Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 146
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While the associations between individual lifestyle factors and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been previously described, their combined impact on HCC risk is unknown. METHODS: The association of a composite score of healthy lifestyle factors, including body mass index, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, alternative Mediterranean diet, and sleep duration, and HCC risk was examined in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, an on-going prospective cohort study of 63,257 Chinese. Cox proportional hazard regression method was used to estimate hazard ratio (HR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI). Conditional logistic regression method was used to evaluate this composite lifestyle score-HCC risk association among a subset of individuals who tested negative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-hepatitis C antibody. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 17.7 years, 561 participants developed HCC. Individuals with higher composite scores representing healthier lifestyles (range 0-8) were at significantly lower risk of HCC. Compared to the lowest composite score category (0-4), the HRs (95% CIs) for the composite scores of 5, 6, 7, and 8 were 0.67 (0.62-0.85), 0.61 (0.48-0.77), 0.49 (0.37-0.65), and 0.13 (0.06-0.30), respectively (Ptrend<0.0001). A similar inverse association was observed in participants with negative HBsAg and anti-HCV negative serology (HR=0.38, 95% CI: 0.19-0.79; for the highest versus the lowest category of the composite scores (Ptrend=0.001). CONCLUSION: Healthy lifestyles protects against HCC development, especially for individuals without hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C infections. IMPACT: Our current study highlight the importance of a comprehensive lifestyle modification strategy for HCC primary prevention.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interleukin-27 mRNA is highly enriched in the tissue of hepatocellular carcinoma. Overexpression of interleukin-27 gene has been found to increase T cell expression of inhibitory receptors, an immunosuppressive feature in tumor microenvironment, that promotes the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. METHODS: Two parallel case-control studies of hepatocellular carcinoma, each with 100 case-control pairs were conducted in the Singapore Chinese Health Study and the Shanghai Cohort Study to examine the association between serum interleukin-27 levels and risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma. The interleukin-27 concentrations were significantly elevated in sera collected from study participants 4-5 years prior to the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in both cohort studies. RESULTS: Compared with the lowest tertile of interleukin-27, odds ratios (ORs)of hepatocellular carcinoma for the highest tertile of interleukin-27 was 46.08 [95% confidence interval (CI): 4.68-453.86] in the Singapore Chinese Health Study and 19.09 (95% CI: 3.81-95.57) in the Shanghai Cohort Study (both ptrend <0.001). The corresponding ORs in both cohort studies were 42.47 (95% CI: 8.30-217.40) among individuals negative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 242.46 (95% IC: 38.42-1529.01) among those positive for HBsAg compared with the lowest tertile of interleukin-27 and negative HBsAg. CONCLUSION: Levels of interleukin-27 in prediagnostic sera were significantly associated with increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma development. IMPACT: Interleukin-27 through its immunosuppressive property may play a significant role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Serum levels of interleukin-27 may be used as a biomarker for prediction of hepatocellular carcinoma development.

3.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137463

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The workup and longitudinal monitoring for subjects presenting with pulmonary nodules is a pressing clinical problem. A blood-based biomarker panel potentially has utility for identifying subjects at higher risk for harboring a malignant nodule for whom additional work-up would be indicated or subjects at reduced risk for whom imaging based follow-up would be indicated. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether a previously described four-protein biomarker panel, previously reported to improve assessment of lung cancer risk compared to a smoking-based lung cancer risk model, can provide discrimination between benign and malignant indeterminate pulmonary nodules. METHODS: A previously validated multiplex enzyme linked immunoassay was performed on matched case and control samples from each cohort. MEASUREMENTS: The biomarker panel was tested in two case-control cohorts of patients presenting with indeterminate pulmonary nodules at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center and The University of Texas Southwestern. MAIN RESULTS: In both cohorts, the biomarker panel resulted in improved prediction of lung cancer risk over a model based on nodule size alone. Of particular note, the addition of the marker panel to nodule size greatly improved sensitivity at a high specificity in both cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: A four-marker biomarker panel, previously validated to improve lung cancer risk prediction, also shows utility in distinguishing benign from malignant indeterminate pulmonary nodules. Its performance in improving sensitivity at a high specificity indicates potential utility of the marker panel in assessing likelihood of malignancy in otherwise indeterminate nodules.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129230

RESUMO

There is limited research on the effect of dietary quality on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk in populations with relatively high risk of HCC. Using data from Singapore Chinese Health Study, a prospective cohort study, of 63 257 Chinese aged 45 to 74, we assessed four diet-quality index (DQI) scores: the Alternative Health Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010), Alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMED), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and Heathy Diet Indicator (HDI). We identified 561 incident HCC cases among the cohort participants after a mean of 17.6 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to estimate hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for HCC in relation to these DQI scores. Unconditional logistic regression method was used to evaluate the associations between DQIs and HCC risk among a subset of individuals who tested negative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). High scores of AHEI-2010, aMED and DASH, representing higher dietary quality, were associated with lower risk of HCC (all Ptrend < .05). Compared with the lowest quartile, HRs (95% CIs) of HCC for the highest quartile of AHEI-2010, aMED and DASH were 0.69 (0.53-0.89), 0.70 (0.52-0.95) and 0.67 (0.51-0.87), respectively. No significant association between HDI and HCC risk was observed. Among HBsAg-negative individuals, similar inverse associations were observed, and the strongest inverse association was for aMED (HRQ4vsQ1 = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.23-0.94, Ptrend = .10). These findings support the notion that adherence to a healthier diet may lower the risk of HCC, suggesting that dietary modification may be an effective approach for primary prevention of HCC.

5.
Tob Control ; 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the health harms associated with low-intensity smoking in Asians who, on average, smoke fewer cigarettes and start smoking at a later age than their Western counterparts. METHODS: In this pooled analysis of 738 013 Asians from 16 prospective cohorts, we quantified the associations of low-intensity (<5 cigarettes/day) and late initiation (≥35 years) of smoking with mortality outcomes. HRs and 95% CIs were estimated for each cohort by Cox regression. Cohort-specific HRs were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. FINDINGS: During a mean follow-up of 11.3 years, 92 068 deaths were ascertained. Compared with never smokers, current smokers who consumed <5 cigarettes/day or started smoking after age 35 years had a 16%-41% increased risk of all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), respiratory disease mortality and a >twofold risk of lung cancer mortality. Furthermore, current smokers who started smoking after age 35 and smoked <5 cigarettes/day had significantly elevated risks of all-cause (HRs (95% CIs)=1.14 (1.05 to 1.23)), CVD (1.27 (1.08 to 1.49)) and respiratory disease (1.54 (1.17 to 2.01)) mortality. Even smokers who smoked <5 cigarettes/day but quit smoking before the age of 45 years had a 16% elevated risk of all-cause mortality; however, the risk declined further with increasing duration of abstinence. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that smokers who smoked a small number of cigarettes or started smoking later in life also experienced significantly elevated all-cause and major cause-specific mortality but benefited from cessation. There is no safe way to smoke-not smoking is always the best choice.

6.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(7): 1430-1435, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intake of tomato and/or lycopene has been associated with reduced risk of several cancers, but there is no report on the association with risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: The associations of tomato and lycopene consumption with risk of HCC were examined in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a prospective cohort of 63,257 Chinese ages 45 to 74 years at enrollment. Diet was assessed using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate HR and its 95% confidence interval (CI) of HCC with the consumption of tomato and lycopene among all cohort participants, and unconditional logistic regression was used to assess the association by hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity in a nested case-control study. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 17.6 years, 561 incident HCC cases were identified. Higher tomato intake was associated with lower risk of HCC after adjustment for potential confounders (P trend < 0.001). Compared with the lowest quartile, HRs (95% CIs) of HCC for the second, third, and fourth quartile of tomato intake were 0.70 (0.56-0.88), 0.73 (0.58-0.92), and 0.63 (0.49-0.81). Among HBsAg-negative individuals, the inverse association remained (P trend = 0.03). There was no association between lycopene intake and HCC risk (P trend = 0.54). CONCLUSIONS: Tomato intake may offer protection against the development of HCC, particularly among individuals without chronic infection with hepatitis B virus. IMPACT: Tomato intake is a low-cost preventative measure against HCC that may help reduce risk due to increasing rates of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

7.
Int J Cancer ; 147(7): 1917-1927, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222976

RESUMO

Deficiencies in methyl donor status may render DNA methylation changes and DNA damage, leading to carcinogenesis. Epidemiological studies reported that higher dietary intake of choline is associated with lower risk of pancreatic cancer, but no study has examined the association of serum choline and its metabolites with risk of pancreatic cancer. Two parallel case-control studies, one nested within the Shanghai Cohort Study (129 cases and 258 controls) and the other within the Singapore Chinese Health Study (58 cases and 104 controls), were conducted to evaluate the associations of baseline serum concentrations of choline, betaine, methionine, total methyl donors (i.e., sum of choline, betaine and methionine), dimethylglycine and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) with pancreatic cancer risk. In the Shanghai cohort, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of pancreatic cancer for the highest quartile of choline, betaine, methionine, total methyl donors and TMAO were 0.27 (0.11-0.69), 0.57 (0.31-1.05), 0.50 (0.26-0.96), 0.37 (0.19-0.73) and 2.81 (1.37-5.76), respectively, compared to the lowest quartile. The corresponding figures in the Singapore cohort were 0.85 (0.23-3.17), 0.50 (0.17-1.45), 0.17 (0.04-0.68), 0.33 (0.10-1.16) and 1.42 (0.50-4.04). The inverse associations of methionine and total methyl donors including choline, betaine and methionine with pancreatic cancer risk in both cohorts support that DNA repair and methylation play an important role against the development of pancreatic cancer. In the Shanghai cohort, TMAO, a gut microbiota-derived metabolite of dietary phosphatidylcholine, may contribute to higher risk of pancreatic cancer, suggesting a modifying role of gut microbiota in the dietary choline-pancreatic cancer risk association.

8.
Int J Cancer ; 146(9): 2394-2405, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276202

RESUMO

Cell-mediated immune suppression may play an important role in lung carcinogenesis. We investigated the associations for circulating levels of tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenine:tryptophan ratio (KTR), quinolinic acid (QA) and neopterin as markers of immune regulation and inflammation with lung cancer risk in 5,364 smoking-matched case-control pairs from 20 prospective cohorts included in the international Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium. All biomarkers were quantified by mass spectrometry-based methods in serum/plasma samples collected on average 6 years before lung cancer diagnosis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for lung cancer associated with individual biomarkers were calculated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for circulating cotinine. Compared to the lowest quintile, the highest quintiles of kynurenine, KTR, QA and neopterin were associated with a 20-30% higher risk, and tryptophan with a 15% lower risk of lung cancer (all ptrend < 0.05). The strongest associations were seen for current smokers, where the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of lung cancer for the highest quintile of KTR, QA and neopterin were 1.42 (1.15-1.75), 1.42 (1.14-1.76) and 1.45 (1.13-1.86), respectively. A stronger association was also seen for KTR and QA with risk of lung squamous cell carcinoma followed by adenocarcinoma, and for lung cancer diagnosed within the first 2 years after blood draw. This study demonstrated that components of the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway with immunomodulatory effects are associated with risk of lung cancer overall, especially for current smokers. Further research is needed to evaluate the role of these biomarkers in lung carcinogenesis and progression.

9.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 13(1): 91-100, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771940

RESUMO

2-Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) is a natural product found as a conjugate in cruciferous vegetables. It has been reported to have preventative properties against lung cancer and to inhibit metabolic activation of tobacco carcinogens. In this study, we evaluated the ability of PEITC to influence the metabolism of the human carcinogen 1,3-butadiene in current smokers in a phase II clinical trial with a crossover design. Urinary mercapturic acids of 1,3-butadiene were quantified at baseline and during PEITC treatment. Seventy-nine smokers were randomly assigned to one of two arms: PEITC followed by placebo or placebo followed by PEITC. During the 1-week treatment period, each subject took PEITC (10 mg in 1 mL of olive oil, 4 times per day). There was a 1-week washout period between the PEITC and placebo periods. Oral ingestion of PEITC increased urinary levels of BD-mercapturic acids (MHBMA and DHBMA) by 11.1% and 3.7%, respectively, but these increases were not statistically significant (P = 0.17 and 0.64, respectively). A much stronger effect was observed among subjects with the null genotype of both GSTM1 and GSTT1: in these individuals, PEITC increased urinary levels of MHBMA by 58.7% (P = 0.004) and 90.0% (P = 0.001), respectively, but did not have a significant effect on urinary DHBMA. These results reveal a potentially protective effect of PEITC treatment with respect to the detoxification of 1,3-butadiene in cigarette smokers, specifically in those null for GSTT1, and provide further evidence in support of stronger chemopreventive effects from consumption of dietary isothiocyanates in these individuals.

10.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(1): 127-132, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cotinine is a metabolite of nicotine. Serum and urinary cotinine are validated biomarkers for cigarette exposure. Their performance for lung cancer risk prediction has not been simultaneously examined in epidemiologic studies. METHODS: A nested case-control study, including 452 incident lung cancer cases and 452 smoking-matched controls in the Shanghai cohort study, was conducted. Mass spectrometry-based methods were used to quantify cotinine in serum and urine samples collected from current smokers at baseline, on average 10 years before cancer diagnosis of cases. Logistic regression was used to estimate ORs, 95% confidence intervals (CI), and AUC ROC for lung cancer associated with higher levels of cotinine. RESULTS: Serum and urinary cotinine levels were significantly higher in lung cancer cases than controls. Compared with the lowest quartile serum cotinine (≤0.40 nmol/mL), the OR of lung cancer for smokers in the highest quartiles (>1.39 nmol/mL) was 5.46 (95% CI, 3.38-8.81). Similarly, the OR was 5.49 (95% CI, 3.39-8.87) for highest (>16.38 nmol/mg creatinine) relative to the lowest quartile of urinary total cotinine (≤4.11 nmol/mg creatinine). A risk prediction model yielded an AUC of 0.72 (95% CI, 0.69-0.75) for serum cotinine and 0.72 (95% CI, 0.69-0.75) for urinary total cotinine combined with smoking history. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary and serum cotinine have the same performance in prediction of lung cancer risk for current smokers. IMPACT: Urinary cotinine is a noninvasive biomarker that can replace serum cotinine in risk prediction of future lung cancer risk for current smokers.

11.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 839-849, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001807

RESUMO

Specific organochlorines (OCs) have been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) with varying degrees of evidence. These associations have not been evaluated in Asia, where the high exposure and historical environmental contamination of certain OC pesticides (e.g., dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane [DDT], hexachlorocyclohexane [HCH]) are different from Western populations. We evaluated NHL risk and prediagnostic blood levels of OC pesticides/metabolites and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in a case-control study of 167 NHL cases and 167 controls nested within three prospective cohorts in Shanghai and Singapore. Conditional logistic regression was used to analyze lipid-adjusted OC levels and NHL risk. Median levels of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), the primary DDT metabolite, and ß-HCH were up to 12 and 65 times higher, respectively, in samples from the Asian cohorts compared to several cohorts in the United States and Norway. An increased risk of NHL was observed among those with higher ß-HCH levels both overall (3rd vs. 1st tertile OR = 1.8, 95%CI = 1.0-3.2; ptrend = 0.049) and after excluding cases diagnosed within 2 years of blood collection (3rd vs. 1st tertile OR = 2.0, 95%CI = 1.1-3.9; ptrend = 0.03), and the association was highly consistent across the three cohorts. No significant associations were observed for other OCs, including p,p'-DDE. Our findings provide support for an association between ß-HCH blood levels and NHL risk. This is a concern because substantial quantities of persistent, toxic residues of HCH are present in the environment worldwide. Although there is some evidence that DDT is associated with NHL, our findings for p,p'-DDE do not support an association.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/sangue , Linfoma não Hodgkin/epidemiologia , Praguicidas/sangue , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/efeitos adversos , Linfoma não Hodgkin/sangue , Linfoma não Hodgkin/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Singapura/epidemiologia
12.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tea and coffee are widely consumed beverages. Tea flavonoids have been shown to inhibit lung tumorigenesis using in vitro and in vivo models. Conversely, coffee contains complex mixtures of biochemically active compounds, some of which may have genotoxic and mutagenic properties. However, previous epidemiologic studies have shown inconsistent results on tea and coffee in relation to lung cancer risk. METHODS: The Singapore Chinese Health Study is a population-based prospective cohort of 63,257 Singaporean Chinese men and women, with an average of 17.7 years of follow-up. Information on tea and coffee consumption and other lifestyle factors was collected through in-person interviews at baseline. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations with adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS: There were 1486 incident lung cancer cases. Compared to non-daily coffee drinkers, HRs (95% CIs) of lung cancer risk for those consuming one, two, and three or more cups of coffee per day were 1.18 (1.02-1.36), 1.21 (1.05-1.40), and 1.32 (1.08-1.62) respectively (P for trend = 0.0034). The highest category of black tea consumption (at least 2 cups per day) was inversely associated with risk of lung cancer [HR (95% CI) = 0.73 (0.53-0.99)], particularly among men [HR (95% CI) = 0.67 (0.47-0.95)], compared to less-than-weekly black tea drinkers, although the interaction by sex was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Coffee beverage consumption was associated with higher risk of developing lung cancer. On the other hand, black tea intake was associated with lower risk of lung cancer among men in our cohort, and further studies are needed to confirm this association.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861047

RESUMO

The combination of poor diet and exposure to secondhand smoke may increase hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, but few studies have explored this interaction. We explored an interaction among 574 never-smoking adults from the Singapore Chinese Health Study. At baseline (age 59 ± 8 years), intakes of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin C, vitamin E and fiber were estimated using a modified food frequency questionnaire. At follow-up (age 64 ± 9 years), HbA1c and cotinine were measured. A product term between cotinine (above or below the median value) and each nutrient (high or low intake) was included in separate linear regression models with HbA1c as the outcome. HbA1c among those with high cotinine and low omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids intakes were higher than would be expected due to the individual effects alone (p-for-interaction = 0.05). Among those with lower intakes of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, high cotinine levels were associated with 0.54% higher HbA1c levels (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.02, 1.06). Conversely, among those with higher intakes of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, HbA1c differ not differ by exposure (-0.09%; 95% CI: -0.45, 0.30). No evidence of interaction was observed for other nutrients. Diets high in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may ameliorate secondhand smoke-induced increases in HbA1c.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Cotinina/urina , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Singapura , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem
14.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(10)2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554294

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Recent studies have shown that low skeletal muscle mass can contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease through insulin resistance. However, the association between muscle mass/strength and hepatic fat content remains unclear in postmenopausal women. Methods: In this study, we assessed the associations between muscle mass/strength and various severities of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Using single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, 96 postmenopausal women between the ages of 50 and 65 were divided into four groups (G0-G3) by hepatic fat content: G0 (hepatic fat content <5%, n = 20), G1 (5% ≤ hepatic fat content < 10%, n = 27), G2 (10% ≤ hepatic fat content < 25%, n = 31), and G3 (hepatic fat content ≥25%, n = 18). Muscle mass indexes were estimated as skeletal muscle index (SMI)% (total lean mass/weight × 100) and appendicular skeletal muscular mass index (ASM)% (appendicular lean mass/weight × 100) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Maximal isometric voluntary contraction of the handgrip, elbow flexors, and knee extensors was measured using an adjustable dynamometer chair. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and follicle-stimulating hormones were assessed in venous blood samples. Results: The results showed negative correlations between hepatic fat content and SMI% (r = -0.42, p < 0.001), ASM% (r = -0.29, p = 0.005), maximal voluntary force of grip (r = -0.22, p = 0.037), and knee extensors (r = -0.22, p = 0.032). Conclusions: These significant correlations almost remained unchanged even after controlling for insulin resistance. In conclusion, negative correlations exist between muscle mass/strength and the progressed severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease among post-menopausal women, and the correlations are independent of insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/fisiopatologia , Pós-Menopausa/fisiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Idoso , Composição Corporal , Cotovelo/fisiologia , Feminino , Força da Mão , Humanos , Contração Isométrica , Joelho/fisiologia , Fígado , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Sarcopenia/etiologia
15.
BMJ Open ; 9(8): e026225, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444178

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the association of educational level and risk of death from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer among Asian populations. DESIGN: A pooled analysis of 15 population-based cohort studies. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 694 434 Asian individuals from 15 prospective cohorts within the Asia Cohort Consortium. INTERVENTIONS: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: HRs and 95% CIs for all-cause mortality, as well as for CVD-specific mortality and cancer-specific mortality. RESULTS: A total of 694 434 participants (mean age at baseline=53.2 years) were included in the analysis. During a mean follow-up period of 12.5 years, 103 023 deaths were observed, among which 33 939 were due to cancer and 34 645 were due to CVD. Higher educational levels were significantly associated with lower risk of death from all causes compared with a low educational level (≤primary education); HRs and 95% CIs for secondary education, trade/technical education and ≥university education were 0.88 (0.85 to 0.92), 0.81 (0.73 to 0.90) and 0.71 (0.63 to 0.80), respectively (ptrend=0.002). Similarly, HRs (95% CIs) were 0.93 (0.89 to 0.97), 0.86 (0.78 to 0.94) and 0.81 (0.73 to 0.89) for cancer death, and 0.88 (0.83 to 0.93), 0.77 (0.66 to 0.91) and 0.67 (0.58 to 0.77) for CVD death with increasing levels of education (both ptrend <0.01). The pattern of the association among East Asians and South Asians was similar compared with ≤primary education; HR (95% CI) for all-cause mortality associated with ≥university education was 0.72 (0.63 to 0.81) among 539 724 East Asians (Chinese, Japanese and Korean) and 0.61 (0.54 to 0.69) among 154 710 South Asians (Indians and Bangladeshis). CONCLUSION: Higher educational level was associated with substantially lower risk of death among Asian populations.

16.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0221697, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465482

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Telomeres and telomerase play important role in maintaining chromosome integrity and genomic stability. Recent epidemiologic data showed inconsistent findings which suggested that both short and long leukocyte telomeres could be associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer. We prospectively examined the association between telomere length and pancreatic cancer risk in a population-based cohort study. METHODS: The Singapore Chinese Health Study recruited 63,257 Chinese aged 45 to 74 years from 1993 to 1998 in Singapore. Relative telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes was quantified using a validated monochrome multiplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction method in 26,540 participants, including 116 participants who later developed pancreatic cancer after an average of 13 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazard regression method was used to calculate hazard ratio (HR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) of pancreatic cancer risk associated with telomere length, with adjustment for confounding factors. RESULTS: Longer telomeres were significantly associated with higher risk of pancreatic cancer (Ptrend = 0.02). Compared with lowest quartile, subjects with highest quartile of telomere length had an HR of 2.18 (95% CI: 1.25-3.80) for developing pancreatic cancer. In stratified analysis, this association remained among pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients but not among pancreatic non-adenocarcinoma patients. In continuous scale, the HRs and 95% CIs were 3.08 (1.17-8.11) for adenocarcinoma patients and 1.47 (0.43-5.06) for non-adenocarcinoma patients. The HRs and 95% CIs of the highest quartile of telomere length, compared with the lowest quartile, for adenocarcinoma and non-adenocarcinoma were 2.50 (1.22-5.13) and 1.63 (0.66-4.03), respectively. The length of follow-up from the collection of blood for the measurement of telomere length to the diagnosis of cancer (median = 8.0, range: from 5.0 months to 16.2 years) had no significant impact on the association between telomere length and pancreatic cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrates that longer telomeres are associated with increased risk of overall pancreatic cancer.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/etiologia , Homeostase do Telômero , Telômero/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Vigilância da População , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Singapura/epidemiologia
18.
Front Physiol ; 10: 735, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263428

RESUMO

Ovariectomy disrupts estrogen production and homeostasis. However, whether exercise training (ET) could counteract the ovariectomy-induced effect on muscular autophagy has remained elusive. This study examined muscular autophagy in ovariectomized (OVX) rats following 8 weeks of swimming ET. Here, 40 6-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: sham-operated control (Sham), OVX control (OVX), OVX with 60-min ET (OVX-60ET), 90-min ET (OVX-90ET), and 120-min ET (OVX-120ET) for 6 days/week. According to the results of Western blotting, the expression levels of autophagy-related proteins in the OVX gastrocnemius muscle, including mammalian target of rapamycin, uncoordinated 51-like kinase 1, Beclin-1, autophagy-related gene (Atg-7), and microtubule-associated protein light chains 3 were significantly decreased (all P < 0.05), while there was an elevation on the p62 level. ET appreciably mitigated the OVX-induced negative effects on muscle quality and the autophagy pathway, which seemed to be dependent on ET volume. The most optimal outcomes were observed in the OVX-90ET group. The OVX-120 group had an adversely augmented catabolic process associated with gastrocnemius muscle atrophy. In conclusion, the expression levels of autophagy proteins are decreased in OVX rats, which can be appreciably mitigated following 8 weeks of swimming ET.

19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2491, 2019 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171785

RESUMO

Genetic factors underlying leukocyte telomere length (LTL) may provide insights into telomere homeostasis, with direct links to disease susceptibility. Genetic evaluation of 23,096 Singaporean Chinese samples identifies 10 genome-wide loci (P < 5 × 10-8). Several of these contain candidate genes (TINF2, PARP1, TERF1, ATM and POT1) with potential roles in telomere biology and DNA repair mechanisms. Meta-analyses with additional 37,505 European individuals reveals six more genome-wide loci, including associations at MPHOSPH6, NKX2-3 and TYMS. We demonstrate that longer LTL associates with protection against respiratory disease mortality [HR = 0.854(0.804-0.906), P = 1.88 × 10-7] in the Singaporean Chinese samples. We further show that the LTL reducing SNP rs7253490 associates with respiratory infections (P = 7.44 × 10-4) although this effect may not be strongly mediated through LTL. Our data expands on the genetic basis of LTL and may indicate on a potential role of LTL in immune competence.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Homeostase do Telômero/genética , Telômero/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Respiratórias/genética , Singapura , Adulto Jovem
20.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(8): 847-857, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154549

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Soy isoflavones and tea catechins have immunomodulating and chemopreventive properties relevant for cervical carcinogenesis; however, there are limited epidemiologic data on the relationship of soy and tea consumption with cervical cancer risk. The aim of our study was to examine effects of soy and tea intake on cervical cancer risk among Singapore Chinese women. METHODS: The association between intake of soy and tea drinking and cervical cancer risk was investigated in a prospective, population-based cohort of 30,744 Chinese women in Singapore with an average 16.7 years of follow-up and 312 incident cervical cancer cases. Multivariable proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of cervical cancer associated with intake levels of soy and tea. RESULTS: High intake of soy alone was associated with a statistically borderline significant 20% reduced risk of cervical cancer (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.61, 1.05) while green tea alone was not (HR 0.97, 95% CI: 0.76, 1.22). In stratified analysis, high intake of soy was associated with a statistically significant decrease in cervical cancer risk among green tea drinkers (HR 0.43; 95% CI 0.28, 0.69) but not among non-drinkers of green tea. The difference in the soy-cervical cancer risk association between green tea drinkers and non-drinkers was statistically significant (p for interaction = 0.004). This inverse association between soy intake and cervical cancer risk remained after further adjustment for human papillomavirus serostatus. Black tea consumption was not associated with cervical cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that a protective effect of soy against cervical cancer development may depend on green tea constituents.


Assuntos
Alimentos de Soja , Chá , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco , Singapura/epidemiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA