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1.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; : e1572, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Male-specifically inherited Y-STRs have been widely used in population genetics and forensic investigations. METHODS: We genotyped and analyzed Y chromosome haplotypes of 408 unrelated Tibeto-Burman-speaking Yi male individuals from Guizhou using Goldeneye® Y-PLUS kit. Population comparisons between the Guizhou Yi and 67 reference groups were performed via the AMOVA, MDS, and phylogenetic relationship reconstruction. RESULTS: A total of 389 alleles and 396 haplotypes could be detected, and the allelic frequencies ranged from 0.0025 to 0.9875. The haplotype diversity, random match probability, and discrimination capacity values were 0.9999, 0.0026, and 0.9900, respectively. The gene diversity (GD) of 36 Y-STR loci in the studied group ranged from 0.0248 (DYS645) to 0.9601 (DYS385a/b). Our newly genotyped Yi samples show a close affinity with other Tibeto-Burman speaking groups in China and Southeast Asia. CONCLUSIONS: The population stratification was almost consistent with the geographic distribution and language-family, both among Chinese and worldwide ethnic groups. Our data may provide useful information for paternal lineage in the forensic application and population genetics, as well as evidence for archaeological and historical research.

2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; : 113823, 2021 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472092

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) were extracted from Panax notoginseng (Burkill) F.H. Chen, a natural product often used as a therapeutic agent in China. PNS has good results in heart failure (HF) treatment. However, its targets and pharmacological mechanisms remain elusive. AIM OF THE STUDY: This research attempted to determine both the effects and mechanisms of PNS involved in AMI treatment, namely, acute myocardial infarction-induced HF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An AMI-induced HF model was generated by LAD ligation in rats. Transcriptome analyses were performed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and pathway enrichment. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) verified the HF-related genes differentially expressed after PNS treatment. Finally, a model of H9C2 cells subjected to OGD/R, which is equivalent to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion, was established to identify the potential mechanism of PNS in the treatment of HF. RESULTS: PNS ameliorated cardiac function and protected against structural alterations of the myocardium in HF rats. Transcriptome analysis showed that PNS upregulated 1749 genes and downregulated 1069 genes in the heart. Functional enrichment analysis demonstrated that the metabolic process was enriched among the DEGs. KEGG pathway analysis revealed that the PPAR signalling pathway was particularly involved in the protective function of PNS. The effects of PNS on the PPAR pathway were validated in vivo; PNS treatment effectively increased the expression of PPARα, RXRα, and PGC1α in rats with AMI-induced HF. In addition, PNS was shown to regulate the expression of downstream energy metabolism-related proteins. Interestingly, the addition of the PPARα inhibitor GW6471 abolished the beneficial effects of PNS. CONCLUSIONS: PNS exerts a cardioprotective function in a multicomponent and multitarget manner. The PPAR signalling pathway is one of the key pathways by which PNS protects against HF, and PPARα is a possible target for HF treatment.

3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 266: 113404, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976970

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Danqi Pill, composed of the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge and the root of Panax notoginseng, is effective in the clinical treatment of myocardial ischemia in coronary heart diseases. A number of studies have shown that autophagy plays an essential role in cardiac function and energy metabolism, and disordered autophagy is associated with the progression of heart failure. However, the effect and mechanism of Danqi pill on autophagy have not been reported yet. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aims to elucidate whether Danqi pill restores autophagy to protect against HF and its potential mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Left anterior descending ligation was established to induce an HF rat model, H2O2-stimulated H9C2 cells model was conducted to clarify the effects and potential mechanism of Danqi pill. In vivo, Danqi pill (1.5 g/kg) were orally administered for four weeks and Fenofibrate (10 mg/kg) was selected as a positive group. In vitro, Danqi pill (10-200 µg/mL) was pre-cultured for 24 h and co-cultured with H2O2 stimulation for 4 h. Importantly, transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence GPF-mRFP-LC3 reporter system were combined to monitor autophagy flux. Furtherly, we utilized Compound C, a specific AMPK inhibitor, to validate whether the autophagy was mediated by AMPK-TSC2-mTOR pathway. RESULTS: Danqi pill significantly improved cardiac function and myocardial injury in HF rats. Intriguingly, Danqi pill potently regulated autophagy mainly by promoting the formation of autophagosomes in vivo. Further results demonstrated that expressions of p-AMPK (P < 0.001) and p-TSC2 (P < 0.001) in cardiac tissue were upregulated by Danqi pill, accompanied with downregulation of p-mTOR (P < 0.01) and p-ULK1(P < 0.01). In parallel with the vivo experiment, in vitro study indicated that Danqi pill dramatically restored autophagy flux and regulated expressions of critical autophagy-related molecules. Finally, utilization of Compound C abrogated the effects of Danqi pill on autophagy flux and the expressions of p-TSC2 (P < 0.05), p-mTOR (P < 0.01) and p-ULK1 (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Danqi pill could improve cardiac function and protect against cardiomyocytes injury by restoring autophagy via regulating the AMPK-TSC2-mTOR signaling pathway.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33149749

RESUMO

Qishen granule (QSG) is a frequently prescribed traditional Chinese medicine formula, which improves heart function in patients with heart failure (HF). However, the cardioprotective mechanisms of QSG have not been fully understood. The current study aimed to elucidate whether the effect of QSG is mediated by ameliorating cytoplasmic calcium (Ca2+) overload in cardiomyocytes. The HF rat model was induced by left anterior descending (LAD) artery ligation surgery. Rats were randomly divided into sham, model, QSG-low dosage (QSG-L) treatment, QSG-high dosage (QSG-H) treatment, and positive drug (diltiazem) treatment groups. 28 days after surgery, cardiac functions were assessed by echocardiography. Levels of norepinephrine (NE) and angiotensin II (AngII) in the plasma were evaluated. Expressions of critical proteins in the calcium signaling pathway, including cell membrane calcium channel CaV1.2, sarcoendoplasmic reticulum ATPase 2a (SERCA2a), calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II (CaMKII), and protein phosphatase calcineurin (CaN), were measured by Western blotting (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Echocardiography showed that left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) and fractional shortening (FS) value significantly decreased in the model group compared to the sham group, and illustrating heart function was severely impaired. Furthermore, levels of NE and AngII in the plasma were dramatically increased. Expressions of CaV1.2, CaMKII, and CaN in the cardiomyocytes were upregulated, and expressions of SERCA2a were downregulated in the model group. After treatment with QSG, both EF and FS values were increased. QSG significantly reduced levels of NE and AngII in the plasma. In particular, QSG prevented cytoplasmic Ca2+ overload by downregulating expression of CaV1.2 and upregulating expression of SERCA2a. Meanwhile, expressions of CaMKII and CaN were inhibited by QSG treatment. In conclusion, QSG could effectively promote heart function in HF rats by restoring cardiac Ca2+ homeostasis. These findings revealed novel therapeutic mechanisms of QSG and provided potential targets in the treatment of HF.

5.
J Cell Mol Med ; 24(18): 10677-10692, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757377

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) represents a major public health burden. Inflammation has been shown to be a critical factor in the progression of HF, regardless of the aetiology. Disappointingly, the majority of clinical trials targeting aspects of inflammation in patients with HF have been largely negative. Many clinical researches demonstrate that danshen has a good efficacy on HF, and however, whether danshen exerts anti-inflammatory effects against HF remains unclear. In our study, the employment of a water extracted and alcohol precipitated of danshen extract attenuated cardiac dysfunction and inflammation response in acute myocardial infarction-induced HF rats. Transcriptome technique and validation results revealed that TLR4 signalling pathway was involved in the anti-inflammation effects of danshen. In vitro, danshen reduced the release of inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Besides, the LPS-stimulated macrophage conditioned media was applied to induce cardiac H9C2 cells injury, which could be attenuated by danshen. Furtherly, knock-down and overexpression of TLR4 were utilized to confirm that danshen ameliorated inflammatory injury via MyD88-dependent TLR4-TRAF6-NF-κB signalling pathway in cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, by utilizing co-immunoprecipitation, danshen was proved to suppress MD2/TLR4 complex formation and MyD88 recruitment. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that danshen ameliorates inflammatory injury by controlling MD2/TLR4-MyD88 complex formation and TLR4-TRAF6-NF-κB signalling pathway in acute myocardial infarction-induced HF.

6.
Vet Med Sci ; 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657053

RESUMO

In all, 12 male water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves and Holstein (Bos taurus) calves of similar age (10 ± 5 days) were selected to explore the mechanism underlying the differences in growth performance and feed conversion ratio between the two species. The experiment contains 33 days of sucking period and 40 days of post-weaning period. Both calves were fed the same amounts of milk in sucking period, and starter and oat grass were supplied ad libitum both before and after the weaning period. Feed intake, growth performance, ruminal fermentation parameters and the ruminal microbial community were measured the during experiment period. Results showed no differences in growth performance and feed intake between the two species in sucking period; however, the feed/gain ratio (F/G) of the water buffalo was higher than that of Holstein calve (p > 0.05). After weaning, the intake of starter by the Holstein calf was higher while intake of grass by the water buffalo was higher resulting in higher growth performance of and a lower F/G ratio for Holstein (p < 0.05). The rumen of Holstein calf showed higher levels of propionate, lower levels of acetate and branched-chain fatty acids than that of water buffalo during both periods (p < 0.05). The rumen of water buffalo showed a higher number of observed bacterial species and Shannon diversity as compared with that of Holstein calf. The members belonging to the bacterial phylum Bacteroides and genus Prevotella in the rumen of Holstein calf were higher (p < 0.05), while Firmicutes and fibrolytic bacteria Ruminobacter and Ruminococcus were lower (p < 0.05) than that of water buffalo. In conclusion, the water buffalo calves demonstrated clearly of having significant population of bacterial community and better fibre digestion than those of cattle calves.

7.
Ann Hum Biol ; 47(6): 541-548, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) are widely used in paternity identification, pedigree investigation, and human population genetic history. AIM: To investigate the Y-STR polymorphisms in a typical Miao population, and explore the genetic differentiation between the Miao population and reference groups. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We detected 36 Y-STRs genotyping in 455 unrelated Miao individuals from Guizhou province, and analysed genetic differentiation between the Miao population and 76 reference groups. RESULTS: A total of 369 alleles were obtained, and the allele frequencies ranged from 0.0022 to 0.9802. In addition, the haplotype diversity, random match probability, and discrimination capacity values were 0.99997, 0.0022, and 0.9934, respectively. Moreover, the genetic relationships between Guizhou Miao and 76 ethnic populations showed that the population stratification was almost consistent with geographic distribution and language-family. CONCLUSIONS: The 36 Y-STR loci in this study have good polymorphism distributions in the Guizhou Miao population, and therefore would be a useful tool in forensic identification and male parentage testing and even pedigree investigation.

8.
Ann Hum Biol ; 47(5): 465-471, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chuanqing is an unrecognised ethnic group in Guizhou, southwest China. The genetic history of the Chuanqing people is hotly debated due to a lack of available genetic data. AIM: To infer the genetic structure and population history of the Chuanqing people and genetic relationships of the Chuanqing with other East Asians. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We collected samples from 14 Chuanqing individuals from Guizhou and genotyped about 690,000 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We used Principal Component Analysis (PCA), ADMIXTURE analysis, and f statistics to infer the population genetic structure and admixture. RESULTS: Chuanqing people show a distinct genetic profile from indigenous Tai-Kadai and Tibeto-Burman speaking populations in southwest China, but they are genetically similar to southern Han Chinese, Miao, She and Tujia populations. The Han Chinese characteristic Y chromosomal lineages reach high frequencies in the Chuanqing. CONCLUSIONS: The genetic formation of the Chuanqing people has been greatly influenced by Han Chinese related populations.

9.
Front Genet ; 11: 360, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32425974

RESUMO

Guizhou province in southwest China has abundant genetic and cultural diversities, but the forensic features and genetic structure of Guizhou populations remain poorly understood due to the sparse sampling of present-day populations. Here, we present 30 insertion/deletion polymorphisms (InDels) data of 591 human individuals collected from four populations, Dong, Yi, Han, and Chuanqing residing in Guizhou. We calculated the forensic parameters of 30 InDel loci and found that this panel meets the efficiency of forensic personal identification based on the high combined power of discrimination, but it could only be used as a complementary tool in the parentage testing because of the lower combined probability of exclusion values. The studied populations are genetically closer related to geographically adjacent or linguistically related populations in southern China, such as the Tai-Kadai and Hmong-Mien speaking groups. The unrecognized ethnic Chuanqing people show an additional genetic affinity with Han Chinese, highlighting the role of possible military immigrations in their origin.

10.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 10(5)2020 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375276

RESUMO

The size-uniformed mesoporous Ag@SiO2 nanospheres' catalysts were prepared in one-pot step via reducing AgNO3 by different types of aldehyde, which could control the size of Ag@SiO2 NPs and exhibit excellent catalytic activity for the hydrogenation of nitrobenzene. The results showed that the Ag core size, monitored by different aldehydes with different reducing abilities, together with the ideal monodisperse core-shell mesoporous structure, was quite important to affect its superior catalytic performances. Moreover, the stability of Ag fixed in the core during reaction for 6 h under 2.0 MPa, 140 °C made this type of Ag@SiO2 catalyst separable and environmentally friendly compared with those conventional homogeneous catalysts and metal NPs catalysts. The best catalyst with smaller Ag cores was prepared by strong reducing agents such as CH2O. The conversion of nitrobenzene can reach 99.9%, the selectivity was 100% and the catalyst maintained its activity after several cycles, and thus, it is a useful novel candidate for the production of aniline.

11.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 39(1): 93, 2020 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Doxorubicin is effective in a variety of solid and hematological malignancies. Unfortunately, clinical application of doxorubicin is limited due to a cumulative dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. Dihydrotanshinone I (DHT) is a natural product from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge with multiple anti-tumor activity and anti-inflammation effects. However, its anti-doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity (DIC) effect, either in vivo or in vitro, has not been elucidated yet. This study aims to explore the anti-inflammation effects of DHT against DIC, and to elucidate the potential regulatory mechanism. METHODS: Effects of DHT on DIC were assessed in zebrafish, C57BL/6 mice and H9C2 cardiomyocytes. Echocardiography, histological examination, flow cytometry, immunochemistry and immunofluorescence were utilized to evaluate cardio-protective effects and anti-inflammation effects. mTOR agonist and lentivirus vector carrying GFP-TFEB were applied to explore the regulatory signaling pathway. RESULTS: DHT improved cardiac function via inhibiting the activation of M1 macrophages and the excessive release of pro-inflammatory cytokines both in vivo and in vitro. The activation and nuclear localization of NF-κB were suppressed by DHT, and the effect was abolished by mTOR agonist with concomitant reduced expression of nuclear TFEB. Furthermore, reduced expression of nuclear TFEB is accompanied by up-regulated phosphorylation of IKKα/ß and NF-κB, while TFEB overexpression reversed these changes. Intriguingly, DHT could upregulate nuclear expression of TFEB and reduce expressions of p-IKKα/ß and p-NF-κB. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that DHT can be applied as a novel cardioprotective compound in the anti-inflammation management of DIC via mTOR-TFEB-NF-κB signaling pathway. The current study implicates TFEB-IKK-NF-κB signaling axis as a previously undescribed, druggable pathway for DIC.

12.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 458, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372956

RESUMO

Aim: Heart failure (HF) post-acute myocardial infarction (AMI) leads to a large number of hospitalizations and deaths worldwide. Danqi pill (DQP) is included in the 2015 national pharmacopoeia and widely applied in the treatment of HF in clinics in China. We examined whether DQP acted on glucose metabolism to protect against HF post-AMI via hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α)/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α co-activator (PGC-1α) pathway. Methods and Results: In this study, left anterior descending (LAD) artery ligation induced HF post-AMI rats and oxygen-glucose deprivation-reperfusion (OGD/R)-induced H9C2 cell model were structured to explore the efficacy and mechanism of DQP. Here we showed that DQP protected the heart against ischemic damage as evidenced by improved cardiac functions and attenuated inflammatory infiltration. The expressions of critical proteins involved in glucose intake and transportation such as GLUT4 and PKM2 were up-regulated, while negative regulatory proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation were attenuated in the treatment of DQP. Moreover, DQP up-regulated NRF1 and TFAM, promoted mitochondrial biogenesis and increased myocardial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level. The protection effects of DQP were significantly compromised by HIF-1α siRNA, suggesting that HIF-1α signaling pathway was the potential target of DQP on HF post-AMI. Conclusions: DQP exhibits the efficacy to improve myocardial glucose metabolism, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and biogenesis by regulating HIF-1α/PGC-1α signaling pathway in HF post-AMI rats.

13.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 257: 112859, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294506

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Danqi Pill (DQP), commonly known as a routinely prescribed traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is composed of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma and effective in treating heart failure (HF) clinically due to their multicompound and multitarget properties. However, the exact active compounds and corresponding targets of DQP are still unknown. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to investigate active compounds and drug targets of DQP in heart failure based on the PPARs-RXRα pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Network pharmacology was used to predict the compound-target interactions of DQP. Left anterior descending (LAD)-induced HF mouse model and oxygen-glucose deprivation/recovery (OGD/R)-induced H9C2 model were constructed to screen the active compounds of DQP. RESULTS: According to BATMAN-TCM (a bioinformatics analysis tool for molecular mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine we previously developed), 24 compounds in DQP were significantly enriched in the peroxisome proliferator activated receptors-retinoid X receptor α (PPARs-RXRα) pathway. Among them, Ginsenoside Rb3 (G-Rb3) had the best pharmacodynamics against OGD/R-induced loss of cell viability, and it was selected to verify the compound-target interaction. In HF mice, G-Rb3 protected cardiac functions and activated the PPARs-RXRα pathway. In vitro, G-Rb3 protected against OGD/R-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, promoted the expressions of RXRα and sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), thereafter improved the intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level. Immunofluorescent staining demonstrated that G-Rb3 could activate RXRα, and facilitate RXRα shifting to the nucleus. HX531, the specific inhibitor of RXRα, could abolish the protective effects of G-Rb3 on RXRα translocation. Consistently, the effect was also confirmed on RXRα siRNA cardiomyocytes model. Moreover, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assays identified that G-Rb3 bound directly to RXRα with the affinity of KD = 10 × 10-5 M. CONCLUSION: By integrating network pharmacology and experimental validation, we identified that as the major active compound of DQP, G-Rb3 could ameliorate ROS-induced energetic metabolism dysfunction, maintain mitochondrial function and facilitate energy metabolism via directly targeting on RXRα. This study provides a promising strategy to dissect the effective patterns for TCM and finally promote the modernization of TCM.

14.
Chin Med ; 15: 21, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32158496

RESUMO

Background: Qishen granules (QSG) has been applied to treat heart failure (HF) for decades. Our previous transcriptomics study has suggested that Qishen granules (QSG) could regulate the pathways of cardiac energy metabolism in HF, but the specific regulatory mechanism has not yet been clarified. This study was to investigate the potential mechanism of QSG in regulating myocardial fatty acid (FA) and glucose metabolism in a rat model of HF. Methods: The model of HF was induced by left anterior descending coronary artery ligation. Cardiac structure and function were assessed by cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and echocardiography. Level of glucose metabolism was non-invasively evaluated by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). Blood lipid levels were determined by enzymatic analysis. The mitochondrial ultrastructure was observed with a transmission electron microscope. The critical proteins related to FA metabolism, glucose metabolism and mitochondrial function were measured by western blotting. The ANOVA followed by a Fisher's LSD test was used for within-group comparisons. Results: QSG ameliorated cardiac functions and attenuated myocardial remodeling in HF model. The levels of serum TC, TG and LDL-C were significantly reduced by QSG. The proteins mediating FA uptake, transportation into mitochondria and ß-oxidation (FAT/CD36, CPT1A, ACADL, ACADM, ACAA2 and SCP2) as well as the upstreaming transcriptional regulators of FA metabolism (PPARα, RXRα, RXRß and RXRγ) were up-regulated by QSG. As to glucose metabolism, QSG inhibited glycolytic activity by decreasing LDHA, while stimulated glucose oxidation by decreasing PDK4. Furthermore, QSG could facilitate tricarboxylic acid cycle, promote the transportation of ATP from mitochondria to cytoplasm and restore the mitochondrial function by increasing SUCLA2, CKMT2 and PGC-1α and decreasing UCP2 simultaneously. Conclusion: QSG improved myocardial energy metabolism through increasing FA metabolism,inhibiting uncoupling of glycolysis from glucose oxidation.

15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 252: 112573, 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945401

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Qishen Granule (QSG) is a prevailing traditional Chinese medicine formula that displays impressive cardiovascular protection in clinical. However, underlying mechanisms by which QSG alleviates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis in myocardial ischemia still remain unknown. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aims to elucidate whether QSG ameliorates ER stress-induced myocardial apoptosis to protect against myocardial ischemia via inositol requiring enzyme 1 (IRE-1)-αBcrystallin (CRYAB) signaling pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Left anterior descending (LAD) ligation induced-ischemic heart model and oxygen-glucose deprivation-reperfusion (OGD/R)-induced H9C2 cells injury model were established to clarify the effects and potential mechanism of QSG. Ethanol extracts of QSG (2.352 g/kg) were orally administered for four weeks and Ginaton Tablets (100 mg/kg) was selected as a positive group in vivo. In vitro, QSG (800 µg/ml) or STF080310 (an inhibitor of IRE-1, 10 µM) was co-cultured under OGD/R in H9C2 cells. Inhibition of IRE-1 was conducted in H9C2 cells to further confirm the exact mechanism. Finally, to define the active components of anti-cardiomyocyte apoptosis in QSG which absorbed into the blood, we furtherly used the OGD/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis model to evaluate the effects. RESULTS: QSG treatment improved cardiac function, ameliorated inflammatory cell infiltration and myocardial apoptosis. Similar effects were revalidated in OGD/R-induced H9C2 injury model. Western blots demonstrated QSG exerted anti-apoptotic effects by regulating apoptosis-related proteins, including increasing Bcl-2 and caspase 3/12, reducing the expressions of Bax and cleaved-caspase 3/12. Mechanistically, the IRE-1-CRYAB signaling pathway was significantly activated by QSG. Co-treatment with STF080310, the IRE-1 specific inhibitor significantly compromised the protective effects of QSG in vitro. Especially, the active components of QSG including Formononetin, Tanshinone IIA, Tanshinone I, Cryptotanshinon and Harpagoside showed significantly anti-apoptosis effects. CONCLUSION: QSG protected against ER stress-induced myocardial apoptosis via the IRE-1-CRYAB pathway, which is proposed as a promising therapeutic target for myocardial ischemia.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Cristalinas/metabolismo , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Isquemia Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Animais , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Cristalinas/genética , Masculino , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Isquemia Miocárdica/metabolismo , Isquemia Miocárdica/patologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Front Pharmacol ; 10: 1399, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31824322

RESUMO

Macrophages play a pivotal role in myocardial remodeling (MR) process which could eventually lead to heart failure. Splenic monocytes could be mobilized and recruited under inflammatory conditions and differentiated into different types of macrophages in heart tissues. Inflammatory M1 macrophages could aggravate tissue damage whereas M2 macrophages could promote angiogenesis and tissue repair process. Unbalanced ratio of M1/M2 macrophages may eventually lead to adverse remodeling. Therefore, regulating differentiation and activities of macrophages are potential strategies for the management of myocardial remodeling. Qishen Granule (QSG) is an effective Chinese medicine for treating heart failure. Our previous studies demonstrated that QSG could inhibit myocardial fibrosis through regulating secretion of cytokines and activation of macrophages. However, the detailed effects of QSG on had not been elucidated yet. In this study, we aimed to explore the effect of QSG on the release of splenic monocytes, the recruitment of monocytes into heart tissues and the differentiation of macrophages under ischemic conditions. Our results showed that QSG could suppress the release of monocytes from the spleen and recruitment of monocytes to heart tissues via inhibiting splenic angiotensin (Ang) II/AT1-cardiac monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1/CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) pathway. The anti-fibrotic effect of QSG was exerted by inhibiting M1 macrophage-activated transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1/Smad3 pathway. Meanwhile, QSG could promote angiogenesis by promoting differentiation of M1 macrophages into M2 macrophages. Our results suggest that compounds of Chinese medicine have synergistic effects on cardiac and splenic organs through regulating differentiation of monocytes/macrophages in inhibiting myocardial remodeling.

17.
Ann Hum Biol ; 46(7-8): 574-580, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795774

RESUMO

Background: Guizhou province is located in southwest China with abundant genetic, linguistic and cultural diversity. The Bouyei is one of the 18 officially recognised minority groups in Guizhou, accounting for about 97% of the total Bouyei population in China. However, the genetic history and forensic characterisation of the Bouyei people is largely unknown due to a lack of genetic data.Aim: We aim to investigate genetic polymorphisms and forensic characterisation of the Guizhou Bouyei population, as well as the relationships between the Bouyei and other East Asian populations.Subjects and methods: We genotyped 19 X-STRs in 188 males and 165 females of Guizhou Bouyei using the AGCU X19 STR Kit. We estimated allele frequencies, forensic parameters and genetic distances between the Bouyei and other East Asian populations. We presented the genetic distances in a phylogenetic tree, an MDS plot and a PCA plot.Results: In Guizhou Bouyei individuals, we observed 216 alleles with corresponding frequencies ranging from 0.0019 to 0.6757. All of the six combined powers of PDm, PDf, MEC Krüger, MEC Kishida, MEC Desmarais and MEC Desmarais in allele diversity and haplotype diversity are larger than 0.99999995. We found genetic affinities among the Bouyei people and their geographical neighbouring populations in Guizhou, such as the Sui, Miao and Han.Conclusions: The highly polymorphic and informative forensic parameters of the 19 X-STRs in Bouyei people show the powerful potential of those markers in forensic identification and parentage tests. The genetic relationships of the Bouyei with other East Asian populations correspond well with geographic affiliations as well as linguistic classifications.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Genótipo , Repetições de Microssatélites , Polimorfismo Genético , China , Feminino , Genética Forense , Humanos , Masculino
18.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224601, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703068

RESUMO

Male-specifically inherited Y-STRs, harboring the features of haploidy and lack of crossing over, have gained considerable attention in population genetics and forensic investigations. Goldeneye® Y-PLUS kit was a recently developed amplification system focused on the genetic diversity of 36 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) in East Asians. However, no population data and corresponding forensic features were reported in China. Here, 36 Y-STRs were first genotyped in 400 unrelated healthy Tai-Kadai-speaking Bouyei male individuals. A total of 371 alleles and 396 haplotypes could be detected, and the allelic frequencies ranged from 0.0025 to 0.9875. The haplotype diversity, random match probability and discrimination capacity values were 0.9999, 0.0026 and 0.9900, respectively. The gene diversity (GD) of 36 Y-STR loci in the studied group ranged from 0.0248 (DYS645) to 0.9601 (DYS385a/b). Population comparisons between the Guizhou Bouyei and 80 reference groups were performed via the AMOVA, MDS, and phylogenetic relationship reconstruction. The results showed that the population stratification was almost consistent with the geographic distribution and language-family, both among Chinese and worldwide ethnic groups. Our newly genotyped Bouyei samples show a close affinity with other Tai-Kadai-speaking groups in China and Southeast Asia. Our data may provide useful information for paternal lineage in the forensic application and population genetics, as well as evidence for archaeological and historical research.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Ciências Forenses , Genética Populacional , Idioma , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Filogenia , China , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Variação Genética , Geografia , Humanos
19.
Ann Hum Biol ; 46(7-8): 606-609, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775532

RESUMO

Background: Miao people are an officially recognised ethnic group living in southwest China, but have seldom been studied genetically, especially with respect to mtDNA data.Aim: To investigate the sequences and haplogroups of the mtDNA control region in a typical Miao population, with the aim of providing a good start for the expansion of the East Asian mtDNA reference database for forensic DNA analysis.Subjects and methods: We analysed 203 Miao individuals, looking at mtDNA control region sequences. We calculated and illustrated the haplotype frequencies, haplogroup distribution and pairwise Fst values between the Miao and six other worldwide populations to explore genetic polymorphisms and population relationships.Results: We observed 121 haplotypes with corresponding frequencies ranging from 0.0049 to 0.0690 in the Miao population. All the samples were assigned to 71 different haplogroups. The haplotype diversity and the random match probability were estimated to be 0.9844 and 0.0204, respectively. The pairwise Fst values and associated p values among seven populations suggest that the Miao population has significant differences to the other six populations, and is relatively isolated compared with them.Conclusions: Our results suggest that frequency estimates for mtDNA haplotypes in Miao ethnic groups should be determined independently rather than being pooled with other populations.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Região de Controle de Locus Gênico , Polimorfismo Genético , China , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos
20.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 120: 109487, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577975

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) leads to an increase in morbidity and mortality globally. Disorders of energy metabolism and apoptosis of cardiomyocytes are critically involved in the progression of HF. Ginsenoside Rb3 (G-Rb3) is a natural product derived from ginseng that has cardio-protective effect. The pharmacological mechanism of G-Rb3 in the treatment of HF remains to be clarified. In this study, we aimed to explore the regulative effects of G-Rb3 on fatty acids oxidation and apoptosis by in vivo and in vitro studies. Myocardial infarction (MI)-induced HF mice model and a cellular H9C2 injury model was induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) stimulation. The results showed that G-Rb3 could protect heart functions in MI-induced HF model. G-Rb3 treatment up-regulated expressions of key enzymes involved in ß-oxidation of fatty acids, including carnitine palmitoyltransterase-1α (CPT-1α), acyl-CoA dehydrogenase long chain (ACADL) and the major mitochondrial deacetylase enzyme sirtuin 3 (SIRT3). The upstream transcriptional regulator, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), was also up-regulated by G-Rb3 treatment. In vitro study demonstrated that G-Rb3 could protect mitochondrial membrane integrity and exert anti-apoptotic effects, in addition to regulating fatty acids oxidation. Impressively, after cells were co-treated with PPARα inhibitor, the regulative effects of G-Rb3 on energy metabolism and apoptosis were abrogated. Our study suggests that G-Rb3 is a promising agent and PPARα is potential target in the management of HF.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Panax/química , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
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