization rate and crystallinity of the PLA/BEP composites increased significantly compared to those of neat PLA. The methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay also showed that the viability of L929 cells in the presence of extracts of PLA/BEP composites was more than 75%, indicating that the PLA/BEP composites were not cytotoxic and had better cytocompatibility than neat PLA. Research on advanced PLA/BEP composites opens up new potential avenues for preparing advanced PLA products, especially for advanced biomedical materials.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354853

RESUMO

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a longstanding history and has gained widespread clinical applications. San Cao Decoction (SCD) is an experience prescription first formulated by Prof. Duzhou Liu. We previously demonstrated its antihypertensive effects; however, to systematically explain the underlying mechanisms of action, we employed a systems pharmacology approach for pharmacokinetic screening and target prediction by constructing protein-protein interaction networks of hypertension-related and putative SCD-related targets, and Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery enrichment analysis. We identified 123 active compounds in SCD and 116 hypertension-related targets. Furthermore, the enrichment analysis of the drug-target network showed that SCD acts in a multidimensional manner to regulate PI3K-Akt-endothelial nitric oxide synthase signaling to maintain blood pressure. Our results highlighted the molecular mechanisms of antihypertensive actions of medicinal herbs at a systematic level.

14.
Neural Regen Res ; 14(11): 1941-1949, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290452

RESUMO

Calculus bovis is commonly used for the treatment of stroke in traditional Chinese medicine. Hyodeoxycholic acid (HDCA) is a bioactive compound extracted from calculus bovis. When combined with cholic acid, baicalin and jas-minoidin, HDCA prevents hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced brain injury by suppressing endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptotic signaling. However, the effects of HDCA in ischemic stroke injury have not yet been studied. Neurovascular unit (NVU) dysfunction occurs in ischemic stroke. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of HDCA on the NVU under ischemic conditions in vitro. We co-cultured primary brain microvascular endothelial cells, neurons and astrocytes using a transwell chamber co-culture system. The NVU was pre-treated with 10.16 or 2.54 µg/mL HDCA for 24 hours before exposure to oxygen-glucose deprivation for 1 hour. The cell counting kit-8 assay was used to detect cell activity. Flow cytometry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling were used to assess apoptosis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1ß, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, and neurotrophic factors, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. Oxidative stress-related factors, such as superoxide dismutase, nitric oxide, malondialdehyde and γ-glutamyltransferase, were measured using kits. Pretreatment with HDCA significantly decreased blood-brain barrier permeability and neuronal apoptosis, significantly increased transendothelial electrical resistance and γ-glutamyltransferase activity, attenuated oxidative stress damage and the release of inflammatory cytokines, and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor expression. Our findings suggest that HDCA maintains NVU morphological integrity and function by modulating inflammation, oxidation stress, apoptosis, and the expression of neurotrophic factors. Therefore, HDCA may have therapeutic potential in the clinical management of ischemic stroke. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Experimental Animals of Beijing University of Chinese Medicine (approval No. BUCM-3-2016040201-2003) in April 2016.

15.
Polymers (Basel) ; 11(7)2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269638

RESUMO

Using the melt polycondensation of five bio-based aliphatic monomers (succinic acid, sebacic acid, fumaric acid, 1,3-propanediol, and 1,4-butanediol), we first synthesized the more flexible and biodegradable polyester diols (BPD) with an average molecular weight of 3825. Then, the BPD was polymerized with excessive 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI). Finally, the molecular chain extender of 1,4-butanediol (BDO) was used to fabricate the biodegradable thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer (BTPU), comprising the soft segment of BPD and the hard segment polymerized by MDI and BDO. Atomic force microscope (AFM) images showed the two-phase structure of the BTPU. The tensile strength of the BTPU containing 60% BPD was about 30 MPa and elongation at break of the BTPU was over 800%. Notably, the BTPU had superior biodegradability in lipase solution and the biodegradation weight loss ratio of the BTPU containing 80% BPD reached 36.7% within 14 days in the lipase solution.

17.
ISA Trans ; 94: 10-16, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078292

RESUMO

In this paper, the event-triggered adaptive control for a class of nonlinear systems in Brunovsky form is considered. The sensors are event-triggered thus the states are transmitted only at the discrete triggering points, which are more efficient in using communication bandwidth. To solve this problem, we design a set of event-triggered conditions and based on which the controller and parameter estimator are designed without the ISS assumption. It is shown that the proposed control schemes guarantee that all the closed-loop signals are semi-globally bounded and the stabilization error converges to the origin asymptotically. The Zeno behavior is also excluded. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of our scheme.

18.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 854: 224-231, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995438

RESUMO

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is involved in the pathogeneses of ischemic stroke (IS). Geniposide (GEN), an iridoid glycoside isolated from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, has been used for the treatment of IS. However, the effects of GEN on the BBB are poorly understood. In vitro disease models of the BBB could be very helpful for the elucidation of underlying mechanisms and the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Therefore, we established an in vitro BBB model composed of primary cultures of brain microvascular endothelial cells and astrocytes. We then used this in vitro model to investigate the effect of GEN on the function of the BBB. Oxygen glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) significantly increased permeability and cell apoptosis in this in vitro BBB model. Notably, GEN pretreatment effectively improved the BBB function by decreasing the permeability of the BBB, promoting expression of tight junction proteins (zonula occludens-1, claudin-5, and occludin) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, increasing transendothelial electrical resistance, mitigating oxidative stress damage and the release of inflammatory cytokines, downregulating the expression levels of matrix metallopeptidases-9 (MMP-9) and MMP-2, and increasing the release of brain derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell derived neurotrophic factor. Therefore, GEN can ameliorate the BBB dysfunction induced by OGD/R conditions through multiple protective mechanisms. The findings suggest that GEN may be an appropriate drug for restoring the barrier function of the BBB.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Iridoides/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Animais , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Barreira Hematoencefálica/patologia , Hipóxia Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citoproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
19.
Water Sci Technol ; 79(5): 911-920, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025970

RESUMO

In this study, the difference in oxidative capacity for removing antibiotics and the mechanism between the Cu(II)/peroxymonosulfate (PMS)/UV and Cu(II)/persulfate (PDS)/UV systems were compared under various conditions. The optimal Cu(II) concentration in the Cu(II)/PMS/UV system was 30 µM, and in the Cu(II)/PDS/UV system was 50 µM. With the PMS or PDS concentration increasing, higher tetracycline (TC) degradation in these two systems occurred. Investigation on the mechanism revealed that •OH was the primary radical in the Cu(II)/PMS/UV system, while SO4-• was the primary radical in the Cu(II)/PDS/UV system where •OH also played an important role. In these two systems, it was observed that Cu(I) was generated by PMS or PDS activated via UV illumination; however, oxygen alone could not promote TC removal. The degradation of TC was increased with the increasing pH level. In addition, TC degradation in the Cu(II)/PMS/UV system followed the pseudo-first-order kinetics model during the entire reaction period. It was found that the TC degradation kinetics in the Cu(II)/PDS/UV system can be divided into two parts (0 to 7 min and 10 to 50 min) and these two parts had good agreement with the pseudo-first-order kinetics model, respectively.


Assuntos
Peróxidos/química , Sulfatos/química , Tetraciclina/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Antibacterianos , Oxirredução , Processos Fotoquímicos , Raios Ultravioleta
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30891079

RESUMO

Liver cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for the greatest proportion of these deaths. Baicalein, a flavonoid isolated from the root of Scutellariae radix, is considered a potential candidate to treat HCC. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. In the present study, a network pharmacological approach was combined with microarray data (GSE95504) acquired from the Gene Expression Omnibus database to reveal the therapeutic mechanisms of action of baicalein at a systemic level. We identified 38 baicalein targets and 76 differently expressed genes (DEGs) following treatment with baicalein, including 55 upregulated and 21 downregulated genes. The DEGs were significantly enriched in the biological functions of apoptosis, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and PERK-mediated unfolded protein response. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network construction and topological screening revealed a core module of PPIs including two baicalein targets, TP53 and CDK1, and two downregulated DEGs, HSPA1A and HSPA1B. Expression and survival data for these genes in the module derived from Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA) were subjected to Kaplan-Meier analysis of overall survival and disease-free survival. Overexpression of CDK1, BRCA1, TUBB, HSPA1A, HSPA1B, and HSPA4 was associated with significantly worse overall survival, while overexpression of CDK1, CLU7, BRCA1, and TUBB was associated with significantly worse disease-free survival. These data suggest that baicalein exerts therapeutic effects against HCC via a PPI network involving TP53, CDK1, HSPA1A, and HSPA1B.

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