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1.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 14, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blastocystis is an anaerobic unicellular protist frequently detected in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals worldwide. However, the prevalence and subtype distribution of Blastocystis in the coypu (Myocastor coypus) population have not been reported so far. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, genetic characteristics, and zoonotic potential of Blastocystis isolates detected in coypus in China. RESULTS: A total of 308 fecal samples were collected from coypus in seven regions across China and subsequently examined. Blastocystis was detected in 44 (14.3%) specimens by nested PCR amplification of the small subunit ribosomal rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene. Further DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses resulted in the identification of two zoonotic known subtypes, ST4 and ST5, and an unknown subtype. ST4 was the most predominant subtype observed in the samples. ST5 infections were only observed in three coypus. Factors that were associated with prevalence of Blastocystis included age, geographical region and subtype. Interestingly, this is the first report about a potentially novel subtype infecting coypus. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first comprehensive report of Blastocystis in M. coypus across a wide geographic range of China. A moderate degree of genetic divergence was observed. The presence of zoonotic subtypes in farmed M. coypus suggests that these animals have the potential to transmit blastocystosis to both humans and domestic animals. These findings provide a better understanding of the genetic diversity of Blastocystis in rodents and contribute towards the establishment of efficient blastocystosis control strategies in the investigated areas.

2.
J Parasitol ; 107(5): 790-793, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614510

RESUMO

This study is the first description of Blastocystis infection in peafowls in China. In total, 143 fecal specimens collected from a peafowl breeding farm in Henan Province were tested for Blastocystis infection by PCR assay targeting the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene, and a total of 50 specimens (35.0%) were positive. Based on sequences and phylogenetic analysis, 2 genetically distinct subtypes (STs) were determined: ST9 and ST7. ST9 was the predominant subtype, accounting for 82% (41/50). The rare zoonotic subtype ST7 was also identified in peafowls, with the infection rate of 18% (9/50). Altogether, the present study is the first report of the prevalence and molecular characteristics of Blastocystis in peafowls in central China. The presence of zoonotic subtypes in peafowls suggests the potential risk of zoonotic transmission of Blastocystis to workers at peafowl farms.

3.
Gut Microbes ; 13(1): 1972757, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592891

RESUMO

Hyaluronan is a glycosaminoglycan polymer that has been shown to play an important role in homeostasis of the gastrointestinal tract. However, its mechanistic significance in gastrointestinal epithelial barrier elements remain unexplored. Here, our results revealed that hyaluronan treatment resulted in significant changes in the gut microbiota in mice. To demonstrate the functional consequences of hyaluronan-treatment and hyaluronan-induced microbiota alterations, Citrobacter rodentium- and DSS-induced colitis models and microbiota transplantation approaches were utilized. We showed that hyaluronan alleviated intestinal inflammation in both pathogen and chemically induced intestinal mucosal damage. The protection in bacterial colitis was associated with enhanced C. rodentium clearance and alleviation of pathogen-induced gut dysbiosis. Microbiota transplantation experiments showed that the hyaluronan-altered microbiota is sufficient to confer protection against C. rodentium infection. Colonization with Akkermansia muciniphila, a commensal bacterium that is greatly enriched by hyaluronan treatment, alleviated C. rodentium-induced bacterial colitis in mice. Additionally, Akkermansia-induced protection was found to be associated with the induction of goblet cells and the production of mucins and epithelial antimicrobial peptides. Collectively, these results provide novel insights into the regulatory role of hyaluronan in modulating the gut microbiota and immunity in enteric infection and inflammation, with therapeutic potential for gut microbiome-targeted immunotherapy.

4.
Virol J ; 18(1): 202, 2021 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of SARS-CoV-2 on existing respiratory pathogens in circulation remains uncertain. This study aimed to assess the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the prevalence of respiratory pathogens among hospitalized children. METHODS: This study enrolled hospitalized children with acute respiratory infections in Shenzhen Children's Hospital from September to December 2019 (before the COVID-19 epidemic) and those from September to December 2020 (during the COVID-19 epidemic). Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected, and respiratory pathogens were detected using multiplex PCR. The absolute case number and detection rates of 11 pathogens were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 5696 children with respiratory tract infection received multiplex PCR examination for respiratory pathogens: 2298 from September to December 2019 and 3398 from September to December 2020. At least one pathogen was detected in 1850 (80.5%) patients in 2019, and in 2380 (70.0%) patients in 2020; the detection rate in 2020 was significantly lower than that in 2019.The Influenza A (InfA) detection rate was 5.6% in 2019, but 0% in 2020. The detection rates of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Human adenovirus, and Human rhinovirus also decreased from 20% (460), 8.9% (206), and 41.8% (961) in 2019 to 1.0% (37), 2.1% (77), and 25.6% (873) in 2020, respectively. In contrast, the detection rates of Human respiratory syncytial virus, Human parainfluenza virus, and Human metapneumovirus increased from 6.6% (153), 9.9% (229), and 0.5% (12) in 2019 to 25.6% (873), 15.5% (530), and 7.2% (247) in 2020, respectively (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Successful containment of seasonal influenza as a result of COVID-19 control measures will ensure we are better equipped to deal with future outbreaks of both influenza and COVID-19.Caused by virus competition, the detection rates of Human respiratory syncytial virus, Human parainfluenza virus, and Human metapneumovirus increased in Shenzhen,that reminds us we need to take further monitoring and preventive measures in the next epidemic season.


Assuntos
Antibiose , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Adenovírus Humanos/genética , Adenovírus Humanos/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , COVID-19/virologia , Criança , Criança Hospitalizada , Pré-Escolar , China , Enterovirus/genética , Enterovirus/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Metapneumovirus/genética , Metapneumovirus/isolamento & purificação , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/genética , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Nasofaringe/microbiologia , Nasofaringe/virologia , Prevalência , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/genética , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Respiratórias/microbiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/virologia , Respirovirus/genética , Respirovirus/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/genética
5.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 85(2-4): 319-330, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591210

RESUMO

Coinfections with the tick-borne pathogens Theileria luwenshuni and Anaplasma phagocytophilum can cause significant economic losses in sheep and goat farming. The difficulty in detecting these two pathogens by microscopic examination warrants the development of a rapid detection test to discriminate them. In this study, a duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed to simultaneously detect T. luwenshuni and A. phagocytophilum. Alignment of the sequences from related pathogens allowed us to design a primer pair targeting the 18S ribosomal RNA gene in T. luwenshuni and generate a target product of 962 bp, whereas a previously reported species-specific primer (SSAP2f/SSAP2r) for A. phagocytophilum was used in the same reaction to generate a product of 641 bp. Genomic DNA from T. luwenshuni and A. phagocytophilum was 10-fold serially diluted for testing PCR sensitivity. Under the optimal PCR conditions we established, the lower limit of detection of the assay was 29.13 fg/µL for T. luwenshuni and 1.53 fg/µL for A. phagocytophilum, and PCR primers used in this study were confirmed to be 100% species-specific using other hemoparasites previously identified by other methods. No significant difference was found between conventional and duplex PCR protocols used to detect the two species. Our study provides an effective, sensitive, specific, and accurate tool for the diagnosis and epidemiological surveillance of mixed infections of the two pathogens in sheep and goats.


Assuntos
Anaplasma phagocytophilum , Doenças das Cabras , Doenças dos Ovinos , Theileria , Anaplasma/genética , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/genética , Animais , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Cabras , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Theileria/genética
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(34): e27005, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a common chronic joint disease with serious health economic burden. More and more randomized controlled trials have indicated that traditional Chinese non-pharmacological therapy, including acupuncture, Tai Chi, Tuina, etc can significantly improve pain and physical function of patients with KOA. However, the effects of traditional Chinese non-pharmacological therapy for KOA remain controversial. Most previous systematic reviews did not focus on the effects of traditional Chinese non-pharmacological therapy for KOA as a whole. In Chinese community hospital, however, acupuncture, Tuina, and Tai Chi are usually in the management of KOA as whole-body treatment. METHODS: The electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database, and Wanfang Data) will be searched. The search will include all documents from their inception to December 2021. Two reviewers independently extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias by the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool for randomized controlled trials. The meta-analysis will be conducted with a random or fixed effect model to calculate the standardized mean difference and 95% confidence intervals based on different heterogeneity using the Review Manager Version 5.3 software. The heterogeneity will be examined by Higgins I2 statistic. The subgroup analysis will be conducted based on different types of traditional Chinese non-pharmacological therapy and different outcomes. Quality of evidence will be assessed using the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation. RESULTS: The current systematic review and meta-analysis will be conducted to investigate the effects of traditional Chinese non-pharmacological therapy in the management of KOA. The main outcomes will include pain and disability. The secondary outcomes will include quality of life and adverse events. CONCLUSION: To provide evidence for evidence-based medicine and clinical researchers to choose more effective traditional Chinese non-pharmacological therapy for KOA. INPLASY REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202170098.


Assuntos
Terapias Complementares/métodos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Osteoartrite do Joelho/terapia , Terapias Complementares/efeitos adversos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14155, 2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238975

RESUMO

Anaplasma species, which are distributed worldwide, are gram-negative obligate intracellular tick-borne bacteria that pose a threat to human and animal health. Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks play a vital role as vectors in the transmission of Anaplasma pathogens. However, the Anaplasma species carried by H. longicornis in China are yet to be characterized. In this study, 1074 H. longicornis specimens were collected from goats in four provinces of China from 2018 to 2019 and divided into 371 sample pools. All tick sample pools were examined for the presence of Anaplasma species via nested PCR amplification of 16S ribosomal RNA, major surface protein 4 (msp4), or citric acid synthase (gltA) genes, which were sequenced to determine the molecular and phylogenetic characteristics of the isolates. The overall Anaplasma spp-positive rate of H. longicornis was determined to be 26.68% (99/371). The percentage prevalence of A. phagocytophilum-like1, A. bovis, A. ovis, A. marginale, and A. capra were 1.08% (4/371), 13.21% (49/371), 13.21% (49/371), 1.35% (5/371), and 10.24% (38/371), respectively, and the co-infection rate of two or more types of Anaplasma was 6.47% (24/371). Phylogenetic analyses led to the classification of A. phagocytophilum into an A. phagocytophilum-like1 (Anaplasma sp. Japan) group. Anaplasma bovis sequences obtained in this study were 99.8-100% identical to those of an earlier strain isolated from a Chinese tick (GenBank accession no. KP314251). Anaplasma ovis sequences showed 99.3-99.6% identity to an A. ovis human strain identified from a Cypriot patient (GenBank accession no. FJ460443). Only one msp4 sequence of A. marginale was detected and was grouped with those of other A. marginale isolates, and these A. capra isolates obtained in this present study may be zoonotic. The detection and characterization of four Anaplasma species in H. longicornis in this study have added to the current knowledge of the parasite and provided data on multiple Anaplasma species with veterinary and medical significance from four provinces of China.


Assuntos
Anaplasma/classificação , Anaplasma/genética , Cabras/microbiologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Filogenia , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , China , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Feminino , Geografia , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
8.
Pathogens ; 10(5)2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069112

RESUMO

Anaplasma capra, a species of the family Anaplasmataceae, is zoonotic tick-borne obligate intracellular bacteria. There have been no reports of human infection with this pathogen since 2015. Therefore, the zoonotic characteristics of A. capra need to be further studied. To verify the ability of A. capra to infect human cells, A. capra were inoculated in human erythrocytes, HL-60, and TF-1 cell lines in vitro. Cell smears were taken after inoculation, using Giemsa staining, transmission electron microscope (TEM), chromogenic in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry for detection. In the Giemsa staining, many dark colored corpuscles or purple granules were seen in the inoculated erythrocytes, HL-60, and TF-1 cells. The results of chromogenic in situ hybridization show that there were brown precipitates on the surface of most erythrocytes. Immunocytochemistry results show many dark brown vacuolar structures or corpuscles in the cytoplasm of erythrocytes, HL-60, and TF-1 cell lines. The A. capra morulae were seen in the cytoplasm of both HL-60 and TF-1 in TEM, and their diameter was about 295-518 nm. Both dense-cored (DC) and reticulate cell (RC) form morulae could be seen. This study confirmed the ability of A. capra to infect human erythrocytes, HL-60, and TF-1. This study is of profound significance in further verifying the zoonotic characteristics of the pathogen and for establishing an in vitro cultivation model.

9.
Vet Res Commun ; 45(4): 441-445, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33987777

RESUMO

Blastocystis, an intestinal anaerobic protist with high genetic diversity, inhabits a variety of hosts worldwide, including rodents. However, there have been few studies on squirrel Blastocystis infections in China to date. Herein, 171 fecal samples from Pallas's squirrels (Callosciurus erythraeus) sold as pets were collected to investigate the prevalence and genetic characteristics of Blastocystis. A total of 10 Blastocystis-positive samples (10/171, 5.9%) were obtained by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of the barcode region of the SSU rRNA gene. Blastocystis subtype analysis revealed four known subtypes, namely, ST1, ST3, ST5 and ST6, with ST5 and ST6 being predominant. Phylogenetic analysis was performed to identify each subtype. To our knowledge, this study is the first to explore Blastocystis infection in Pallas's squirrels, expanding the host range of this parasite. Moreover, multiple zoonotic subtypes were found in Pallas's squirrels, suggesting that these animals may serve as reservoirs for pathogens of human Blastocystis infections.

10.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(3): 101673, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549978

RESUMO

Anaplasma are tick-borne obligate intracellular bacteria that can endanger human and animal health, and until now, there have been few reports on the seasonal dynamics of Anaplasma species in China. In this study, a total of 491 goat blood samples were collected in spring (n = 124), summer (n = 135), autumn (n = 110), and winter (n = 122) from Shaanxi provinces. Single and mixed infections of Anaplasma spp. from warm-temperate regions of China were analyzed according to seasons using a nested PCR method. Positive samples were sequenced to observe the molecular and phylogenetic characteristics of the Anaplasma species, and we determined the co-infection rates of Anaplasma spp. for each season. A molecular survey of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, A. bovis, A. ovis, and A. capra in goats showed average prevalences of 71.6 % (maximum 86.7 % in summer and minimum 48.4 % in winter), 62.2 % (minimum 38.7 % in spring and maximum 94.1 % in summer), 25.5 % (minimum 0% in summer and maximum 51.6 % in spring), and 26.6 % (minimum 8.2 % in winter and maximum 55.6 % in summer), respectively. In the phylogenetic analysis, A. phagocytophilum and A. capra occupied two separate groups, Chinese A. bovis and foreign isolates appeared to be geographically isolated, and all A. ovis isolates were in the same branch as the previously described sequences. The survey indicated that goats in warm-temperate regions of China are frequently exposed to Anaplasma spp. all year round, and thus prevention and treatment efforts for anaplasmosis in the region should be strengthened.


Assuntos
Anaplasma/fisiologia , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Anaplasmose/microbiologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Cabras , Masculino , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Estações do Ano , Análise de Sequência de DNA
11.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 226-234, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446064

RESUMO

ABSTRACT An emerging infectious disease caused by "Anaplasma capra" was reported in a 2015 survey of 477 hospital patients with a tick-bite history in China. However, the morphological characteristics and parasitic location of this pathogen are still unclear, and the pathogen has not been officially classified as a member of the genus Anaplasma. Anaplasma capra-positive blood samples were collected, blood cells separated, and DNA of whole blood cells, erythrocytes, and leukocytes extracted. Multiplex PCR detection assay was used to detect whole blood cell, erythrocytes and leukocytes, DNA samples, and PCR identification, nucleic acid sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses based on A. capra groEL, 16S rRNA, gltA, and msp4 genes. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Wright-Giemsa staining, chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH), immunocytochemistry, and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) were used to identify the location and morphological characteristics of A. capra. Multiple gene loci results demonstrated that erythrocyte DNA samples were A. capra-positive, while leukocyte DNA samples were A. capra-negative. Phylogenetic analysis showed that A. capra is in the same clade with the A. capra sequence reported previously. SEM and TEM showed one or more pathogens internally or on the outer surface of erythrocytes. Giemsa staining, CISH, immunocytochemistry, and IFA indicated that erythrocytes were A. capra-positive. This study is the first to identify the novel zoonotic tick-borne Anaplasma sp., "Anaplasma capra," in host erythrocytes. Based on our results, we suggest revision of Genus Anaplasma and formally name "A. capra" as Anaplasma capra sp. nov.


Assuntos
Anaplasma/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasmose/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Eritrócitos/microbiologia , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Anaplasma/classificação , Anaplasma/genética , Animais , China , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Cabras , Humanos , Filogenia , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Carrapatos/fisiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
12.
Parasite ; 27: 62, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206594

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are common gastrointestinal parasites with a broad range of hosts, including humans, livestock, and wildlife. To examine the infection status and assess the zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis in dairy cattle in Gansu, China, a total of 1414 fecal samples were collected from the rectum, with one sample collected from each individual animal. All the samples were tested using nested PCR based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis. The overall infection rates of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis were 4.2% (n = 59) and 1.0% (n = 14), respectively. Four Cryptosporidium species were identified: C. andersoni (n = 42), C. parvum (n = 12), C. bovis (n = 5), and C. ryanae (n = 1). In further analyses of subtypes of C. parvum isolates based on the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene, five were successfully subtyped as IIdA19G1 (n = 4) and IIdA15G1 (n = 1). All 14 G. duodenalis isolates were identified as assemblage E using the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene. The relatively low positive rates of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis detected here and the predominance of non-human pathogenic species/assemblages of these parasites indicated their unique transmission dynamics in this area and the low level of threat posed to public health. However, continuous monitoring and further studies of these parasites should be conducted for the prevention and control of these pathogens.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Giardia lamblia , Giardíase , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , China/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/parasitologia , Giardíase/veterinária , Prevalência
13.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 435, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Micro (mi)RNAs are small noncoding RNA molecules that function in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. This study investigated host miRNA activity in the innate immune response to Cryptosporidium parvum infection. METHODS: In vitro infection model adopts HCT-8 human ileocecal adenocarcinoma cells infected with C. parvum. The expression of miR-942-5p was estimated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The TLRs-NF-κB signaling was confirmed by qPCR, western blotting, TLR4- and TLR2-specific short-interfering (si)RNA, and NF-κB inhibition. RESULTS: HCT-8 cells express all known toll-like receptors (TLRs). Cryptosporidium parvum infection of cultured HCT-8 cells upregulated TLR2 and TLR4, and downstream TLR effectors, including NF-κB and suppressed IκBα (nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells inhibitor, alpha). The expression of miR-942-5p was significantly upregulated at 4, 8, 12 and 24 h post-infection, and especially at 8 hpi. The results of TLR4- and TLR2-specific siRNA and NF-κB inhibition showed that upregulation of miR-942-5p was promoted by p65 subunit-dependent TLR2/TLR4-NF-κB pathway signaling. CONCLUSIONS: miR-942-5p of HCT-8 cells was significantly upregulated after C. parvum infection, especially at 8 hpi, in response to a p65-dependent TLR2/TLR4-NF-κB signaling. TLR4 appeared to play a dominant role.


Assuntos
Cryptosporidium parvum/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Cryptosporidium parvum/metabolismo , Humanos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
14.
Acta Trop ; 212: 105671, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822671

RESUMO

To assess the prevalence and molecular characteristics of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in natural grazing local breed cattle, 513 fecal samples from Tibetan yellow cattle and cattle-yaks were tested for these pathogens. Cryptosporidium, G. duodenalis and E. bieneusi in Tibetan yellow cattle prevalence were 0.7% (3/442), 3.8% (17/442) and 2.5% (11/442), respectively. Cryptosporidium bovis (n = 3), G. duodenalis assemblages A (n = 2) and E (n = 15) were identified based on sequence analysis. Among three E. bieneusi genotypes, I (n = 7), EbpC (n = 2) and CHC8 (n = 2) detected, EbpC was classified into Group 1, which has a significant zoonotic importance, whereas genotypes I and CHC8 belonged to Group 2. None of these pathogens was identified in cattle-yaks. The presence of zoonotic C. bovis, assemblage A and EbpC indicates Tibetan yellow cattle may be a potential spread source of intestinal pathogens with a zoonotic transmission risk. The relationships between natural free-range mode and the prevalence or genetic diversity of these pathogens need be confirmed in further studies.


Assuntos
Bovinos/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Cryptosporidium/genética , Enterocytozoon/genética , Genótipo , Giardia lamblia/genética , Tibet/epidemiologia
15.
J Eukaryot Microbiol ; 67(6): 642-647, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623806

RESUMO

Blastocystis is a common intestinal protozoan in humans and various animals worldwide. A few studies have reported the genetic characterization of Blastocystis in pigs in China, but no epidemiological data are available from the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. In this study, 801 fecal samples were collected from seven scale pig farms in Xinjiang and tested by polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis of the partial SSU rRNA gene. The average infection rate of Blastocystis was 21.7% (174/801), with 7.1% in preweaning piglets, 10.0% in postweaning piglets, 31.8% in fattening pigs, and 41.9% in sows (χ2  = 104.89; P < 0.01). Blastocystis subtypes ST1 (7/174), ST3 (2/174), and ST5 (165/174) were identified, with subtype ST5 being predominant in each of the pig farms and in each of the age groups. ST3 and ST5 were identified in preweaning piglets, and ST1, ST3, and ST5 were identified in postweaning piglets. In contrast, only the subtype ST5 was observed in fattening pigs and sows. Genetic polymorphisms were observed at the intrasubtype level, including two variations of ST1 (ST1A, ST1B), and seven of ST5 (ST5A to ST5G), by sequence alignment analysis and phylogenetic analysis. More studies are needed to elucidate the transmission and public health significance of Blastocystis in pigs in various areas.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis/veterinária , Blastocystis/genética , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Suínos/parasitologia , Animais , Blastocystis/classificação , Blastocystis/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário , Fazendas , Fezes/parasitologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo Genético , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia
16.
Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl ; 12: 172-175, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612925

RESUMO

Little is known regarding the Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes in snakes worldwide. In the present study, a total of 273 fecal samples were collected from pet snakes in Beijing, China. They were then tested for the presence of E. bieneusi by PCR amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene. The overall infection rate of E. bieneusi was 4.4% (12/273), with the highest infection rate (20%, 1/5) of E. bieneusi was found in the Black rat snake (Pantherophis obsoletus), whereas no positive samples were detected from both Milk (0/22) and Coast garter snakes (0/2). Eight genotypes were identified, including four known genotypes: EbpA (n = 1), EbpC (n = 5), Henan-III (n = 1), and SHR1 (n = 1), and four novel genotypes: CRep-5 (n = 1), CRep-6 (n = 1), CRep-7 (n = 1), and CRep-8 (n = 1). Among them, EbpC (41.7%, 5/12) was the predominant genotype. Phylogenetic analysis showed that seven genotypes belonged to group 1, while genotype SHR1 belonged to group 2. Genotypes EbpA, EbpC, and Henan-III have been previously reported in humans. This suggests that pet snakes are a potential source of zoonotic microsporidiosis transmission in China.

17.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 606, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32318051

RESUMO

The genus Anaplasma (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), which includes the species Anaplasma capra, Anaplasma bovis, Anaplasma ovis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, is responsible for a wide variety of infections in both human and veterinary health worldwide. Multiple infections with these four Anaplasma pathogens have been reported in many cases. We introduce a novel multiplex PCR for the simultaneous detection of A. capra, A. bovis, A. ovis, and A. phagocytophilum, based on species-specific primers against the groEL (A. capra and A. bovis), msp4 (A. ovis), and 16S rRNA (A. phagocytophilum) genes. To verify the specificity of the PCR reactions, we evaluated four sets of primers to analyze samples containing different blood pathogens. The sensitivity of the multiplex PCR was evaluated by amplifying 10-fold dilutions of total genomic DNA extracted from sheep blood infected with A. capra, A. bovis, A. ovis, or A. phagocytophilum. The reproducibility of the assay was evaluated by testing 10-fold dilutions of total genomic DNA extracted from sheep blood infected with these pathogens from 100 to 10-3 ng/µL per reaction in triplicate on three different days. A total of 175 field blood DNA samples were used to evaluate the reproducibility of multiplex PCR compared with the simplex PCRs. PCR primers used in this study were confirmed to be 100% species-specific using blood pathogens previously identified by other methods. The lower limit of detection of the multiplex PCR with good repeatability enabled the detection of A. capra, A. bovis, A. ovis and A. phagocytophilum at concentrations of 3 × 10-5, 5 × 10-7, 2 × 10-5, and 7 × 10-7 ng/µL, respectively. There was no significant difference between conventional and multiplex PCR protocols used to detect the four Anaplasma species (P > 0.05). The results of the multiplex PCR revealed that the A. capra groEL gene, the A. bovis groEL gene, the A. ovis msp4 gene, and the A. phagocytophilum 16S rRNA gene were reliable target genes for species identification in clinical isolates, being specific for each of the four target Anaplasma species. Our study provides an effective, sensitive, specific, and accurate tool for the rapid differential clinical diagnosis and epidemiological surveillance of Anaplasma pathogens in sheep and goats.

18.
Microorganisms ; 8(3)2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143441

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium parvum is a zoonotic intracellular protozoan responsible for the diarrheal illness cryptosporidiosis in humans and animals. Although a number of zoite surface proteins are known to be expressed during, and believed to be involved in, attachment and invasion of host cells, the molecular mechanisms by which C. parvum invades the host epithelial cells are not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the gene expression patterns, protein localization in developmental stages in culture, and in vitro neutralization characteristics of Cpgp40/15 and Cpgp40. Indirect immunofluorescence assay showed that Cpgp40/15 is associated with the parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM) during intracellular development. Both anti-gp40/15 and anti-gp40 antibodies demonstrated the ability to neutralize C. parvum infection in vitro. Further studies are needed to fully understand the specific role and functional mechanism of Cpgp40/15 (or gp40/15 complex) in the invasion of the host or in the PVM and to determine the feasibility of gp40/15 as a vaccine candidate for cryptosporidiosis in vivo.

19.
Exp Ther Med ; 19(3): 1933-1939, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32104251

RESUMO

Long intergenic non-coding RNA for kinase activation (LINK-A) has been characterized as an oncogenic long non-coding (lnc)RNA in triple-negative breast cancer and ovarian carcinoma, but its involvement in other malignancies remains elusive. In the present study, it was determined that the plasma levels of LINK-A lncRNA and Rho-associated protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) were significantly increased in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma compared with those in healthy controls. The plasma levels of LINK-A lncRNA were positively correlated with the plasma levels of ROCK1 in pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients, but not in healthy controls. Silencing of LINK-A led to inhibition of pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Simultaneous overexpression of ROCK1 attenuated the inhibitory effect of LINK-A silencing on cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Overexpression of LINK-A lncRNA led to upregulation of ROCK1 expression, while overexpression of ROCK1 had no significant effect on LINK-A lncRNA expression. It may therefore be concluded that LINK-A lncRNA may have a role in pancreatic adenocarcinoma, at least in part, by promoting ROCK1 expression.

20.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 15, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blastocystis is one of the most common intestinal parasites in humans and various animals worldwide. Few studies are available regarding the genetic characterization of Blastocystis infections in humans in China. METHODS: In the present study, 609 fecal samples were collected from two- to six-year-old kindergarten children in southern Xinjiang and were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: The infection rate of Blastocystis was 14.3% (87/609); no significant difference was observed among counties and between sexes. Blastocystis subtypes ST1 (n = 38), ST2 (n = 8), and ST3 (n = 41) were identified by sequence analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Genetic polymorphisms were observed at the intra-subtype level, including seven variations for ST1 (ST1A to ST1G), four for ST2 (ST2A to ST2D), and two for ST3 (ST3A and ST3B); with ST1F and ST2B being new variations. CONCLUSIONS: ST1 and ST3 are the two common Blastocystis subtypes in the study area. More extensive studies in both humans and animals in different regions are needed to better characterize the transmission of Blastocystis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis/transmissão , Blastocystis/genética , Blastocystis/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Variação Genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/genética , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/transmissão , Masculino , Filogenia , Polimorfismo Genético , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
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