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1.
ChemSusChem ; 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236142

RESUMO

An important step of the great achievement of organic solar cells in power conversion efficiency is the development of low-band gap polymer donors, PBDB-T derivatives, which present interesting aggregation effects dominating the device performance. The aggregation of polymers can be manipulated by a series of variables from a materials design and processing conditions perspective; however, optimization of film quality is a time- and energy-consuming work. Here, we introduce a robot-based high-throughput platform (HTP) that is offering automated film preparation and optical spectroscopy thin-film characterization in combination with an analysis algorithm. PM6 films are prepared by the so-called spontaneous film spreading (SFS) process, where a polymer solution is coated on a water surface. Automated acquisition of UV/Vis and photoluminescence (PL) spectra and automated extraction of morphological features is coupled to Gaussian Process Regression to exploit available experimental evidence for morphology optimization but also for hypothesis formulation and testing with respect to the underlying physical principles. The integrated spectral modeling workflow yields quantitative microstructure information by distinguishing amorphous from ordered phases and assesses the extension of amorphous versus the ordered domains. This research provides an easy to use methodology to analyze the exciton coherence length in conjugated semiconductors and will allow to optimize exciton splitting in thin film organic semiconductor layers as a function of processing.

2.
Immunol Res ; 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259987

RESUMO

This research aims to investigate the effect of gemcitabine (GEM) on various activities and functions of macrophages. Phagocytosis, cell autophagy and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were analysed by laser scanning confocal microscope. The cell cycle status and major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II) expression were examined by flow cytometry. Inflammatory cytokine secretion such as tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) was detected by Elisa assay. The expression of proteins was analysed by western blot method. The results revealed that GEM-induced immune inhibition of M1-type RAW264.7 macrophages activated by interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We also found that GEM inhibited autophagy, as evidenced by the reduced formation of autophagosome-like vacuoles and autophagosomes. Further study showed that incubation of activated macrophages with the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA induced immune suppression. In contrast, treatment with the autophagy inducer trehalose (Tre) restored phagocytosis, TNF-α and IL-6 secretion, and MHC-II expression in GEM-induced immune-inhibited macrophages. GEM reduced immune effect of M1-type RAW264.7 macrophages via inhibiting TNF-α, IL-6 and MHC-II expression. Furthermore, activation of autophagy by Tre reversed GEM-induced immune inhibition of RAW264.7 macrophages.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 795: 148616, 2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252773

RESUMO

Nitrogen nutrient surplus is the main cause of a series of environmental problems in the Yangtze Estuary and its adjacent East China Sea (ECS). Denitrification plays an important role in controlling nitrate dynamics and fate in estuarine and coastal environments. We investigated the natural and potential rates of denitrification in the sediments of the Yangtze Estuary and ECS via slurry incubation experiments combined with acetylene inhibition techniques to reveal its contributions to total nitrogen reduction in this hypereutrophic continental shelf area. Key environmental factors, such as the sediment grain size, sediment extractable inorganic nitrogen (NH4+, NO3- and NO2-), sediment organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), isotopic compositions (δ13C and δ15N), etc., were also investigated to determine the main factors controlling the denitrification processes. The measured rates of denitrification ranged from 0.39 to 28.49 ng N g-1·h-1. The total nitrogen removed by denitrification in the study area was 3.7 × 1010 g during August. In total, at least 3.3% of the external inorganic nitrogen transported annually into the estuary could be removed by the denitrification processes in the study area. The sediment denitrification rates correlated significantly with the extractable ammonium and δ15N values of surface sediments, indicating that coupled nitrification-denitrification processes may play an important role in nitrogen removal. Almost undetectable levels of nitrate in the sediment further revealed that nitrate supply, regardless of diffusion from the overlying water or production by sediment nitrification processes, is the bottleneck for denitrification.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207284

RESUMO

Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S), an endogenously produced gasotransmitter, is involved in various important physiological and disease conditions, including vasodilation, stimulation of cellular bioenergetics, anti-inflammation, and pro-angiogenesis. In cancer, aberrant up-regulation of H2S-producing enzymes is frequently observed in different cancer types. The recognition that tumor-derived H2S plays various roles during cancer development reveals opportunities to target H2S-mediated signaling pathways in cancer therapy. In this review, we will focus on the mechanism of H2S-mediated protein persulfidation and the detailed information about the dysregulation of H2S-producing enzymes and metabolism in different cancer types. We will also provide an update on mechanisms of H2S-mediated cancer progression and summarize current options to modulate H2S production for cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais
5.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 15: 2999-3016, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267502

RESUMO

Purpose: Total flavone of Abelmoschus manihot (TFA), the effective constituents extracted from Flos Abelmoschus Manihot, has been reported to inhibit inflammation. However, the effect of TFA on ulcerative colitis (UC) progression in patients with depression is unknown. The purpose of our research was to explore the anti-UC effects of TFA in the context of depression in mice with UC by regulating the gut microbiota to drive the intestinal barrier. Methods: In this study, chronic stress (CS) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) were used to induce depression and UC, respectively, in C57BL/6J mice. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was used to evaluate how treating mice modeling UC and depression with TFA effected their gut microbiota. Results: Our results showed that TFA effectively improved UC aggravated by CS. In addition, TFA treatment improved the depression-like phenotype, the disturbed gut microbiota, and the intestinal barrier function in CS mice. It is worth noting that FMT from the CS mice to the receptor group further aggravated the damage of the intestinal barrier and the disturbance of the gut microbiota in the recipient DSS mice, thus further aggravating UC, however, treatment of the intervention of TFA in the CS fecal microbiota transplant with TFA also played its therapeutic outcome. Conclusion: Taken together, our results show that CS disrupts the gut microbiota, triggers intestinal barrier injury and aggravates DSS colitis, while TFA is a promising drug for the treatment of UC in patients with depression.

6.
Endocrine ; 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264510

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Koningic acid (KA), a sesquiterpene lactone, has been identified as an antimicrobial agent. Recent studies have revealed KA's antitumor activities in colorectal cancer, leukemia, and lung cancer. However, its antitumor effect in thyroid cancer remains largely unknown. METHODS: The effects of KA on proliferation, colony formation, apoptosis in thyroid cancer cells were assessed by MTT assay and flow cytometry. After KA treatment, the glycolysis ability of thyroid cancer cells was detected by ECAR, and the glycolytic products and relative ATP levels were measured by ELISA. The underlying mechanisms of antineoplastic activity of KA in thyroid cancer were detected by Western blot. Finally, the antineoplastic activity in vivo was observed in Xenograft mouse models. RESULTS: KA inhibited the proliferation, colony formation, and increased cell apoptosis in thyroid cancer cell lines in a dose and time-dependent manner. We verified that the glycolysis ability, ATP production, and lactic acid level in thyroid cancer cells had experienced an extensive decrease after KA treatment. In addition, lactic acid, the metabolite of glycolysis, could weaken the effect of KA on its colony formation ability in C643 thyroid cancer cell line. Our data also showed that KA kills thyroid cancer cells by inhibiting the MAPK/ERK pathway and decreasing Bcl-2 level. By contrast with the control group, the growth of xenograft tumor was dramatically inhibited by KA without obvious drug side effects. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that KA kills thyroid cancer cell lines by inhibiting their glycolysis ability, the MAPK/ERK pathway and the Bcl-2 level and suggest that KA has potential clinical value in thyroid cancer therapy.

7.
Heart Lung Circ ; 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the serious complications of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) repair. Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and left heart bypass (LHB) are well-established extracorporeal circulatory assistance methods to increase distal aortic perfusion and prevent spinal cord ischaemia in TAAA repair. Aorto-iliac bypass, a new surgical adjunct offering distal aortic perfusion without the need of complex perfusion skills, was developed as a substitute for CPB and LHB. However, its spinal cord protective effect is unknown. METHODS: The perioperative data of 183 patients who had elective open Crawford extent II and III TAAA repair at our aortic centre from July 2011 to May 2019 were retrospectively analysed. Spinal cord protection was compared between the aorto-iliac bypass group (n=106) and the extracorporeal circulatory assistance group (n=77 [65 CPB, 12 LHB]), and the risk factors for SCI in these patients were explored. RESULTS: Eleven (11) patients had postoperative SCI: five (6.5%) in the extracorporeal circulatory assistance group (four with CPB and one with LHB), and six (5.7%) in the aorto-iliac bypass group. The incidence of SCI was 6.0% (11/183 cases). There was no difference between the aorto-iliac bypass group and the extracorporeal circulatory assistance group (p=1.0), while operation time, proximal aortic clamp time, intercostal artery clamp time, and length of intensive care unit stay were all increased in the latter group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that cerebrospinal fluid pressure (odds ratio [OR], 1.270; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.092-1.478 [p=0.002]) and lowest haemoglobin on the first postoperative day (OR, 0.610; 95% CI, 0.416-0.895 [p=0.011]) were the independent predictors of SCI in TAAA repair. CONCLUSIONS: Spinal cord protection of aorto-iliac bypass is comparable to that of CPB and LHB in open TAAA repair.

8.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 639165, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248837

RESUMO

Sepsis is a common risk factor for acute kidney injury (AKI). Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) bear multi-directional differentiation potential. This study explored the role of BMSCs in sepsis-induced AKI (SI-AKI). A rat model of SI-AKI was established through cecal ligation and perforation. The SI-AKI rats were injected with CM-DiL-labeled BMSCs, followed by evaluation of pathological injury of kidney tissues and kidney injury-related indicators and inflammatory factors. HK-2 cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to establish SI-SKI model in vitro. Levels of mitochondrial proteins, autophagy-related proteins, NLRP3 inflammasome-related protein, and expressions of Parkin and SIRT1 in renal tubular epithelial cells (RTECs) of kidney tissues and HK-2 cells were detected. The results showed that BMSCs could reach rat kidney tissues and alleviate pathological injury of SI-SKI rats. BMSCs inhibited inflammation and promoted mitophagy of RTECs and HK-2 cells in rats with SI-AKI. BMSCs upregulated expressions of Parkin and SIRT1 in HK-2 cells. Parkin silencing or SIRT1 inhibitor reversed the promoting effect of BMSCs on mitophagy. BMSCs inhibited apoptosis and pyroptosis of RTECs in kidney tissues by upregulating SIRT1/Parkin. In conclusion, BMSCs promoted mitophagy and inhibited apoptosis and pyroptosis of RTECs in kidney tissues by upregulating SIRT1/Parkin, thereby ameliorating SI-AKI.

9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(28): e26611, 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260546

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Nutcracker and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome share the same pathogenesis, but the simultaneous occurrence of both diseases is quite rare. A combination of the nutcracker syndrome and IgA nephropathy has previously been reported. Herein, we report what we believe is the first case of coexisting nutcracker and SMA syndrome in a patient with IgA nephropathy. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 15-year-old Chinese boy who was diagnosed with IgA nephropathy at 8 years of age presented with gross hematuria, fatigue, anorexia, nausea, and recurrent abdominal distension for 1 week without any obvious evidence of preceding infection. Laboratory data showed macroscopic hematuria, heavy proteinuria, and relatively normal renal function. Doppler ultrasonography and upper gastrointestinal gastrografin study were performed, respectively. Since his renal function deteriorated after admission, repeated renal biopsy was performed. DIAGNOSES: IgA nephropathy with nutcracker phenomenon and SMA syndrome. INTERVENTION: Immunosuppressive therapy combined with conservative therapy for superior mesenteric artery syndrome. OUTCOMES: One month later, his abdomen symptoms such as anorexia and abdominal distension eased a lot with body weight increase of about 3 kg. After 6 months of follow-up, his body weight increased to 57 kg, serum creatinine decreased to 63 µmol/L, and urine microscopy showed 75.5 RBC/high-power field with 0.3 g urine protein per day. LESSONS: Although the association between vascular compression and IgA nephropathy (IgAN) has not been elucidated yet, combination of nutcracker syndrome and SMA syndrome should be considered in patients with IgAN. The combination may increase the complexity of the disease, and renal biopsy should not be hesitated for differential diagnosis.

10.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34223928

RESUMO

The NF-κB signaling pathway is an important downstream pathway of oncogenic Notch1 in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cells. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the cascade activation of Notch1 in T-ALL cells are poorly understood. Here, we evaluated the role of CARMA1 in Notch1-induced NF-κB activation in T-ALL cells. CARMA1 was highly and specifically expressed in T-ALL cells and correlated with the prognosis of T-ALL patients. Interestingly, CARMA1 knockdown only inhibited the growth and proliferation of SIL-TAL1 fusion gene-negative T-ALL cells. In addition, CARMA1 knockdown arrested T-ALL cells at the G1 phase. Furthermore, CARMA1 knockdown significantly inhibited the proliferation of T-ALL cells in vivo and prolonged the survival of mice. Mechanistically, CARMA1 deficiency abolished Notch1-induced NF-κB transcriptional activation and significantly reduced expression levels of the NF-κB target genes c-Myc, Bcl-2, and CCR7. Taken together, these results of our study identify CARMA1 as one of the crucial mediators of Notch1-induced transformation of T-All cells, suggesting that CARMA1 is a promising therapeutic target for T-ALL due to its specific expression in lymphocytes. KEY MESSAGES: CARMA1 contributes to cell survival only in SIL-TAL1 negative T-ALL cells. CARMA1 is a crucial mediator of Notch1-induced activation of NF-κB pathway. CARMA1 is a promising therapeutic target for T-ALL.

11.
J Bioenerg Biomembr ; 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251583

RESUMO

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the main cause of death in the whole world. This study aimed to investigate whether forkhead box O4 (FoxO4) could negatively modulate ubiquitin specific peptidase 10 (USP10) transcription to aggravate the apoptosis and oxidative stress of hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced cardiomyocytes through Hippo/YAP pathway. mRNA expression as well as protein expressions of USP10 and FoxO4 in H9C2 cells after H/R induction or transfection were respectively detected by Reverse transcription-quantitative (RT-q) PCR analysis and Western blot. The viability and apoptosis of H9C2 cells after H/R induction or transfection were respectively detected by CCK-8 and TUNEL assays. The expressions of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in H9C2 cells after H/R induction or transfection were analyzed using appropriate kits and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were detected using a ROS Assay Kit. Dual luciferase reporter assay and Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) have adopted to confirm the combination of USP10 and FoxO4. Western blot was also used to analyze the expression of apoptosis-related proteins and Hippo/YAP pathway-related proteins. As a result, USP10 expression was decreased in H/R-induced H9C2 cells in a time-dependent manner. USP10 overexpression increased the viability and suppressed the apoptosis and oxidative stress of H/R-induced H9C2 cells. In addition, FoxO4 modulated USP10 transcription. FoxO4 expression was increased in H9C2 cells induced by H/R. FoxO4 overexpression could reverse the protective effects of USP10 overexpression on H/R-induced H9C2 cells by regulating the Hippo/YAP signaling pathway. In conclusion, FoxO4 negatively modulated USP10 transcription to aggravate the apoptosis and oxidative stress of H/R-induced H9C2 cells via blocking Hippo/YAP pathway.

12.
Phytother Res ; 2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34152633

RESUMO

The VEGF/SphK1/S1P pathway is closely related to angiogenesis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but the precise underlying mechanisms are unclear at present. Here, we explored the involvement of the VEGF/SphK1/S1P cascade in RA models and determined the effects of GE intervention. Our results showed abnormal expression of proteins related to this pathway in RA synovial tissue. Treatment with GE effectively regulated the signal axis, inhibited angiogenesis, and alleviated RA symptoms. In vitro, TNF-ɑ enhanced the VEGF/SphK1/S1P pathway in a co-culture model of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) and vascular endothelial cells (VEC). GE induced downregulation of VEGF in FLS, restored the dynamic balance of pro-/antiangiogenic factors, and suppressed SphK1/S1P signaling in VEC, resulting in lower proliferation activity, migration ability, tube formation ability, and S1P secretion ability of VEC cells. Additionally, SphK1-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) blocked the VEGF/SphK1/S1P cascade, which can effectively alleviate the stimulatory effect of FLS on VEC and further enhanced the therapeutic effect of GE. Taken together, our results demonstrate that GE suppresses the VEGF/SphK1/S1P pathway and alleviates the stimulation of VEC by FLS, thereby preventing angiogenesis and promoting therapeutic effects against RA.

13.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; PP2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133295

RESUMO

Matrix completion, in essence, involves recovering a low-rank matrix from a subset of its entries. Most existing methods for matrix completion neglect two significant issues. First, in several practical applications, such as collaborative filtering, some samples may be corrupted completely. However, most of the robust algorithms consider only the condition that a few components of each column have been arbitrarily contaminated. Second, many real data are not static in nature. Nevertheless, the conventional batch-based matrix completion methods cannot efficiently deal with the out-of-sample, that is, the vector completion problem. In this article, we first provide a novel robust matrix completion model and then develop an efficient optimization method that only requires conducting one time singular value decomposition for a thin matrix per iteration. Furthermore, by exploiting the essence of online matrix completion algorithms, we develop a vector completion model which can help users predict the missing values of out of sample. Numerical comparisons with traditional batch-based and online matrix completion algorithms demonstrate the benefits of the proposed method on streaming data corrupted by column outliers. Moreover, we show that our model can be used to detect outliers from incomplete information. This advantage is validated via numerous experimental results on synthetic and real-world data.

14.
Autophagy ; : 1-17, 2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34152938

RESUMO

Macroautophagy/autophagy-related proteins regulate infectious and inflammatory diseases in autophagy-dependent or -independent manner. However, the role of a newly identified mammalian-specific autophagy protein-BECN2 (beclin 2) in innate immune regulation is largely unknown. Here we showed that loss of BECN2 enhanced the activities of NLRP3, AIM2, NLRP1, and NLRC4 inflammasomes upon ligand stimulations. Mechanistically, BECN2 interacted with inflammasome sensors and mediated their degradation through a ULK1- and ATG9A-dependent, but BECN1-WIPI2-ATG16L1-LC3-independent, non-canonical autophagic pathway. BECN2 recruited inflammasome sensors on ATG9A+ vesicles to form a complex (BECN2-ATG9A-sensors) upon ULK1 activation. Three soluble NSF attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins (SEC22A, STX5, and STX6) were further shown to mediate the BECN2-ATG9A-dependent inflammasome sensor degradation. Loss of BECN2 promoted alum-induced peritonitis, which could be rescued by the ablation of CASP1 in Becn2-deficient mice. Hence, BECN2 negatively regulated inflammasome activation to control inflammation, serving as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of infectious and inflammatory diseases.Abbreviations: AIM2: absent in melanoma 2; ATG: autophagy related; BECN1: beclin 1; BMDC: bone marrow-derived dendritic cells; BMDM: bone marrow-derived macrophages; CASP1: caspase 1; CQ: chloroquine; gMDSC: granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells; IL: interleukin; LPS: lipopolysaccharide; MAP1LC3B: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; mMDSC: monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells; NLRC4: NLR family CARD domain containing 4; NLRP1: NLR family pyrin domain containing 1; NLRP3: NLR family pyrin domain containing 3; PECs: peritoneal exudate cells; PYCARD/ASC: apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase activation and recruitment domain; SNAREs: soluble NSF attachment protein receptors; STX5: syntaxin 5; STX6: syntaxin 6; ULK1: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1; WIPI: WD repeat domain, phosphoinositide interacting.

15.
Ann Bot ; 2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34157097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Leaf size has considerable ecological relevance, making it desirable to obtain leaf size estimations for as many species worldwide as possible. Current global databases, such as TRY, contain leaf size data for approximately 30,000 species, which is only ca. 8% of known species worldwide. Yet, taxonomic descriptions exist for the large majority of the remainder. Here we propose a simple method to exploit information on leaf length, width and shape from species descriptions to robustly estimate leaf areas, thus closing this considerable knowledge gap for this important plant functional trait. METHODS: Using a global dataset of all major leaf shapes measured on 3125 leaves from 780 taxa, we quantified scaling functions that estimate leaf size as product of leaf length, width and a leaf shape-specific correction factor. We validated our method by comparing leaf size estimates with those obtained from image recognition software and compared our approach with the widely-used correction factor of 2/3. KEY RESULTS: Correction factors ranged from 0.39 for highly dissected, lobed leaves to 0.79 for oblate leaves. Leaf size estimation using leaf shape-specific correction factors was more accurate and precise than estimates obtained from the correction factor of 2/3. CONCLUSION: Our method presents a tractable solution to accurately estimate leaf size when only information on leaf length, width and shape is available or when labour and time constraints prevent usage of image recognition software. We see promise in applying our method to data from species descriptions (including from fossils), databases, field work and on herbarium vouchers, especially when non-destructive in-situ measurements are needed.

16.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(5)2021 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069221

RESUMO

Fusarium head blight (FHB) causes wheat yield loss and mycotoxin (deoxynivalenol, DON) accumulation in wheat kernel. Developing wheat cultivars with overall resistance to both FHB spread within a spike and DON accumulation in kernels is crucial for ensuring food security and food safety. Here, two relatively novel inoculation methods, bilateral floret inoculation (BFI) and basal rachis internode injection (BRII), were simultaneously employed to evaluate disease severity and DON content in kernels in a segregating population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) developed from Ning 7840 (carrying Fhb1) and Clark (without Fhb1). Under both inoculation methods, four contrasting combinations of disease severity and DON content were identified: high severity/high DON (HSHD), high severity/low DON (HSLD), low severity/high DON (LSHD) and low severity/low DON (LSLD). Unexpectedly, the BRII method clearly indicated that disease severity was not necessarily relevant to DON concentration. The effects of Fhb1 on disease severity, and on DON concentrations, agreed very well across the two methods. Several lines carrying Fhb1 showed extremely higher severity and (or) DON content under both inoculation methods. The "Mahalanobis distance" (MD) method was used to rate overall resistance of a line by inclusion of both disease severity and DON content over both methods to select LSLD lines.


Assuntos
Fusarium/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Tricotecenos/metabolismo , Triticum/microbiologia , Micotoxinas/metabolismo
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(22): e26230, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087905

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Multiple endocrine neoplasia 2A (MEN2A) is a rare autosomal-dominant genetic syndrome, frequently misdiagnosed or neglected clinically, resulting in delayed therapy to patients. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 47-year-old Chinese male patient underwent laparoscopic right adrenal tumorectomy, and postoperative pathology confirmed the tumor as pheochromocytoma (PHEO). He was readmitted to the department of endocrinology and metabolism due to constant increase in carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) at 5 months after the operation. DIAGNOSIS: The patient was confirmed with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), multiple neck lymph node metastasis, and pituitary microadenoma. The p.Cys611Tyr (c.1832G>A, C611Y) mutation was detected. Therefore, he was diagnosed with MEN2A. INTERVENTIONS: He underwent total thyroidectomy. The gene-sequencing analysis of his family was conducted, and the C611Y mutation was detected in his daughter. OUTCOMES: The level of carcinoembryonic antigen decreased significantly after thyroidectomy in this patient. Long-term follow-up management was conducted. Elevated serum calcitonin and bilateral thyroid nodules were found in his 13-year-old daughter. Thus, MEN2A was highly suspected and she was suggested to undergo total thyroidectomy. CONCLUSION: Patients with MEN2A should be screened regularly and managed by a multidisciplinary team.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/metabolismo , Neoplasia Endócrina Múltipla Tipo 2a/genética , Feocromocitoma/cirurgia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ret/genética , Adolescente , Assistência ao Convalescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/complicações , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/cirurgia , Éxons , Feminino , Rearranjo Gênico/genética , Humanos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasia Endócrina Múltipla Tipo 2a/diagnóstico , Neoplasia Endócrina Múltipla Tipo 2a/patologia , Mutação , Núcleo Familiar/etnologia , Linhagem , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/complicações , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/complicações , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia , Tireoidectomia/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Water Res ; 201: 117299, 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107363

RESUMO

The conventional membrane distillation (MD) process is accompanied by large energy consumption, low thermal efficiency and inevitable requirements of centralized infrastructures, which impede its practical applications, especially in the offshore and remote off-grid areas. Thanks to the rapid development of efficient photothermal materials over the last decade, a new photothermal membrane distillation (PMD) process has emerged to harness abundant solar energy and localize heating on the membrane-feed water interface via photothermal effects. Driven by the temperature difference across the PMD membrane, water vapor can be generated on the membrane-feed surface, transported through membrane pores and condensed at permeate side to obtain freshwater, thus tackling the challenge of obtaining clean water using green energy. The PMD process avoids heating the entire bulk feed water and feed transportation from heat units to membrane modules, which save substantial amounts of energy. The interfacial localized heating intrinsically mitigates the temperature polarization across the membrane. The latent heat from vapor condensation can be effectively recovered via multi-level PMD configurations. As great efforts have been made to exploit PMD process, it is imperative to review the state-of-the-art progress of PMD and shed light on its future trend. Here, we briefly illustrate PMD mechanisms and membrane requirements, photothermal materials feasible for developing PMD membranes along with their light-to-heat mechanisms. This is followed by reviewing diverse approaches to prepare PMD membranes, which are classified into one-step fabrication and multi-step modification methods. Comprehensive discussion about PMD membrane performance in different configurations and their small pilot-scaled applications are provided. The effects of operational parameters and module designs are discussed in Section 6. Finally, the current challenges and future perspectives of PMD process are emphasized with the aim of providing guidance for future works.

19.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 166: 328-340, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147725

RESUMO

Cytokinin (CK) is an important plant hormone that promotes plant cell division and differentiation, and participates in salt response under osmotic stress. LOGs (LONELY GUY) are CK-activating enzymes involved in CK synthesis. The LOG gene family has not been comprehensively characterized in cotton. In this study we identified 151 LOG genes from nine plant species, including 28 LOG genes in Gossypium hirsutum. Phylogenetic analysis divided LOG genes into three groups. Exon/intron structures and protein motifs of GhLOG genes were highly conserved. Synteny analysis revealed that several gene loci were highly conserved between the A and D sub-genomes of G. hirsutum with purifying selection pressure during evolution. Expression profiles showed that most LOG genes were constitutively expressed in eight different tissues. Furthermore, LOG genes can be regulated by abiotic stresses and phytohormone treatments. Moreover, subcellular localization revealed that GhLOG3_At resides inside the cell membrane. Overexpression of GhLOG3 enhanced salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of GhLOG3_At in cotton enhanced sensitivity of plants to salt stress with increased H2O2 contents and decreased chlorophyll and proline (PRO) activity. Our results suggested that GhLOG3_At induces salt stress tolerance in cotton, and provides a basis for the use of CK synthesis genes to regulate cotton growth and stress resistance.

20.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 44: 101434, 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175716

RESUMO

BACKGROUD AND PURPOSE: Almost every woman experiences discomforts during pregnancy. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of yoga on physiological and psychological discomforts and delivery outcomes in Chinese primiparas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted. Participants in the control group (n = 32) received routine prenatal care, whereas participants in the intervention group (n = 32) received routine prenatal care and yoga exercise three times a week for 12 weeks. Outcomes evaluated included physiological discomforts, prenatal depression, anxiety, childbirth self-efficacy and delivery outcomes. Intention-to-treat analysis was conducted. RESULTS: Yoga decreased the symptoms of physiological discomforts during pregnancy (F = 6.966, p = 0.010), promoted childbirth self-efficacy (F = 11.900, p = 0.001), increased the rate of vaginal delivery (χ2 = 4.267, p = 0.039), and shortened the length of the first (t = -2.612, p = 0.012), second (z = -3.313, p = 0.001) and third stages of labor (z = -3.137, p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Yoga offers beneficial effects on physiological discomforts, childbirth self-efficacy and delivery outcomes in Chinese primiparas.

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