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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822582

RESUMO

The practical deployment of advanced Li-S batteries is severely constrained by the uncontrollable lithium polysulfide conversion under realistic conditions. Although a plethora of advanced sulfur hosts and electrocatalysts have been examined, the fundamental mechanisms are still elusive and predictive design approaches have not yet been established. Here, we examined a series of well-defined Fe-N-C sulfur hosts with systematically varied and strongly coupled Fe3C and Fe electrocatalysts, prepared by one-step pyrolysis of a novel Fex[Fe(CN)6]y/polypyrrole composite at different temperatures. We revealed the key roles of Fe3C and metallic Fe on modulating polysulfide conversion, in that the polar Fe3C strongly adsorbs polysulfide whereas the Fe particles catalyze fast polysulfide conversion. We then highlight the superior performance of the rational host with strongly coupled Fe3C and Fe on mesoporous Fe-N-C host on promoting nearly complete polysulfide conversion, especially for the challenging short-chain Li2S4 conversion to Li2S. The electrodeposited Li2S on this host was extremely reactive and can be readily charged back to S with minimal activation overpotential. Overall, Li-S batteries equipped with the novel sulfur host delivered a high specific capacity of 1350 mAh g-1 at 0.1C with a capacity retention of 96% after 200 cycles. This work provides new insights on the functional mechanism of advanced sulfur hosts, which could eventually translate into new design principles for practical Li-S batteries.

2.
Hemoglobin ; : 1-4, 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775194

RESUMO

We describe a new α-globin chain variant in a Chinese subject. This novel variant, with a Val→Met substitution at codon 93 of the α-globin chain, has been named Hb Qingcheng (HBA1: c.280G>A) for where the proband was born. A woman with somatic mosaicism for Hb Qingcheng presented with the phenotype of mild α-thalassemia (α-thal).

3.
Fetal Pediatr Pathol ; : 1-8, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33252287

RESUMO

Introduction: Genetically, complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) is androgenetic diploid, containing two sets of paternal chromosomes. In most cases, recurrent HM (RHM) is CHM but has diploid biparental chromosome constitution. Case report: We report a mother with RHM, both with biparental diploidy. The mother was compound heterozygous for two variants, c.1720dup, p.(C574Lfs*4) and c.2165A > G, p.(D722G) of the NLRP7 gene, as was a brother who fathered 2 normal pregnancies. Conclusion: The genotype study should be obtained for patients of CHM, even in their first pregnancy, followed by genetic screening for maternal-effect variants in those with biparental moles. This strategy will identify patients in their first pregnancy with HM that have a decreased chance for a normal pregnancy, to allow genetic counseling, perhaps utilizing a donor egg.

4.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(51): 22978-22982, 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017504

RESUMO

Lithium-oxygen (Li-O2 ) batteries have attracted extensive research interest due to their high energy density. Other than Li2 O2 (a typical discharge product in Li-O2 batteries), LiOH has proved to be electrochemically active as an alternative product. Here we report a simple strategy to achieve a reversible LiOH-based Li-O2 battery by using a cation additive, sodium ions, to the lithium electrolyte. Without redox mediators in the cell, LiOH is detected as the sole discharge product and it charges at a low charge potential of 3.4 V. A solution-based reaction route is proposed, showing that the competing solvation environment of the catalyst and Li+ leads to LiOH precipitation at the cathode. It is critical to tune the cell chemistry of Li-O2 batteries by designing a simple system to promote LiOH formation/decomposition.

5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(38): 42704-42710, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857491

RESUMO

One of the grand challenges that impedes practical applications of nanomaterials is the lack of robust manufacturing methods that are scalable, cheap, and environmentally friendly. Herein, we address this challenge by developing a microfluidic approach that produces surfactant-free Pd nanocrystals (NCs) uniformly loaded on N-doped porous carbon in a one-batch process. The deep eutectic solvent (DES) prepared from choline chloride and ethylene glycol was employed as a novel synthesis solvent, and its extended hydrogen networks and abundant ionic species effectively stabilize Pd facets and confine nanocrystal sizes without using surfactants. The microreactors provide faster heat exchange and more uniform mass transport, which in combination with DES produced Pd NCs with better-defined shape and predominately exposed Pd (100) facet. Furthermore, we describe that the N-doped functional groups in porous carbon direct dense and uniform heterogeneous growth of Pd NCs in a one-batch process, thereby eliminating a separate catalyst deposition step that is often involved in conventional synthesis. The Pd NCs in the one-batch-produced Pd/C catalysts exhibited a size distribution of ∼13 ± 3.5 nm and a high ESCA of 46.0 m2/g and delivered 362 mA/mg for formic acid electrochemical oxidation with improved stability, demonstrating the unique potentials of microfluidic reactors and DES for the controllable and scalable synthesis of electrocatalyst materials for practical applications.

6.
Nano Lett ; 20(6): 4681-4686, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32426983

RESUMO

Metal-air batteries have attracted extensive research interests due to their high theoretical energy density. However, most of the previous studies were limited by applying pure oxygen in the cathode, sacrificing the gravimetric and volumetric energy density. Here, we develop a real sodium-"air" battery, in which the rechargeability of the battery relies on the reversible reaction of the formation of sodium peroxide dihydrate (Na2O2·2H2O). After an oxygen evolution reaction catalyst is applied, the charge overpotential is largely reduced to achieve a high energy efficiency. The sodium-air batteries deliver high areal capacity of 4.2 mAh·cm-2 and have a decent cycle life of 100 cycles. The oxygen crossover effect is largely suppressed by replacing the oxygen with air, whereas the dense solid electrolyte interphase formed on the sodium anode further prolongs the cycle life.

7.
Pediatr Neonatol ; 60(1): 35-42, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29631977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Chromosome microarray analysis (CMA) is currently the first-tier diagnostic assay for the evaluation of developmental delay (DD) and intellectual disability (ID) with unknown etiology. Here, we present our clinical experience in implementing whole-genome high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays to investigate 489 patients with unexplained DD/ID in whom standard karyotyping analyses showed normal karyotypes. This study aimed to assess the usefulness of CMA for clinical diagnostic testing in the Chinese population. RESULTS: A total of 489 children were classified into three groups: isolated DD/ID (n = 358), DD/ID with epilepsy (n = 49), and DD/ID with other structural anomalies (n = 82). We identified 126 cases (25.8%, 126/489) of pathogenic copy number variants (CNVs) by CMA, including 89 (24.9%, 89/358) with isolated DD/ID, 13 (26.5%, 13/49) with DD/ID with epilepsy, and 24 (29.3%, 24/82) with DD/ID with other structural anomalies. Among the 126 cases of pathogenic CNVs, 79 cases were identified as microdeletion/microduplication syndromes, among which 76 cases were classified as common syndromes, and 3 cases were classified as rare syndromes, including 15q24 microdeletion syndrome, Xq28 microduplication syndrome and Lowe syndrome. Additionally, there were forty-seven cases of non-syndromic pathogenic CNVs. The ABAT, FTSJ1, DYNC1H1, and SETBP1 genes were identified as DD/ID candidate genes. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest the necessity of CMA as a routine diagnostic test for unexplained DD/ID in South China.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Análise em Microsséries , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Deleção Cromossômica , Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 15/genética , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Epilepsia/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Síndrome
8.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 34(4): 528-533, 2017 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28777852

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of chromosome microarray analysis (CMA) for identifying the etiology of developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID). METHODS: A total of 489 children referred for DD/ID with or without other abnormalities were recruited. All patients showed a normal karyotype. DNA was extracted and hybridized with Affymetrix CytoScan 750K array by following the manufacturer's protocol. The data was analyzed with CHAS v2.0 software. RESULTS: The children were classified as with isolated DD/ID (n=358), DD/ID with epilepsy (n=49), and DD/ID with other structural anomalies (n=82). Pathogenic copy number variants (CNVs) were identified in 126 cases (25.8%), which included 89 (24.9%, 89/358) of whose with isolated DD/ID, 13 (26.5%, 13/49) of those with DD/ID and epilepsy, and 24 (29.3%, 24/82) of whose with DD/ID and other structural anomalies [P=0.064 (24.9% vs. 26.5%), P=0.679 (24.9% vs. 29.3%), and P=0.113 (26.5% vs. 29.3%), respectively]. Among the 126 cases, 79 were identified as microdeletion/microduplication syndromes, which included 15q24 microdeletion syndrome, Xq28 microduplication syndrome, and Lowe syndrome. Forty-seven cases had de novo pathogenic CNVs. ABAT, PMM2, FTSJ1, DYNC1H1 and SETBP1 were considered as candidate genes for DD/ID. CONCLUSION: CMA is an effective method for identifying the etiology of DD/ID and is capable of identifying microdeletion/microduplication syndromes as well as de novo pathogenic CNVs which may be missed by conventional karyotyping. Based on the results, candidate genes for DD/ID may be identified.


Assuntos
Cromossomos/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Cariotipagem/métodos , Masculino
9.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 32(10): 1665-1675, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28387813

RESUMO

Background: In the absence of cytogenetic abnormality, fetuses with congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) with/without other structural anomalies show a higher likelihood of monogenic causes; however, defining the underlying pathology can be challenging. Here, we investigate the value of whole-exome sequencing (WES) in fetuses with CAKUT but normal findings upon karyotyping and chromosome microarray analysis. Methods: WES was performed on DNA from the cord blood of 30 fetuses with unexplained CAKUT with/without other structural anomalies. In the first 23 cases, sequencing was initially performed on fetal DNA only; for the remaining seven cases, the trio of fetus, mother and father was sequenced simultaneously. Results: Of the 30 cases, pathogenic variants were identified in 4 (13%) (UMOD, NEK8, HNF1B and BBS2) and incidental variants in 2 (7%) (HSPD1 and GRIN2B). Furthermore, two of the above four cases had other anomalies in addition to CAKUT. Thus, the detection rate was only 2/22 (9.1%) for isolated CAKUT and 2/8 (25%) for CAKUT with other abnormalities. Conclusions: Applying WES to the prenatal diagnostic approach in CAKUT fetuses with or without other anomalies allows for an accurate and early etiology-based diagnosis and improved clinical management. To expedite interpretation of the results, trio sequencing should be employed; however, interpretation may nevertheless be compromised by incomplete coverage of all relevant genes.


Assuntos
Exoma , Anormalidades Urogenitais/genética , Adulto , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Amniocentese , Sequência de Bases , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Feto , Humanos , Rim/anormalidades , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Gravidez , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Sistema Urinário/anormalidades , Sistema Urinário/diagnóstico por imagem , Anormalidades Urogenitais/diagnóstico por imagem , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(15): 5494-5502, 2017 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28343390

RESUMO

The search for active, stable, and cost-efficient electrocatalysts for hydrogen production via water splitting could make a substantial impact on energy technologies that do not rely on fossil fuels. Here we report the synthesis of rhodium phosphide electrocatalyst with low metal loading in the form of nanocubes (NCs) dispersed in high-surface-area carbon (Rh2P/C) by a facile solvo-thermal approach. The Rh2P/C NCs exhibit remarkable performance for hydrogen evolution reaction and oxygen evolution reaction compared to Rh/C and Pt/C catalysts. The atomic structure of the Rh2P NCs was directly observed by annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy, which revealed a phosphorus-rich outermost atomic layer. Combined experimental and computational studies suggest that surface phosphorus plays a crucial role in determining the robust catalyst properties.

11.
Nano Lett ; 16(10): 6452-6459, 2016 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27635659

RESUMO

Electrodepositing low loadings of metallic nanoparticle catalysts onto the surface of semiconducting photoelectrodes is a highly attractive approach for decreasing catalyst costs and minimizing optical losses. However, securely anchoring nanoparticles to the photoelectrode surface can be challenging-especially if the surface is covered by a thin insulating overlayer. Herein, we report on Si-based photocathodes for the hydrogen evolution reaction that overcome this problem through the use of a 2-10 nm thick layer of silicon oxide (SiOx) that is deposited on top of Pt nanoparticle catalysts that were first electrodeposited on a 1.5 nm SiO2|p-Si(100) absorber layer. Such insulator-metal-insulator-semiconductor (IMIS) photoelectrodes exhibit superior durability and charge transfer properties compared to metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) control samples that lacked the secondary SiOx overlayer. Systematic investigation of the influence of particle loading, SiOx layer thickness, and illumination intensity suggests that the SiOx layer possesses moderate conductivity, thereby reducing charge transfer resistance associated with high local tunneling current densities between the p-Si and Pt nanoparticles. Importantly, the IMIS architecture is proven to be a highly effective approach for stabilizing electrocatalytic nanoparticles deposited on insulating overlayers without adversely affecting mass transport of reactant and product species associated with the hydrogen evolution reaction.

12.
Am J Reprod Immunol ; 76(3): 217-23, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27521929

RESUMO

PROBLEM: The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of nuclear factor kappa B-p65 (NF-κB p65) and soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) in maternal blood with premature rupture of membranes (PROM) and to assess their values for prediction of subclinical chorioamnionitis. METHOD: NF-κB p65 and sTREM-1 levels were measured in maternal blood and cord blood by fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR assay. According to the placental membranes pathological examination, pregnant women with PROM were divided into chorioamnionitis group (n=28) and non-chorioamnionitis group (n=22). RESULTS: In the PROM group,the NF-κB p65 and sTREM-1 levels in maternal blood were significantly higher in women with chorioamnionitis than women without chorioamnionitis (P<.05). The cutoff value of maternal NF-κB p65, sTREM-1, C-reactive protein (CRP), and WBC level were 6.73, 2.93, 6.75 mg/L, and 10.8×10(9) /L, respectively, through analysis of the area under the ROC curve (AUC). The optimal combination test was detection of maternal blood NF-κB p65 and CRP levels, which resulted in a sensitivity of 89.3% and a specificity of 72.7% for the prediction of subclinical chorioamnionitis. CONCLUSION: Combined measurements of maternal NF-κB p65 and CRP levels may be used as early biological indicators that predict subclinical chorioamnionitis in premature rupture of membranes.


Assuntos
Corioamnionite/sangue , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/sangue , Fator de Transcrição RelA/sangue , Receptor Gatilho 1 Expresso em Células Mieloides/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Corioamnionite/imunologia , Feminino , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/imunologia , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Fator de Transcrição RelA/imunologia , Receptor Gatilho 1 Expresso em Células Mieloides/imunologia
13.
Sci Rep ; 3: 2431, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23942256

RESUMO

Graphene supported Pt nanostructures have great potential to be used as catalysts in electrochemical energy conversion and storage technologies; however the simultaneous control of Pt morphology and dispersion, along with ideally tailoring the physical properties of the catalyst support properties has proven very challenging. Using sulfur doped graphene (SG) as a support material, the heterogeneous dopant atoms could serve as nucleation sites allowing for the preparation of SG supported Pt nanowire arrays with ultra-thin diameters (2-5 nm) and dense surface coverage. Detailed investigation of the preparation technique reveals that the structure of the resulting composite could be readily controlled by fine tuning the Pt nanowire nucleation and growth reaction kinetics and the Pt-support interactions, whereby a mechanistic platinum nanowire array growth model is proposed. Electrochemical characterization demonstrates that the composite materials have 2-3 times higher catalytic activities toward the oxygen reduction and methanol oxidation reaction compared with commercial Pt/C catalyst.

14.
Nanoscale ; 2(6): 906-9, 2010 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20648285

RESUMO

A general corrosion strategy was employed for the straightforward fabrication of a variety of metal oxide nanostructures, such as Fe3O4 octahedra, Co3O4 nanoplates, nanoporous TiO2, and Mn3O4 octahedra.

16.
Talanta ; 80(5): 1737-43, 2010 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20152405

RESUMO

A new electrochemiluminescence (ECL) DNA assay is developed using quantum dots (QDs) as DNA labels. When nanoporous gold leaf (NPGL) electrodes are used, sensitivity of the ECL assay is remarkably increased due to ultra-thin nanopores. In this assay, target DNA (t-DNA) is hybridized with capture DNA (c-DNA) bound on the NPGL electrode, which is fabricated by conjugating amino-modified c-DNA to thioglycolic acid (TGA) modified at the activated NPGL electrode. Following that, amino-modified probe DNA is hybridized with the t-DNA, yielding sandwich hybrids on the NPGL electrode. Then, mercaptopropionic acid-capped CdTe QDs are labeled to the amino group end of the sandwich hybrids. Finally, in the presence of S(2)O(8)(2-) as coreactant, ECL emission of the QD-labeled DNA hybrids on the NPGL electrode is measured by scanning the potential from 0 to -2V to record the curve of ECL intensity versus potential. The maximum ECL intensity (I(m,ECL)) on the curve is proportional to t-DNA concentration with a linear range of 5 x 10(-15) to 1 x 10(-11)mol/L. The ECL DNA assay can be used to determine DNA corresponding to mRNA in cell extracts in this study.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cádmio/química , DNA/análise , Eletroquímica/métodos , Ouro/química , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Pontos Quânticos , Telúrio/química , Eletrodos , Modelos Lineares , Nanoestruturas/química , Porosidade
17.
Nanotechnology ; 21(8): 85703, 2010 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20097978

RESUMO

We measured the thermal and electrical conductivities of nanoporous Au thin foils in the temperature range 93-300 K. Resulting from the nanoscale microstructure, the two types of conductivities are both temperature dependent and significantly lower than those of bulk Au. However, the corresponding Lorenz number is strikingly similar to that of bulk Au, indicating that the Wiedemann-Franz law holds perfectly well for nanoporous metals in this temperature range. Compared to the bulk value, the Debye temperature of nanoporous Au is decreased. We predict the theoretical Debye temperature of nanoporous Au by its relation to the elastic constants. The present results indicate that the nanoporous Au foils should be comprised of macroscopic, single-crystalline porous grains rather than nanocrystals.

18.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 12(1): 239-46, 2010 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20024465

RESUMO

A simple and general dealloying method is employed to fabricate nanoporous Au/Pt alloys with pre-determined alloy compositions. Structural characterization by electron microscopes demonstrates that selective etching of Cu from Au/Pt/Cu alloy precursors results in the formation of three-dimensional bicontinuous porous network structures with uniform pores and ligaments less than 10 nm. X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction demonstrate that nanoporous Au/Pt alloys have a single-phase cubic structure with relatively uniform compositions across the samples. These high surface area alloy nanostructures show much enhanced specific activity and distinct surface reactivity toward the electrooxidation of some small organic molecules, such as methanol and formic acid, as the Au content varies within the structure, thus holding great potential for use in clean energy and environmental applications.

19.
Langmuir ; 25(1): 561-7, 2009 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19063640

RESUMO

Ultrathin Pt films from one to several atomic layers are successfully decorated onto nanoporous gold (NPG) membranes by utilizing under potential deposition (UPD) of Cu onto Au or Pt surfaces, followed by in situ redox replacement reaction (RRR) of UPD Cu by Pt. The thickness of Pt layers can be controlled precisely by repeating the Cu-UPD-RRR cycles. TEM observations coupled with electrochemical testing suggest that the morphology of Pt overlayers changes from an ultrathin epitaxial film in the case of one or two atomic layers to well-dispersed nanoislands in the case of four and more atomic layers. Electron diffraction (ED) patterns confirm that the as-prepared NPG-Pt membranes maintain a single-crystalline structure, even though the thickness of Pt films reaches six atomic layers, indicating the decorated Pt films hold the same crystallographic relationship to the NPG substrate during the entire fabrication process. Due to the regular modulation of Pt utilization, the electrocatalytic activity of NPG-Pt exhibits interesting surface structure dependence in methanol, ethanol, and CO electrooxidation reactions. These novel bimetallic nanocatalysts show excellent electrocatalytic activity and much enhanced poison tolerance as compared to the commercial Pt/C catalysts. The success in the fabrication of NPG-Pt-type materials provides a new path to prepare electrocatalysts with ultralow Pt loading and high Pt utilization, which is of great significance in energy-related applications, such as direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs).

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