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1.
JAMA Pediatr ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017011

RESUMO

Importance: Central catheter-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) and catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) increase morbidity, mortality, and health care costs in pediatric patients. Objective: To examine changes over time in CLABSI and CAUTI rates between 2013 and 2018 in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) using prospective surveillance data from community hospitals, children's hospitals, and pediatric units within general hospitals. Design, Setting, and Participants: This time series study included 176 US hospitals reporting pediatric health care-associated infection surveillance data to the National Healthcare Safety Network from January 1, 2013, to June 30, 2018. Patients aged 18 years or younger admitted to PICUs or level III NICUs were included in the analysis. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were device-associated rates of CLABSI in NICUs and PICUs and CAUTI in PICUs (infections per 1000 device-days). Secondary outcomes included population-based rates (infections per 10 000 patient-days) and device utilization (device-days per patient-days). Regression models were fit using generalized estimating equations to assess yearly changes in CLABSI and CAUTI rates, adjusted for birth weight (≤1500 vs >1500 g) in neonatal models. Results: Of the 176 hospitals, 132 hospitals with NICUs and 114 hospitals with PICUs contributed data. Of these, NICUs reported 6 064 172 patient-days and 1 363 700 central line-days and PICUs reported 1 999 979 patient-days, 925 956 central catheter-days, and 327 599 indwelling urinary catheter-days. In NICUs, there were no significant changes in yearly trends in device-associated (incidence rate ratio [IRR] per year, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.95-1.03) and population-based (IRR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.92-1.00) CLABSI rates or central catheter utilization (odds ratio [OR], 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95-1.00). Results were similar in PICUs, with device-associated (IRR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.99-1.07) and population-based (IRR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.99-1.07) CLABSI rates and central catheter utilization (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.97-1.01) remaining stable. While device-associated CAUTI rates in PICUs also remained unchanged over time (IRR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.91-1.03), population-based CAUTI rates significantly decreased by 8% per year (IRR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.86-0.98) and indwelling urinary catheter utilization significantly decreased by 6% per year (OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.91-0.96). Conclusions and Relevance: Recent trends in CLABSI rates noted in this study among critically ill neonates and children in a large cohort of US hospitals indicate that past gains have held, without evidence of further improvements, suggesting novel approaches for CLABSI prevention are needed. Modest improvements in population-based CAUTI rates likely reflect more judicious use of urinary catheters.

2.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(79): 11823-11826, 2020 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021257

RESUMO

Epilepsy is the fourth most common neurological disorder, and aberrantly elevated sulfur dioxide derivatives (SO32-/HSO3-) are thought to underlie the hippocampal neuronal apoptosis in epilepsy. We have designed and synthesized a mitochondria-targeted polydopamine nanoprobe for visualizing endogenous SO32-/HSO3- by the nucleophilic addition reaction. The nanoprobe was used for imaging SO2 derivatives both in the mitochondria of cultured cells and zebrafish, and successfully applied in the hippocampus of a rat model of epilepsy. The PDAD nanoprobe could be of great value for the elucidation of mechanisms of abnormal SO32-/HSO3- involved in diseases such as epilepsy.

3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD003718, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Establishing the subgroup analysis of the fallopian tubes (tubes) is a commonly undertaken diagnostic investigation for women with subfertility. This is usually achieved by flushing contrast medium through the tubes and visualising patency on radiographs, ultrasonography or laparoscopy. Many women were noted to conceive in the first three to six months after tubal flushing, raising the possibility that tubal flushing could also be a treatment for infertility. There has been debate about which contrast medium should be used (water-soluble or oil-soluble media) as this may influence pregnancy rates. An important adverse event during tubal flushing is intravasation (backflow of contrast medium into the blood or lymphatic vessels),which could lead to embolism although it is asymptomatic in most cases. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of tubal flushing with oil-soluble contrast media (OSCM) and water-soluble contrast media (WSCM) on subsequent fertility outcomes in women with subfertility. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Specialised Register of controlled trials, MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, PsycINFO, reference lists of identified articles and trial registries. The most recent search was conducted in April 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing tubal flushing with OSCM, WSCM with each other or with no treatment, in women with subfertility. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected the trials, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information. The overall quality of the evidence was assessed using GRADE methods. MAIN RESULTS: Fifteen trials involving 3864 women were included in this systematic review. Overall, the quality of evidence varied from very low to moderate: the main limitations were risk of bias, heterogeneity and imprecision. OSCM versus no treatment Four studies (506 women) were included in this comparison. Tubal flushing with OSCM may increase the odds of live birth (odds ratio (OR) 3.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.57 to 6.85, 3 RCTs, 204 women, I2 = 0, low-quality evidence). This suggests that if the chance of live birth following no treatment is assumed to be 11%, the chance following tubal flushing with OSCM would be between 16% and 46%. Tubal flushing with OSCM may increase in the odds of clinical pregnancy (OR 3.54, 95% CI 2.08 to 6.02, 4 RCTs, 506 women, I2 = 18%, low-quality evidence). This suggests that if the chance of clinical pregnancy following no treatment is assumed to be 9%, the chance following tubal flushing with OSCM would be between 17% and 37%. No study measured intravasation or other adverse events such as infection, haemorrhage and congenital abnormalities. WSCM versus no treatment Only one study (334 women) was included in this comparison. We are uncertain whether tubal flushing with WSCM increase live birth compared to no treatment (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.91, 1 RCT, 334 women, low-quality evidence). This suggests that if the chance of live birth following no treatment is assumed to be 21%, the chance following tubal flushing with WSCM would be between 15% and 33%. We are uncertain whether tubal flushing with WSCM increases clinical pregnancy compared to no treatment (OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.84, 1 RCT, 334 women, low-quality evidence). This suggests that if the chance of clinical pregnancy following no treatment is assumed to be 27%, the chance following tubal flushing with WSCM would be between 29% and 40%. One case with pelvic infection was reported in the WSCM group and no case with infection in the no treatment group in a one study (334 women). Meta-analysis was not performed due to the rare events. No study measured intravasation or other adverse events such as infection, haemorrhage and congenital abnormalities. OSCM versus WSCM Six studies (2598 women) were included in this comparison. Three studies reported live birth, including two with higher live birth in the OSCM group (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.27 to 2.11, 1119 women; OR 3.45, 95% CI 1.97 to 6.03, 398 women); and one with insufficient evidence of a difference between groups (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.60 to 1.40, 533 women). Given the substantial heterogeneity observed (I2 = 86%), meta-analysis was not performed. Tubal flushing with OSCM probably increased in the odds of intravasation (asymptomatic) compared to tubal flushing with WSCM (OR 5.00, 95% CI 2.25 to 11.12, 4 RCTs, 1912 women, I2 = 0, moderate-quality evidence). This suggests that if the chance of intravasation following tubal flushing with WSCM is assumed to be 1%, the chance following tubal flushing with OSCM would be between 2% and 9%. Tubal flushing with OSCM may increase the odds of clinical pregnancy (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.85, 6 RCTs, 2598 women, I2 = 41%, low-quality evidence). This suggests that if the chance of clinical pregnancy following tubal flushing with WSCM is assumed to be 26%, the chance following tubal flushing with OSCM would be between 28% and 39%. We are uncertain whether tubal flushing with OSCM decreases the odds of infection (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.04 to 1.22, 2 RCTs, 662 women, I2 = 0, very low-quality evidence) or haemorrhage (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.40 to 1.06, 2 RCTs, 662 women, I2 = 0, very low-quality evidence). Three neonates with congenital abnormalities were reported in the OSCM group while no congenital abnormality was reported in the WSCM group in one study (1119 women). No meta-analysis was performed due to the rare events. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The evidence suggests that compared to no treatment, tubal flushing with OSCM may increase the chance of live birth and clinical pregnancy, while it is uncertain whether tubal flushing with WSCM improves those outcomes. Compared to tubal flushing with WSCM, OSCM may improve clinical pregnancy while meta-analysis was impossible for live birth due to heterogeneity. Evidence also suggests that OSCM is associated with an increased risk of asymptomatic intravasation. Overall, adverse events, especially long-term adverse events, are poorly reported across studies.

4.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 28(5): 1523-1527, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067948

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of Hsa-miR-9 in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and its relationship with CDX2 gene. METHODS: The clinical data of 130 patients with ALL were collected from nearly five years in our hospital, and in the same period 60 healthy children in the same age were selected as control group. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) was applied to examine the expression of Hsa-miR-9 and CDX2 gene of the two groups, the relationship between Hsa-miR-9 expression and ALL patients' clinical characteristics, survival time, CDX2 expression were analyzed. RESULTS: The expression level of Hsa-miR-9 in ALL children was significantly lower than that in the healthy control group (P<0.001). The expression of Hsa-miR-9 in ALL children related with serum WBC, infiltrating lymph nodes, splenomegaly, and risk grade (P<0.05). The median survival time of ALL children with high expression of Hsa-miR-9 was significantly longer than that of the ALL children with low expression (P<0.001). Hsa-miR-9 expression significantly correlated with CDX2 gene expression in ALL children at different treatment stages (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The expression of Hsa-miR-9 decreases in children with ALL, and ALL children with high expression of Hsa-miR-9 have a longer overall survival time. The expression of hsa-miR-9 in ALL children closely related with CDX2 gene.

5.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 40(10): 1123-7, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068358

RESUMO

The development and innovation of overseas acupuncture was expounded from four aspects: meridian diagnosis and physical examination, activity of acupoint, acupuncture and moxibustion method and acupuncture level, enrichment and improvement of TCM theory and technology, and it was summarized what can be learned of principles, methods, prescriptions, acupoints and technology. On the basis of inheriting the experience of ancient acupuncture and moxibustion, the advanced experience and theory at home and abroad should be accommodated , which is helpful to better perfect and reconstruct the theoretical system of acupuncture and moxibustion, and realize the sustainable development of acupuncture and moxibustion.

6.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 246: 119028, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068897

RESUMO

Tyrosinase (TYR) is a crucial enzyme in melanin metabolism and catecholamine production, its abnormal overexpression is closely associated with many human diseases involving melanoma cancer, vitiligo, Parkinson's disease and so on. Herein, a dual-signal fluorescence sensing system for monitoring TYR activity is constructed depending on the transformation of blue-green fluorescence emission of copolymer. The developed sensing system is based on TYR catalyzing the hydroxylation of mono-phenol to o-diphenol and the conversion of fluorescence copolymer (FCP) blue emission (430 nm) and green emission (535 nm) in the presence of PEI. In the system, both blue and green emission exhibit a high selectivity and sensitivity (S/B up to 300 and 30 for blue and green emission, respectively) toward TYR in the range from 0.5 to 2.5 U/mL with the detection limit of 0.002 U/mL and 0.06 U/mL, respectively. Additionally, this assay is used to detect TYR in human serum with excellent recovery even at 30% human serum concentrations. Furthermore, it still has been successfully applied to TYR inhibitor screening by taking kojic acid as a model. We believe that our developed sensor has great potential application in TYR-associated disease diagnosis and treatment and drug discovery.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069661

RESUMO

The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a severe global acute respiratory pandemic around the world in just a few months with an increasing number of infections and deaths. COVID-19 is a highly contagious and fatal disease. Almost everyone in the population is susceptible, and the incubation period is 1-14 days, mostly 3-7 days. The clinical symptoms of the COVID-19 are fever, dry cough and fatigue. Some patients are accompanied by symptoms such as nasal congestion, runny nose, sore throat, myalgia and diarrhea. Severe patients could even develop acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic shocks, metabolic acidosis and multifunctional organ failure, etc. Due to the relatively closed environment of dental clinics and the unique nature of dental procedures, both dental personnel and patients are easy to get infection through currently known respiratory droplet transmission, aerosol transmission, close contact transmission and other ways, inducing mutual cross-infection. Dental practitioners are facing unprecedented challenges due to the high risk of exposure to droplets and aerosols from saliva and other body fluids during dental procedures. Based on our experience and relevant research, this article introduces the basic knowledge about COVID-19 and the corresponding protective measures for dental practitioners, includes the risk of infection during dental procedures, the precautions related to the patients, infection control measures during dental treatment in clinics, protection measures at different levels for dental practitioners, and emergency dental treatment for confirmed COVID-19. It is the responsibility of every dental practitioner to fully understand the characteristics of the new coronavirus and strictly implement the most appropriate protective measures to reduce and control the risk of cross infection in dental procedures.

8.
Opt Lett ; 45(19): 5303-5306, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001880

RESUMO

We propose and demonstrate a modified deep-learning-powered photonic analog-to-digital converter (DL-PADC) in which a neural network is used to eliminate the signal distortions of the photonic system. This work broadens the receiving capability from simple waveforms to complicated waveforms via implementing a modified deep learning algorithm. Thus, the modified DL-PADC can be applied in real scenarios with wideband complicated signals. Testing results show that the trained neural network eliminates the signal distortions with high quality, improving the spur-free dynamic range by ∼20dB. An experiment for echo detection is conducted as an example, which shows that the neural network enhances the quality of detailed target profile detection. Furthermore, the modified DL-PADC only comprises a low-complexity photonic system, which obviates the requirement for redundant hardware setup while maintaining the processing quality. It is expected that the modified DL-PADC can perform as a promising photonic wideband signal receiver with low hardware complexity.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(19)2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003340

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders. The neuropathological features of PD are selective and progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, deficiencies in striatal dopamine levels, and the presence of intracellular Lewy bodies. Interactions among aging and genetic and environmental factors are considered to underlie the common etiology of PD, which involves multiple changes in cellular processes. Recent studies suggest that changes in lysine acetylation and deacetylation of many proteins, including histones and nonhistone proteins, might be tightly associated with PD pathogenesis. Here, we summarize the changes in lysine acetylation of both histones and nonhistone proteins, as well as the related lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) and lysine deacetylases (KDACs), in PD patients and various PD models. We discuss the potential roles and underlying mechanisms of these changes in PD and highlight that restoring the balance of lysine acetylation/deacetylation of histones and nonhistone proteins is critical for PD treatment. Finally, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different KAT/KDAC inhibitors or activators in the treatment of PD models and emphasize that SIRT1 and SIRT3 activators and SIRT2 inhibitors are the most promising effective therapeutics for PD.

10.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 15(1): 289, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus(DM) is an indicator affects postoperative mortality and morbidity after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the frequent postoperative complications after CABG. This multi-centre register study designed to investigate the impact of DM on postoperative AKI in primary isolated CABG patients. METHODS: We included all patients (n = 4325) from Jiangsu Province CABG register who underwent primary isolated CABG from September 2017 to August 2019. The patients were divided into 3 groups: No-DM group(n = 3067), DM-oral group (DM with oral hypoglycemic agents, n = 706) and DM-insulin group (DM with insulin treatment, n = 552). The development and severity of AKI were based on Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria. RESULTS: There were totally 338, 108 and 145 patients developed AKI in No-DM, DM-oral and DM-insulin group respectively. Comparing with No-DM group, DM-oral group had a higher rate of AKI(χ2 = 10.071, p = 0.002), DM-insulin group had a higher rate(χ2 = 94.042, p<0.001) and severity of AKI(χ2 = 10.649, p = 0.005). The adjusted odds ratio for AKI was 1.26 (95% CI 1.03-1.57) in DM-oral group and 3.92 (95% CI 3.27-5.16) in DM-insulin group, in comparison with No-DM group. CONCLUSIONS: Independent of baseline renal function or cardiac function, DM was associated with an increased risk of AKI after CABG, especially in patients with insulin treatment, who also had a higher severity of AKI.

11.
Biochem Genet ; 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040171

RESUMO

Camellia oleifera Abel. (C. oleifera) as an important economic tree species in China has drawn growing attention because of its highly commercial, medic, cosmetic, and ornamental value. To deepen our understanding about the photosynthetic characters during the whole developmental stage as well as the molecular basis of photosynthesis, a comparative analysis of the leaf transcriptome of two C. oleifera cultivars, 'Guoyou No.13' (GY13) and 'Xianglin No.82' (XL82), with different photosynthetic characteristics from May to September has been conducted. In this study, a group of genes related to photosynthesis, hormone regulation, circadian clock and transcription factor, involved in the photosynthetic advantage. Photosynthetic parameters from May to September of these two cultivars provided evidence supporting photosynthetic advantage of GY13 compared to XL82. In addition, expression levels of 12 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were validated using real-time PCR (RT-PCR). To screen gene clusters and hub genes that might directly regulated the photosynthetic differences between cultivars, a Weight Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) was conducted. Three co-expression network (module) and top ten connected genes (hub genes) were identified that might play crucial role in the regulatory network of photosynthesis. The results not only showed multiple functional genes that might involve in the differences of photosynthetic characteristics between cultivars, but also provide some evidences for the heat tolerance might be an important character which helps GY13 kept higher photosynthetic parameters than XL82 during the developmental stage. In summary, our transcriptomic approach together with RT-PCR tests allowed us to expand our understanding of the characters of C. oleifera cultivars with different photosynthetic efficiency during the developmental stage and to further exploring new candidate genes involve in high photosynthetic efficiency in molecular-assisted breeding program of C. oleifera.

12.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 122020 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apathy is common in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. However, its relation with other clinical symptoms in AD and brain structural changes in magnetic resonance imaging is unclear. RESULTS: Compared with AD with no apathy group, cognitive function and activities of daily living were significantly impaired and neuropsychiatric symptoms were obviously presented in AD with apathy group (P<0.05). The frequency of Apolipoprotein E genotypes was not significantly different (P>0.05). Correlation analyses and multiple linear analyses revealed that thickness of left temporal pole and volume of posterior corpus callosum were significantly and negatively correlated with Modified Apathy Estimation Scale score in AD patients (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Apathy with AD is positively correlated with cognitive impairment, neuropsychiatric symptoms and poor activities of daily living. Atrophy of left temporal pole and posterior corpus callosum presented by MRI is positively related with apathy of AD. METHODS: In this study, 137 AD patients were recruited and divided into AD with apathy group and AD with no apathy group according to Modified Apathy Estimation Scale score. We evaluated patients' cognitive function, neuropsychiatric symptoms and activities of daily living, detected the frequency of Apolipoprotein E genotypes and measured cortical thickness and volume by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

14.
J Int Med Res ; 48(10): 300060520956473, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044099

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish a mouse model of bioluminescent Klebsiella pneumoniae-induced lung infection, under different infection states after pretreatment with various dosages of cyclophosphamide (CTX). METHODS: A K. pneumoniae strain carrying the luxCDABE operon was used to infect immunocompetent mice (intraperitoneal injection of saline at 4 days and 1 day prior to experimental lung infection) and immunodeficient mice (50 mg/kg CTX at 4 days and 50 mg/kg CTX at 1 day prior to lung infection; or 150 mg/kg CTX at 4 days and 100 mg/kg CTX at 1 day prior to lung infection). Disease progression was monitored in living mice using a bioluminescence imaging system. The bioluminescent images, bacterial loads in lungs, blood cytological changes and histopathology of lungs were analysed. RESULTS: K. pneumoniae-induced lung infection models were established in mice pretreated with CTX. Different doses of CTX led to different severities of lung infection. Mice pretreated with 150/100 mg/kg CTX were more suitable for real-time monitoring as they had more typical bioluminescent images of lung infection, more obvious changes in the bioluminescent intensity values, more bacterial colonies in the lungs and more distinct pulmonary pathological changes. CONCLUSIONS: A stable bioluminescent K. pneumonia-induced lung infection model was successfully established in mice pretreated with CTX, which can be semi-quantitatively monitored in real-time.

15.
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi ; 44(5): 448-452, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047572

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the NOAEL of the nickel ion and provide with basic data for the biological evaluation of those medical devices containing nickel. Five groups SD rats were repeatedly exposed during 14 d respectively to nickel at first stage doses of 4.9, 3.7, 2.5 mg/(kg.d), and the second stage doses of 1.2, 0.25 mg/(kg.d) by the intravenous route. The results showed that the NOAEL of nickel ion is 0.25 mg/(kg.d) for SD rats, and the result was verified by subchronic systemic toxicity test of nickel alloy. The threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) of nickel is 150 µg/d (based on application of 100-fold uncertainty factor and a body weight of 60 kg)deduced by these data.

16.
Neurosci Bull ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048310

RESUMO

General anesthesia severely affects the metabolites in the brain. Glycogen, principally stored in astrocytes and providing the short-term delivery of substrates to neurons, has been implicated as an affected molecule. However, whether glycogen plays a pivotal role in modulating anesthesia-arousal remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that isoflurane-anesthetized mice exhibited dynamic changes in the glycogen levels in various brain regions. Glycogen synthase (GS) and glycogen phosphorylase (GP), key enzymes of glycogen metabolism, showed increased activity after isoflurane exposure. Upon blocking glycogenolysis with 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol (DAB), a GP antagonist, we found a prolonged time of emergence from anesthesia and an enhanced δ frequency in the EEG (electroencephalogram). In addition, augmented expression of glycogenolysis genes in glycogen phosphorylase, brain (Pygb) knock-in (PygbH11/H11) mice resulted in delayed induction of anesthesia, a shortened emergence time, and a lower ratio of EEG-δ. Our findings revealed a role of brain glycogen in regulating anesthesia-arousal, providing a potential target for modulating anesthesia.

17.
Phytomedicine ; 79: 153328, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chaiqin chengqi decoction (CQCQD) is a Chinese herbal formula derived from dachengqi decoction. CQCQD has been used for the management of acute pancreatitis (AP) in the West China Hospital for more than 30 years. Although CQCQD has a well-established clinical efficacy, little is known about its bioactive ingredients, how they interact with different therapeutic targets and the pathways to produce anti-inflammatory effects. PURPOSE: Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome-mediated pro-inflammatory signaling pathways, play a central role in AP in determining the extent of pancreatic injury and systemic inflammation. In this study, we screened the bioactive ingredients using a pharmacological sub-network analysis based on the TLR4/NLRP3 signaling pathways followed by experimental validation. METHODS: The main CQCQD bioactive compounds were identified by UPLC-QTOF/MS. The TLR4/NLRP3 targets in AP for CQCQD active ingredients were confirmed through a pharmacological sub-network analysis. Mice received 7 intraperitoneal injections of cerulein (50 µg/kg; hourly) to induce AP (CER-AP), while oral gavage of CQCQD (5, 10, 15 and 20 g/kg; 3 doses, 2 hourly) was commenced at the 3rd injection of cerulein. Histopathology and biochemical indices were used for assessing AP severity, while polymerase chain reaction, Western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses were used to study the mechanisms. Identified active CQCQD compounds were further validated in freshly isolated mouse pancreatic acinar cells and cultured RAW264.7 macrophages. RESULTS: The main compounds from CQCQD belonged to flavonoids, iridoids, phenols, lignans, anthraquinones and corresponding glycosides. The sub-network analysis revealed that emodin, rhein, baicalin and chrysin were the compounds most relevant for directly regulating the TLR4/NLRP3-related proteins TLR4, RelA, NF-κB and TNF-α. In vivo, CQCQD attenuated the pancreatic injury and systemic inflammation of CER-AP and was associated with reduced expression of TLR4/NLRP3-related mRNAs and proteins. Emodin, rhein, baicalin and chrysin significantly diminished pancreatic acinar cell necrosis with varied effects on suppressing the expression of TLR4/NLRP3-related mRNAs. Emodin, rhein and chrysin also decreased nitric oxide production in macrophages and their combination had synergistic effects on alleviating cell death as well as expression of TLR4/NLRP3-related proteins. CONCLUSIONS: CQCQD attenuated the severity of AP at least in part by inhibiting the TLR4/NLRP3 pro-inflammatory pathways. Its active ingredients, emodin, baicalin, rhein and chrysin contributed to these beneficial effects.

18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22583, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019474

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is an extremely rare condition in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, with only a few reported cases. Compared to patients with typical clinical symptoms, it is difficult to make a definitive diagnosis when HSP presents as an initial manifestation in pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Herein, a case of pulmonary tuberculosis that showed HSP at first was reported, and the related literatures were reviewed. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 24-year-old man presented with palpable purpura on the extremities, accompanied by abdominal pain, bloody stools, and knee pain. DIAGNOSES: The patient was diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis based on the results of interferon gamma release assays, purified protein derivative test, and computed tomography. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was treated with vitamin C and chlorpheniramine for 2 weeks, and the above-mentioned symptoms were relieved. However, 3 weeks later, the purpura recurred with high-grade fever and chest pain during the inspiratory phase. The patient was then treated with anti-tuberculosis drugs, and the purpura as well as the high fever disappeared. OUTCOMES: The patient recovered well and remained free of symptoms during the follow-up examination. CONCLUSION: Pulmonary tuberculosis presenting with HSP as an initial manifestation is not common. Therefore, it is difficult to clinically diagnose and treat this disease. When an adult patient shows HSP, it is important to consider the possibility of tuberculosis to avoid misdiagnosis and delayed treatment.

19.
Pharmacol Res ; : 105232, 2020 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027716

RESUMO

Patients with colorectal cancer treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and irinotecan (CPT-11) exhibit a risk for chemotherapy-induced colitis (CIC) that may lead to fatal consequences. Cryptotanshinone (CTS) is a natural compound extracted from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge that shows potent antitumor activities. We previously reported CTS relieved 5-FU/ CPT-11 induced colitis in tumor-free mice. In this study, we studied the effect of CTS on 5-FU/ CPT-11 induced colitis in mice with colitis associated colon cancer (CAC). The effects of CTS on CIC were evaluated by disease activity index (DAI) and histological assessment via hematoxylin-and-eosin staining. Serum lipids and lipid-metabolic enzymes were detected by commercial kits. Fecal microbial diversity was detected by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. To find the role of fecal bacteria in CAC mice with 5-FU/ CPT-11 induced colitis, pseudo-germ-free mice were established by intragastric administration of mixed antibiotics. Except for decreasing tumor number (3 ± 1 vs 6 ± 1, p < 0.05), CTS significantly alleviated DAI (1.9 ± 0.6 vs 2.6 ± 0.5, p < 0.05) and regulated serum lipids in CAC mice with 5-FU/ CPT-11induced colitis. Compared with model group, CTS significantly increased serum triglycerides (TG) (1.13 ± 0.26 mM vs 0.79 ± 0.03 mM, p < 0.05), high density lipoprotein (HDL) (3.88 ± 0.1 mM vs 3.28 ± 0.05 mM, p < 0.001) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) (288.12 ± 65.92 ng/mL vs 150.72 ± 42.13 ng/mL, p < 0.05) level but decreased serum adiponectin level (1177.47 ± 179.2 pg/mL vs 1523.43 ± 91.8 pg/mL, p < 0.05). Among fecal bacteria significantly correlated with lipid metabolism, CTS significantly decreased the abundance of g__norank_f__Muribaculaceae (21.15 % ± 5.7 % vs 41.84 ± 12.0 %, p < 0.01) but increased that of g_Lactobacillus (11.13 % ± 6.6 % vs 5.7 % ± 4.6 %, p < 0.05), g__Alistipes (3.66 % ± 0.7 % vs 1.47 % ± 1,0%, p < 0.01) and g__Odoribacter (1.31 % ± 0.7 % vs 0.30 % ± 0.2 %, p < 0.01). In addition, the development of CIC and abnormal lipid metabolism were significantly prevented in pseudo-germ-free mice. Therefore, we concluded CTS alleviated 5FU/CPT-11 induced colitis in CAC mice via regulating fecal flora associated lipid metabolism.

20.
J Proteomics ; 231: 104001, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035716

RESUMO

Microgravity induces injury of intestinal barrier. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the pathological change of intestinal mucosa induced by long term simulated microgravity and to explore its etiological mechanism using a proteomic approach. The well accepted tail-suspended rat model was used to simulate microgravity. The damage of rat small intestine was evaluated via histological and molecular test, and a label-free comparative proteomic strategy was used to determine the molecular mechanism. Simulated microgravity for 21 days damaged intestine barrier with decreased numbers of the goblet cells, large intercellular space, and down-regulated adhesion molecules, accompanied by increased intestinal permeability. Proteomic analysis identified 416 differentially expressed proteins and showed simulated microgravity dramatically down-regulated the adhesion molecules and deteriorated several pathways for metabolism, focal adhesion, and regulation of actin cytoskeleton. Western-blot analysis confirmed that myosin regulatory light chain (MLC) 12B was significantly down-regulated, while rho-associated protein kinase, myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), and phosphorylated MLC were dramatically up-regulated. Taken together, these data reveal that down-regulation of adhesion molecules and MLCK dependent up-regulation MLC phosphorylation mediate intestinal barrier dysfunction during simulated microgravity injury. Our results also indicate that regulation of epithelial MLCK is a potential target for the therapeutic treatment of microgravity injury.

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