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1.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(10)2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554294

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Recent studies have shown that low skeletal muscle mass can contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease through insulin resistance. However, the association between muscle mass/strength and hepatic fat content remains unclear in postmenopausal women. Methods: In this study, we assessed the associations between muscle mass/strength and various severities of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Using single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, 96 postmenopausal women between the ages of 50 and 65 were divided into four groups (G0-G3) by hepatic fat content: G0 (hepatic fat content <5%, n = 20), G1 (5% ≤ hepatic fat content < 10%, n = 27), G2 (10% ≤ hepatic fat content < 25%, n = 31), and G3 (hepatic fat content ≥25%, n = 18). Muscle mass indexes were estimated as skeletal muscle index (SMI)% (total lean mass/weight × 100) and appendicular skeletal muscular mass index (ASM)% (appendicular lean mass/weight × 100) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Maximal isometric voluntary contraction of the handgrip, elbow flexors, and knee extensors was measured using an adjustable dynamometer chair. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and follicle-stimulating hormones were assessed in venous blood samples. Results: The results showed negative correlations between hepatic fat content and SMI% (r = -0.42, p < 0.001), ASM% (r = -0.29, p = 0.005), maximal voluntary force of grip (r = -0.22, p = 0.037), and knee extensors (r = -0.22, p = 0.032). Conclusions: These significant correlations almost remained unchanged even after controlling for insulin resistance. In conclusion, negative correlations exist between muscle mass/strength and the progressed severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease among post-menopausal women, and the correlations are independent of insulin resistance.

2.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0221697, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465482

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Telomeres and telomerase play important role in maintaining chromosome integrity and genomic stability. Recent epidemiologic data showed inconsistent findings which suggested that both short and long leukocyte telomeres could be associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer. We prospectively examined the association between telomere length and pancreatic cancer risk in a population-based cohort study. METHODS: The Singapore Chinese Health Study recruited 63,257 Chinese aged 45 to 74 years from 1993 to 1998 in Singapore. Relative telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes was quantified using a validated monochrome multiplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction method in 26,540 participants, including 116 participants who later developed pancreatic cancer after an average of 13 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazard regression method was used to calculate hazard ratio (HR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) of pancreatic cancer risk associated with telomere length, with adjustment for confounding factors. RESULTS: Longer telomeres were significantly associated with higher risk of pancreatic cancer (Ptrend = 0.02). Compared with lowest quartile, subjects with highest quartile of telomere length had an HR of 2.18 (95% CI: 1.25-3.80) for developing pancreatic cancer. In stratified analysis, this association remained among pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients but not among pancreatic non-adenocarcinoma patients. In continuous scale, the HRs and 95% CIs were 3.08 (1.17-8.11) for adenocarcinoma patients and 1.47 (0.43-5.06) for non-adenocarcinoma patients. The HRs and 95% CIs of the highest quartile of telomere length, compared with the lowest quartile, for adenocarcinoma and non-adenocarcinoma were 2.50 (1.22-5.13) and 1.63 (0.66-4.03), respectively. The length of follow-up from the collection of blood for the measurement of telomere length to the diagnosis of cancer (median = 8.0, range: from 5.0 months to 16.2 years) had no significant impact on the association between telomere length and pancreatic cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrates that longer telomeres are associated with increased risk of overall pancreatic cancer.

3.
BMJ Open ; 9(8): e026225, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444178

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the association of educational level and risk of death from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer among Asian populations. DESIGN: A pooled analysis of 15 population-based cohort studies. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 694 434 Asian individuals from 15 prospective cohorts within the Asia Cohort Consortium. INTERVENTIONS: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: HRs and 95% CIs for all-cause mortality, as well as for CVD-specific mortality and cancer-specific mortality. RESULTS: A total of 694 434 participants (mean age at baseline=53.2 years) were included in the analysis. During a mean follow-up period of 12.5 years, 103 023 deaths were observed, among which 33 939 were due to cancer and 34 645 were due to CVD. Higher educational levels were significantly associated with lower risk of death from all causes compared with a low educational level (≤primary education); HRs and 95% CIs for secondary education, trade/technical education and ≥university education were 0.88 (0.85 to 0.92), 0.81 (0.73 to 0.90) and 0.71 (0.63 to 0.80), respectively (ptrend=0.002). Similarly, HRs (95% CIs) were 0.93 (0.89 to 0.97), 0.86 (0.78 to 0.94) and 0.81 (0.73 to 0.89) for cancer death, and 0.88 (0.83 to 0.93), 0.77 (0.66 to 0.91) and 0.67 (0.58 to 0.77) for CVD death with increasing levels of education (both ptrend <0.01). The pattern of the association among East Asians and South Asians was similar compared with ≤primary education; HR (95% CI) for all-cause mortality associated with ≥university education was 0.72 (0.63 to 0.81) among 539 724 East Asians (Chinese, Japanese and Korean) and 0.61 (0.54 to 0.69) among 154 710 South Asians (Indians and Bangladeshis). CONCLUSION: Higher educational level was associated with substantially lower risk of death among Asian populations.

5.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276202

RESUMO

Cell-mediated immune suppression may play an important role in lung carcinogenesis. We investigated the associations for circulating levels of tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenine:tryptophan ratio (KTR), quinolinic acid (QA) and neopterin as markers of immune regulation and inflammation with lung cancer risk in 5,364 smoking-matched case-control pairs from 20 prospective cohorts included in the international Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium. All biomarkers were quantified by mass spectrometry-based methods in serum/plasma samples collected on average 6 years before lung cancer diagnosis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for lung cancer associated with individual biomarkers were calculated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for circulating cotinine. Compared to the lowest quintile, the highest quintiles of kynurenine, KTR, QA and neopterin were associated with a 20-30% higher risk, and tryptophan with a 15% lower risk of lung cancer (all ptrend < 0.05). The strongest associations were seen for current smokers, where the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of lung cancer for the highest quintile of KTR, QA and neopterin were 1.42 (1.15-1.75), 1.42 (1.14-1.76) and 1.45 (1.13-1.86), respectively. A stronger association was also seen for KTR and QA with risk of lung squamous cell carcinoma followed by adenocarcinoma, and for lung cancer diagnosed within the first 2 years after blood draw. This study demonstrated that components of the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway with immunomodulatory effects are associated with risk of lung cancer overall, especially for current smokers. Further research is needed to evaluate the role of these biomarkers in lung carcinogenesis and progression.

6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2491, 2019 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171785

RESUMO

Genetic factors underlying leukocyte telomere length (LTL) may provide insights into telomere homeostasis, with direct links to disease susceptibility. Genetic evaluation of 23,096 Singaporean Chinese samples identifies 10 genome-wide loci (P < 5 × 10-8). Several of these contain candidate genes (TINF2, PARP1, TERF1, ATM and POT1) with potential roles in telomere biology and DNA repair mechanisms. Meta-analyses with additional 37,505 European individuals reveals six more genome-wide loci, including associations at MPHOSPH6, NKX2-3 and TYMS. We demonstrate that longer LTL associates with protection against respiratory disease mortality [HR = 0.854(0.804-0.906), P = 1.88 × 10-7] in the Singaporean Chinese samples. We further show that the LTL reducing SNP rs7253490 associates with respiratory infections (P = 7.44 × 10-4) although this effect may not be strongly mediated through LTL. Our data expands on the genetic basis of LTL and may indicate on a potential role of LTL in immune competence.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Homeostase do Telômero/genética , Telômero/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Respiratórias/genética , Singapura , Adulto Jovem
7.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(8): 847-857, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154549

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Soy isoflavones and tea catechins have immunomodulating and chemopreventive properties relevant for cervical carcinogenesis; however, there are limited epidemiologic data on the relationship of soy and tea consumption with cervical cancer risk. The aim of our study was to examine effects of soy and tea intake on cervical cancer risk among Singapore Chinese women. METHODS: The association between intake of soy and tea drinking and cervical cancer risk was investigated in a prospective, population-based cohort of 30,744 Chinese women in Singapore with an average 16.7 years of follow-up and 312 incident cervical cancer cases. Multivariable proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of cervical cancer associated with intake levels of soy and tea. RESULTS: High intake of soy alone was associated with a statistically borderline significant 20% reduced risk of cervical cancer (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.61, 1.05) while green tea alone was not (HR 0.97, 95% CI: 0.76, 1.22). In stratified analysis, high intake of soy was associated with a statistically significant decrease in cervical cancer risk among green tea drinkers (HR 0.43; 95% CI 0.28, 0.69) but not among non-drinkers of green tea. The difference in the soy-cervical cancer risk association between green tea drinkers and non-drinkers was statistically significant (p for interaction = 0.004). This inverse association between soy intake and cervical cancer risk remained after further adjustment for human papillomavirus serostatus. Black tea consumption was not associated with cervical cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that a protective effect of soy against cervical cancer development may depend on green tea constituents.


Assuntos
Alimentos de Soja , Chá , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco , Singapura/epidemiologia
8.
Cancer Res ; 79(15): 3973-3982, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113819

RESUMO

Biliary tract cancers are rare but highly fatal with poorly understood etiology. Identifying potentially modifiable risk factors for these cancers is essential for prevention. Here we estimated the relationship between adiposity and cancer across the biliary tract, including cancers of the gallbladder (GBC), intrahepatic bile ducts (IHBDC), extrahepatic bile ducts (EHBDC), and the ampulla of Vater (AVC). We pooled data from 27 prospective cohorts with over 2.7 million adults. Adiposity was measured using baseline body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip, and waist-to-height ratios. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for sex, education, race, smoking, and alcohol consumption with age as the time metric and the baseline hazard stratified by study. During 37,883,648 person-years of follow-up, 1,343 GBC cases, 1,194 EHBDC cases, 784 IHBDC cases, and 623 AVC cases occurred. For each 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI, there were risk increases for GBC (HR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.19-1.36), IHBDC (HR = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.21-1.45), and EHBDC (HR = 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03-1.23), but not AVC (HR = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.88-1.11). Increasing waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio were associated with GBC and IHBDC but not EHBDC or AVC. These results indicate that adult adiposity is associated with an increased risk of biliary tract cancer, particularly GBC and IHBDC. Moreover, they provide evidence for recommending weight maintenance programs to reduce the risk of developing these cancers. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings identify a correlation between adiposity and biliary tract cancers, indicating that weight management programs may help minimize the risk of these diseases.

9.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco and alcohol are well-established risk factors for numerous cancers, yet their relationship to biliary tract cancers remains unclear. METHODS: We pooled data from 26 prospective studies to evaluate associations of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption with biliary tract cancer risk. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations with smoking and alcohol consumption were calculated. Random effects meta-analysis produced summary estimates. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Over a period of 38,369,156 person-years of follow-up, 1,391 gallbladder, 758 intrahepatic bile duct, 1,208 extrahepatic bile duct, and 623 ampulla of Vater cancer cases were identified. Ever, former, and current smoking were associated with increased extrahepatic bile duct and ampulla of Vater cancers risk (e.g., current versus never smokers hazard ratio [HR] = 1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.34 to 2.13 and 2.22, 95%CI = 1.69 to 2.92, respectively), with dose-response effects for smoking pack-years, duration, and intensity (all P-trend<0.01). Current smoking and smoking intensity were also associated with intrahepatic bile duct cancer (e.g., >40 cigarettes/day versus never smokers HR = 2.15, 95%CI: 1.15 to 4.00; P-trend=0.001). No convincing association was observed between smoking and gallbladder cancer. Alcohol consumption was only associated with intrahepatic bile duct cancer, with increased risk for individuals consuming ≥5 versus 0 drinks/day (HR = 2.35, 95%CI = 1.46 to 3.78; P-trend=0.04). There was evidence of statistical heterogeneity between several cancer sites, particularly between gallbladder cancer and the other biliary tract cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking appears to increase the risk of developing all biliary tract cancers except gallbladder cancer. Alcohol may increase the risk of intrahepatic bile duct cancer. Findings highlight etiologic heterogeneity across the biliary tract.

10.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 10(5): 1-9, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31117113

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Telomeres and telomerase play important roles in maintaining chromosome integrity and genomic stability. To address a lack of consensus about the association between leukocyte telomere length and colorectal cancer, we investigated this association in the Singapore Chinese Health Study. METHODS: Relative telomere length in white blood cells was quantified using a validated quantitative polymerase chain reaction method in 26,761 participants, including 776 incident colorectal cancer cases. The Cox proportional hazard regression method was used to calculate the hazard ratio and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) for colorectal cancer associated with longer telomeres. RESULTS: Longer telomeres were significantly associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer (Ptrend = 0.02). Compared with the lowest quartile, subjects with the highest quartile of telomere length had a hazard ratio of 1.32 (95% CI: 1.08-1.62) for developing colorectal cancer. The corresponding elevation in rectal cancer risk for the highest quartile of telomere length was 71% (95% CI: 22-140, Ptrend = 0.02). There was no statistically significant association between telomere length and risk of colon cancer. DISCUSSION: This large cohort study of Singapore Chinese, the first study using a cohort study design with more than 26,000 participants that yielded 776 incidence colorectal cancer cases during 12 years of follow-up, provides evidence in support of longer telomeres being associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer, particularly rectal cancer.

11.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001807

RESUMO

Specific organochlorines (OCs) have been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) with varying degrees of evidence. These associations have not been evaluated in Asia, where the high exposure and historical environmental contamination of certain OC pesticides (e.g., dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane [DDT], hexachlorocyclohexane [HCH]) are different from Western populations. We evaluated NHL risk and prediagnostic blood levels of OC pesticides/metabolites and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in a case-control study of 167 NHL cases and 167 controls nested within three prospective cohorts in Shanghai and Singapore. Conditional logistic regression was used to analyze lipid-adjusted OC levels and NHL risk. Median levels of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), the primary DDT metabolite, and ß-HCH were up to 12 and 65 times higher, respectively, in samples from the Asian cohorts compared to several cohorts in the United States and Norway. An increased risk of NHL was observed among those with higher ß-HCH levels both overall (3rd vs. 1st tertile OR = 1.8, 95%CI = 1.0-3.2; ptrend = 0.049) and after excluding cases diagnosed within 2 years of blood collection (3rd vs. 1st tertile OR = 2.0, 95%CI = 1.1-3.9; ptrend = 0.03), and the association was highly consistent across the three cohorts. No significant associations were observed for other OCs, including p,p'-DDE. Our findings provide support for an association between ß-HCH blood levels and NHL risk. This is a concern because substantial quantities of persistent, toxic residues of HCH are present in the environment worldwide. Although there is some evidence that DDT is associated with NHL, our findings for p,p'-DDE do not support an association.

12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(4): e192696, 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002328

RESUMO

Importance: Asia is home to the largest diabetic populations in the world. However, limited studies have quantified the association of diabetes with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in Asian populations. Objectives: To evaluate the association of diabetes with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in Asia and to investigate potential effect modifications of the diabetes-mortality associations by participants' age, sex, education level, body mass index, and smoking status. Design, Setting, and Participants: This pooled analysis incorporated individual participant data from 22 prospective cohort studies of the Asia Cohort Consortium conducted between 1963 and 2006. A total of 1 002 551 Asian individuals (from mainland China, Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, India, and Bangladesh) were followed up for more than 3 years. Cohort-specific hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for all-cause and cause-specific mortality were estimated using Cox regression models and then pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Analysis was conducted between January 10, 2018, and August 31, 2018. Exposures: Doctor-diagnosed diabetes, age, sex, education level, body mass index, and smoking status. Main Outcomes and Measures: All-cause and cause-specific mortality. Results: Of 1 002 551 participants (518 537 [51.7%] female; median [range] age, 54.0 [30.0-98.0] years), 148 868 deaths were ascertained during a median (range) follow-up of 12.6 (3.0-38.9) years. The overall prevalence of diabetes reported at baseline was 4.8% for men and 3.6% for women. Patients with diabetes had a 1.89-fold risk of all-cause death compared with patients without diabetes (hazard ratio [HR], 1.89; 95% CI, 1.74-2.04), with the highest relative risk of death due to diabetes itself (HR, 22.8; 95% CI, 18.5-28.1), followed by renal disease (HR, 3.08; 95% CI, 2.50-3.78), coronary heart disease (HR, 2.57; 95% CI, 2.19-3.02), and ischemic stroke (HR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.85-2.51). The adverse diabetes-mortality associations were more evident among women (HR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.89-2.32) than among men (HR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.62-1.88) (P for interaction < .001) and more evident among adults aged 30 to 49 years (HR, 2.43; 95% CI, 2.08-2.84) than among adults aged 70 years and older (HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.40-1.62) (P for interaction < .001). A similar pattern of association was found between diabetes and cause-specific mortality, with significant variations noted by sex and age. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that diabetes was associated with increased risk of death from several diseases among Asian populations. Development and implementation of diabetes management programs are urgently needed to reduce the burden of diabetes in Asia.

13.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 50, 2019 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telomeres and telomerase play key roles in the chromosomal maintenance and stability. Recent epidemiological studies have shown that longer telomeres are associated with increased risk of several cancer types. However, epidemiological data for telomere length and risk of breast cancer are sparse. METHODS: We prospectively studied the association between telomere length and risk of breast cancer in 14,305 middle-aged or older Chinese women of the Singapore Chinese Health Study including 442 incident breast cancer cases after 12.3 years of follow-up. Relative telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes was quantified using a validated monochrome multiple quantitative polymerase chain reaction method. The Cox proportional hazard regression method was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for breast cancer associated with longer telomeres after adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS: Longer telomeres were significantly associated with higher risk of breast cancer in a dose-dependent manner (Ptrend = 0.006); the highest quartile of telomere length was associated with a statistically significant 47% higher risk of breast cancer compared with the lowest quartile of telomere length after the adjustment for age and other known risk factors for breast cancer (HRQ4 vs Q1 = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.94). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the present study support the hypothesis that longer telomeres may be a risk factor for breast cancer. Telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes may be developed as a biomarker for breast cancer risk prediction.

14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(3): e191474, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924901

RESUMO

Importance: Understanding birth cohort-specific tobacco smoking patterns and their association with total and cause-specific mortality is important for projecting future deaths due to tobacco smoking across Asian populations. Objectives: To assess secular trends of tobacco smoking by countries or regions and birth cohorts and evaluate the consequent mortality in Asian populations. Design, Setting, and Participants: This pooled meta-analysis was based on individual participant data from 20 prospective cohort studies participating in the Asia Cohort Consortium. Between September 1, 2017, and March 31, 2018, a total of 1 002 258 Asian individuals 35 years or older were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis and random-effects meta-analysis. The pooled results were presented for mainland China; Japan; Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan; and India. Exposures: Tobacco use status, age at starting smoking, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and age at quitting smoking. Main Outcomes and Measures: Country or region and birth cohort-specific mortality and the population attributable risk for deaths from all causes and from lung cancer. Results: Of 1 002 258 participants (51.1% women and 48.9% men; mean [SD] age at baseline, 54.6 [10.4] years), 144 366 deaths (9158 deaths from lung cancer) were ascertained during a mean (SD) follow-up of 11.7 (5.3) years. Smoking prevalence for men steadily increased in China and India, whereas it plateaued in Japan and Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan. Among Asian male smokers, the mean age at starting smoking decreased in successive birth cohorts, while the mean number of cigarettes smoked per day increased. These changes were associated with an increasing relative risk of death in association with current smoking in successive birth cohorts of pre-1920, 1920s, and 1930 or later, with hazard ratios for all-cause mortality of 1.26 (95% CI, 1.17-1.37) for the pre-1920 birth cohort, 1.47 (95% CI, 1.35-1.61) for the 1920s birth cohort, and 1.70 (95% CI, 1.57-1.84) for the cohort born in 1930 or later. The hazard ratios for lung cancer mortality were 3.38 (95% CI, 2.25-5.07) for the pre-1920 birth cohort, 4.74 (95% CI, 3.56-6.32) for the 1920s birth cohort, and 4.80 (95% CI, 3.71-6.19) for the cohort born in 1930 or later. Tobacco smoking accounted for 12.5% (95% CI, 8.4%-16.3%) of all-cause mortality in the pre-1920 birth cohort, 21.1% (95% CI, 17.3%-24.9%) of all-cause mortality in the 1920s birth cohort, and 29.3% (95% CI, 26.0%-32.3%) of all-cause mortality for the cohort born in 1930 or later. Tobacco smoking among men accounted for 56.6% (95% CI, 44.7%-66.3%) of lung cancer mortality in the pre-1920 birth cohort, 66.6% (95% CI, 58.3%-73.5%) of lung cancer mortality in the 1920s birth cohort, and 68.4% (95% CI, 61.3%-74.4%) of lung cancer mortality for the cohort born in 1930 or later. For women, tobacco smoking patterns and lung cancer mortality varied substantially by countries and regions. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, mortality associated with tobacco smoking continued to increase among Asian men in recent birth cohorts, indicating that tobacco smoking will remain a major public health problem in most Asian countries in the coming decades. Implementing comprehensive tobacco-control programs is warranted to end the tobacco epidemic.

15.
Thorax ; 74(7): 643-649, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862725

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Low-dose CT (LDCT) is currently used in lung cancer screening of high-risk populations for early lung cancer diagnosis. However, 96% of individuals with detected nodules are false positives. METHODS: In order to develop an efficient early lung cancer predictor from clinical, demographic and LDCT features, we studied a total of 218 subjects with lung cancer or benign nodules. Probabilistic graphical models (PGMs) were used to integrate demographics, clinical data and LDCT features from 92 subjects (training cohort) from the Pittsburgh Lung Screening Study cohort. RESULTS: Learnt PGMs identified three variables directly (causally) linked to malignant nodules and the largest benign nodule and used them to build the Lung Cancer Causal Model (LCCM), which was validated in a separate cohort of 126 subjects. Nodule and vessel numbers and years since the subject quit smoking were sufficient to discriminate malignant from benign nodules. Comparison with existing predictors in the training and validation cohorts showed that (1) incorporating LDCT scan features greatly enhances predictive accuracy; and (2) LCCM improves cancer detection over existing methods, including the Brock parsimonious model (p<0.001). Notably, the number of surrounding vessels, a feature not previously used in predictive models, significantly improves predictive efficiency. Based on the validation cohort results, LCCM is able to identify 30% of the benign nodules without risk of misclassifying cancer nodules. DISCUSSION: LCCM shows promise as a lung cancer predictor as it is significantly improved over existing models. Validated in a larger, prospective study, it may help reduce unnecessary follow-up visits and procedures.

16.
J Nutr ; 149(4): 619-627, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Consumption of green tea has been associated with reduced risk of breast cancer. Hormonal modulation has been suggested as one of the potential underlying mechanisms; however, it has yet to be fully elucidated in large, long-term human clinical trials. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of decaffeinated green tea extract (GTE) on circulating sex hormones and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) proteins. METHODS: We conducted a placebo-controlled double-blind randomized clinical trial recruiting from 8 clinical centers in Minnesota. Participants were 538 healthy postmenopausal women randomly assigned to the GTE group (463 completed the study; mean age = 60.0 y) and 537 to the placebo group (474 completed; mean age = 59.7 y). Women in the GTE group orally took 4 decaffeinated capsules containing 1315 mg total catechins including 843 mg epigallocatechin-3-gallate daily for 1 y, whereas women in the placebo group took similar capsules containing no tea catechins. Blood sex hormones (estrone, estradiol, androstenedione, testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin) and IGF proteins (IGF-1 and IGF binding protein-3) were quantified at baseline and months 6 (for IGF proteins only) and 12, and were assessed as secondary outcomes of the study using a mixed-effect repeated-measures ANOVA model. RESULTS: Women in the GTE group had significantly higher blood total estradiol (16%; P = 0.02) and bioavailable estradiol (21%; P = 0.03) than in the placebo group at month 12. There was a statistically significant interaction between GTE supplementation and duration of treatment on estradiol and bioavailable estradiol (both Ps for interaction = 0.001). The catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype did not influence blood sex hormones before or after GTE supplementation. The circulating concentrations of IGF proteins were comparable between GTE and placebo groups at all 3 time points. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that a 12-mo GTE supplementation significantly increases circulating estradiol concentrations in healthy postmenopausal women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00917735.

17.
Carcinogenesis ; 40(8): 989-997, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30615102

RESUMO

Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress play pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We conducted a nested case-control study of 347 HCC cases and 691 matched controls within a prospective cohort of 18 244 Chinese men in Shanghai, China. The concentrations of 8-epi-prostaglandin F2α (8-epi-PGF2α), a biomarker of oxidative stress, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) metabolite (PGE-M), a biomarker of the inflammation mediator PGE2, were determined in baseline urine samples using validated mass spectrometry assays. 8-epi-PGF2α levels were significantly higher in HCC cases than control subjects (geometric means 0.92 versus 0.80 pmol/mg creatinine, P < 0.001). The relative risks of developing HCC for the highest relative to the lowest quartile of 8-epi-PGF2α were 2.55 (95% confidence interval = 1.62-4.01, Ptrend < 0.001). This positive 8-epi-PGF2α-HCC risk association was independent of smoking status, alcohol consumption and hepatitis B or liver cirrhosis and was present 10 years before the clinical manifestation of HCC. This study did not find any significant association between urinary PEG-M and HCC risk. This study provides direct evidence in support of the critical role of oxidative stress in the development of HCC regardless of its underlying causes.

18.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499135

RESUMO

Vitamin B supplementation can have side effects for human health, including cancer risk. We aimed to elucidate the role of vitamin B12 in lung cancer aetiology via direct measurements of pre-diagnostic circulating vitamin B12 concentrations in a nested case-control study, complemented with a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach in an independent case-control sample. We used pre-diagnostic biomarker data from 5,183 case-control pairs nested within 20 prospective cohorts, and genetic data from 29,266 cases and 56,450 controls. Exposures included directly measured circulating vitamin B12 in pre-diagnostic blood samples from the nested case-control study, and 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with vitamin B12 concentrations in the MR study. Our main outcome of interest was increased risk for lung cancer, overall and by histological subtype, per increase in circulating vitamin B12 concentrations. We found circulating vitamin B12 to be positively associated with overall lung cancer risk in a dose response fashion (odds ratio for a doubling in B12 [ORlog2B12 ] = 1.15, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 1.06-1.25). The MR analysis based on 8 genetic variants also indicated that genetically determined higher vitamin B12 concentrations were positively associated with overall lung cancer risk (OR per 150 pmol/L standard deviation increase in B12 [ORSD ]= 1.08, 95%CI= 1.00-1.16). Considering the consistency of these two independent and complementary analyses, these findings support the hypothesis that high vitamin B12 status increases the risk of lung cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30381441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The major mode of metabolism of nicotine is by hydroxylation via cytochrome P450 (CYP)2A6, but it can also undergo glucuronidation by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases and oxidation by flavin monooxygenases (FMOs). The goal of this study was to examine the potential importance of FMOs in nicotine metabolism and assess the potential impact of missense polymorphisms in active FMOs on nicotine-N'-oxide formation. METHODS: Urine samples from 106 current Chinese smokers were analyzed for nicotine metabolites by mass spectrometry (MS). Wild-type FMOs 1 through 5 and their most prevalent non-synonymous variants were cloned and over-expressed in HEK293 cells, and were tested in oxidation reactions against nicotine Results:A strong inverse correlation was observed between the ratio of urinary 3'-hydroxycotinine/cotinine, a measure of CYP2A6 activity, and the urinary levels of nicotine-N'-oxide alone (r=-0.383,p <0.001) or nicotine-N'-oxide measured as a ratio of total nicotine metabolites (r=-0.414, p <0.001) in smokers. In addition to FMO1 and FMO3, the functional FMO2427Q isoform was active against nicotine, while FMO4 and FMO5 exhibited low activity against nicotine (KM>5.0 mM). Significant (p <0.05) decreases in N'-oxidation activity (Vmax/KM) were observed for the FMO1I303V, FMO3N61S, FMO3D132H, FMO3V257M, and FMO3E308G variants in vitro when compared to their respective wild-type isoforms; the truncated FMO2Q472stop isoform exhibited no enzyme activity. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that increases in nicotine-N'-oxidation occurs in subjects with deficient CYP2A6 activity, that several FMO enzymes are active in nicotine-N'-oxidation. IMPACT: Several common missense FMO variants are associated with altered enzyme activity against nicotine and may play an important role in nicotine metabolism in low-CYP2A6 activity subjects.

20.
Eur J Nutr ; 2018 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30255403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diet and inflammation have been suggested to be important risk factors for lung cancer. We examined the ability of the dietary inflammatory index (DII®) to predict lung cancer in the Singapore Chinese Health Study (SCHS). The DII is a diet quality index based on the literature linking foods and nutrients with inflammatory biomarkers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using data from the SCHS for 60,232 participants, including 1851 lung cancer cases, we investigated the associations of baseline DII scores calculated from a food frequency questionnaire with risk of developing lung cancer over an average of 17.6 years of follow-up. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated using Cox regression, adjusting for smoking status and other risk factors. RESULTS: After excluding cancers diagnosed in the first 2 years of follow-up, the DII was non-significantly associated with risk of lung cancer (HRQ5vsQ1 = 1.13; 95% CI 0.94-1.35; P-trend = 0.24) after adjusting for age, dialect group, sex, interview year, education, body mass index, total calorie intake, physical activity and various smoking variables. In stratified analysis, stronger, statistically significant associations were evident in current smokers (HR 1.44; 95% CI 1.11-1.86; Ptrend = 0.03, P for interaction = 0.003) and in male ever-smokers (HRQ5vsQ1 = 1.37; 95% CI 1.07-1.77; P-trend = 0.03). CONCLUSION: A pro-inflammatory diet, as shown by higher DII scores, is associated with an elevated risk of lung cancer for subjects with a history of smoking. Public health measures should be adopted to promote consumption of a healthy, anti-inflammatory diet to reduce the risk of lung cancer, especially in current and former smokers.

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