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1.
Clin Nutr ; 40(4): 2293-2300, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33873269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIM: Several studies explored the association of vitamin B6 intake with the risk of cancers. However, it is unclear whether different doses of vitamin B6 have distinct effects on the prognosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. This study investigated the relationship between different doses of B6 intake and the prognosis of NPC patients. METHODS: This retrospective cohort analysis included 792 newly diagnosed NPC patients with a median follow-up of 62.05 months. Restricted cubic spline and maximally selected rank statistics were performed to determine the cut-off value of vitamin B6 during treatment (VB6DT). Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank tests were performed to analyze survival outcomes. A multivariable Cox proportional hazard model was performed to determine the independent prognostic factors. RESULTS: NPC patients were divided into three groups according to the cut-off value of VB6DT: non-users (0 mg/d), VB6DT > 8.6 mg/d, and VB6DT ≤ 8.6 mg/d. Patients with VB6DT > 8.6 mg/d had significantly lower 5-year overall survival (OS) (83.5% vs. 90.8%, p = 0.006), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) (83.5% vs. 91.0%, p = 0.004), and progression-free survival (PFS) (73.7% vs. 81.7%, p = 0.011) and slightly but not significantly lower 5-year local recurrence-free survival (LRFS) (87.7% vs. 90.7%, p = 0.214) than the non-users. Patients with VB6DT ≤ 8.6 mg/d had slightly but not significantly better 5-year OS (93.3% vs. 90.8%, p = 0.283) than the non-users, while all other primary endpoints were similar (p > 0.50). Multivariable analyses confirmed that VB6DT > 8.6 mg/d was an independent negative prognostic factor of OS (p = 0.010), DMFS (p = 0.017), and PFS (p = 0.030) but not of LRFS (p = 0.428). CONCLUSIONS: Excessive VB6DT higher than the cut-off value is an independent negative prognostic factor for NPC patients. Additionally, low dose intake improved OS only slightly but not significantly.

2.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 181: 810-823, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865891

RESUMO

A novel adsorbent with high adsorption capacity to remove cationic dyes was synthesized. Sodium 4-styrene sulfonate (SSS) was grafted polymerization on the surface of magnetic chitosan microspheres via -NH2/S2O82- surface initiating system, obtaining MCS-g-PSSS microspheres. The grafted microsphere was characterized by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, vibration sample magnetometer and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller. Cationic dyes were adsorbed by MCS-g-PSSS and methylene blue(MB) was acted as a typical example. The adsorption performance was explored by varying experimental conditions. The results showed the maximal adsorption capacity was 989 mg/g at pH 1 at 25 °C. The pseudo-second order model was found to be applicable for the adsorption kinetics. The adsorption capacity increased with rising temperature and it decreased owing to adding of ions. The adsorption isotherms were the best fitted by Langmuir. MCS-g-PSSS for MB showed high adsorption capacity due to the strong electrostatic interactions and π-π stacking, which was explained by FTIR and XPS and was verified by DFT calculations. The degree of adsorption spontaneity increased with rising the temperature. The grafted MCS-g-PSSS microspheres had high adsorption capacity for various kinds of cationic dyes and excellent for remove MB in the aqueous solution.

3.
Nano Today ; : 101139, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33758593

RESUMO

Effective vaccines are vital to the fight against the COVID-19 global pandemic. As a critical component of a subunit vaccine, the adjuvant is responsible for strengthening the antigen-induced immune responses. Here, we present a new nanovaccine that comprising the Receptor-Binding Domain (RBD) of spike protein and the manganese nanoadjuvant (MnARK), which induces humoral and cellular responses. Notably, even at a 5-fold lower antigen dose and with fewer injections, mice immunized with the MnARK vaccine immunized mice showed stronger neutralizing abilities against the infection of the pseudovirus (~270-fold) and live coronavirus (>8-fold) in vitro than that of Alum-adsorbed RBD vaccine (Alu-RBD). Furthermore, we found that the effective co-delivery of RBD antigen and MnARK to lymph nodes (LNs) elicited an increased cellular internalization and the activation of immune cells, including DC cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. Our findings highlight the importance of MnARK adjuvant in the design of novel coronavirus vaccines and provide a rationale strategy to design protective vaccines through promoting cellular internalization and the activation of immune-related pathways.

4.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e040792, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436467

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Chinese government has encouraged the development of private sector in delivering healthcare, including primary healthcare (PHC) in the new round of national health reform since 2009. However, the debate about the role of the private sector in achieving universal health coverage continues with poor support from theories and empirical evidence. This study intends to compare the quality of PHC services between the private and public providers in seven provinces in China, using unannounced standardised patients (USPs). METHODS: We are developing and validating 13 USP cases most commonly observed in the PHC setting. Six domains of quality will be assessed by the USP: effectiveness, safety, patient centredness, efficiency, timeliness and equity. The USP will make 2200 visits to 705 public and 521 private PHC institutions across seven provinces, following a multistage clustered sample design. Using each USP-provider encounter as the analytical unit, we will first descriptively compare the raw differences in quality between the private and public providers and then analyse the association of ownership types and quality, using propensity score weighting. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was primarily funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (#71974211, #71874116 and # 72074163) and was also supported by the China Medical Board (#16-260, #18-300 and #18-301), and have received ethical approval from Sun Yat-sen University (#2019-024). The validated USP tool and the data collected in this study will be freely available for the public after the primary analysis of the study. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: #ChiCTR2000032773.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; : 143616, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218808

RESUMO

There is limited evidence on the relationships between plasma levels of multiple metals and risk of incident cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We examined the associations between plasma levels of 12 metals (iron, copper, zinc, selenium, chromium, manganese, molybdenum, cobalt, nickel, arsenic, cadmium, and lead) and cancer risk in 4573 T2DM patients using Cox proportional hazards models. With a median follow-up of 10.2 years, 541 incident cancers were identified. The multiple-metals model revealed that each 1-SD increase in ln-transformed plasma copper (HR: 1.14; 95%CI: 1.02, 1.27) and lead (HR:1.20; 95%CI:1.03, 1.39) were significantly associated with increased cancer incidence while each 1-SD increase in ln-transformed plasma zinc (HR: 0.82; 95%CI: 0.71, 0.96) and chromium (HR: 0.88; 95%CI: 0.82, 0.94) were significantly associated with decreased cancer incidence. When all participants were further stratified into four subgroups by the quartile levels (Q1-4) of plasma metals, manganese showed significant positive associations with cancer incidence in the upper two quartiles (P trend = 0.003) while nickel showed significant negative associations with cancer incidence in Q2 and 4 groups (P trend = 0.033) compared with participants in Q1 group. Collectively, monitoring of metal levels in diabetic patients needs to be strengthened, which is of great significance for the prevention of incident cancer.

6.
Exp Cell Res ; : 112362, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221317

RESUMO

Posterior capsule opacification (PCO), resulting from residual lens epithelial cell (LEC) epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), abnormal proliferation, and migration, is the most common complication of cataract surgery. A recent study determined that extracellular vesicles (EVs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate the EMT process during cutaneous wound healing and tumour metastasis. However, their underlying mechanism in PCO is unclear. In this study, we examined the secreted EVs from a scratch model in vitro. We found that the production of ROS was increased after mechanical injury, especially at the wound edge, and there was an increased viability of LECs, which can be blocked by diphenyleneiodonium, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor. Cell viability and migration were increased upon treatment with 1 µM H2O2, but significantly reduced when the concentration of H2O2 increased to 100 µM. Transwell assay showed that both post-surgery LECs and LECs treated with 1 µM H2O2 significantly induced the migration of normal LECs by EV secretion. Extraction and quantification of EVs derived from injured and H2O2-treated LECs showed a similar increase in production. Co-incubation of EVs from both injured and H2O2-treated LECs with normal LECs and organ-cultured mouse lenses activated EMT, which was attenuated by a ROS inhibitor. These results suggest that EVs participate in ROS-induced lens EMT, making EVs a potential target for treating PCO.

7.
Front Neurosci ; 14: 588515, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132836

RESUMO

Cerebrovascular disease (CeVD) is one of the leading global causes of death and severe disability. To date, retinal microangiopathy has become a reflection of cerebral microangiopathy, mirroring the vascular pathological modifications in vivo. To evaluate the retinal structure and microvasculature in patients with CeVD, we conducted a cross-sectional study in Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center and Department of Neurology of Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). CeVD patients (n = 121; 238 eyes) and healthy controls (n = 44; 57 eyes) were included in the analysis. The CeVD group showed significant thinning of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness in the temporal and nasal quadrants, and thinning of the macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) in the inferior quadrant, while macular microvasculature reduction was prominent in all nine quadrants. There were significant correlations between OCTA parameters, visual acuity, and transcranial doppler parameters in the CeVD group. The specific structural parameters combining microvasculature indices showed the best diagnostic accuracies (AUC = 0.918) to discriminate CeVD group from healthy controls. To conclude, we proved that OCTA reveals specific patterns of retinal structural changes and extensive macular microvascular changes in CeVD. Additionally, these retinal abnormalities could prove useful disease biomarkers in the management of individuals at high risk of debilitating complications from a cerebrovascular event.

8.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 19(12): 2490-2501, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024029

RESUMO

Upregulation of EZH2 is associated with advanced stage and poor prognosis of prostate cancer; therefore, it is likely to be a promising therapeutic target. Metformin, a drug that has been used to treat type 2 diabetes, was found to have antineoplastic activity in different cancers. Herein, we report that the combination of metformin and the EZH2 inhibitor GSK126 exerts synergistic inhibition on prostate cancer cell growth, both in vitro and in vivo Mechanistically, we identify that metformin can reduce EZH2 expression through upregulating miR-26a-5p, which is antagonized by androgen receptor (AR). Furthermore, we show that AR binds to the promoter of miR-26a-5p and suppresses its transcription. Although metformin can remove AR from the miR-26a-5p promoter, the interaction between AR and EZH2, which usually exists in androgen-refractory prostate cancer cells, strongly impedes the removal. However, GSK126 can inhibit the methyltransferase-dependent interaction between AR and EZH2, thus restoring metformin's efficacy in androgen-refractory prostate cancer cells. Collectively, our finding suggests that the combination of metformin and GSK126 would be an effective approach for future prostate cancer therapy, and particularly effective for AR-positive castration-resistant prostate cancer.

9.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 989, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe mental disorders, a leading cause of disability has become a major public health problem. In order to promote mental health, a series of programs have been promulgated by the Chinese government. However, economic evaluations of such programs are lacking. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate an economic model to assess the cost and health outcomes of the LEAN (Lay health supporters, E-platform, Award, and iNtegration) program, and to perform an economic evaluation of LEAN versus the nationwide community-based mental health program that provides free antipsychotic medications. METHODS: A cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis of the LEAN intervention will be performed. A Markov model will be developed, validated and used to assess and compare the costs and outcomes for the LEAN intervention versus nationwide community-based mental health program. The calculated sample size is 258 participants for the analysis. A societal perspective will be applied with the time horizon of 1-year after the termination of the LEAN program. The cost-utility will be measured primarily using Quality Adjusted Life Years and the cost-effectiveness will be measured using number of relapses and number of re-hospitalizations avoided 6-month after the intervention. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analysis will be conducted for the analysis of uncertainty. DISCUSSION: If proven cost-effective, this study will contribute to the nationwide implementation of the program, not only for schizophrenia but for all kind of severe mental disorders. Markov model developed as part of the study will benefit potential researchers in analyzing cost-effectiveness of other programs. The Chinese context of the study may limit the generalizability of the study results to some extent. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered in a Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ( ChiCTR2000034962 ) on 25 July 2020.

10.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126763, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957263

RESUMO

Epidemiologic studies suggest that circulating metals from the natural environment are linked with cardiometabolic health. However, few studies examined the relationship between multiple metals exposure and metabolic phenotypes, especially in obese individuals. We conducted a cross-sectional study to explore the association between 23 urinary metals and metabolic phenotypes in 1392 overweight and obese individuals (592 males, 800 females, mean age 43.1 ± 9.8 years). Participants were classified as metabolically unhealthy if they had ≥2 of the following metabolic abnormalities: elevated blood pressure, elevated fasting blood glucose, elevated triglycerides, and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Odds ratios (ORs) of unhealthy metabolic phenotypes for metal levels categorized into tertiles were assessed using logistic regression models. Five metals (barium, copper, iron, uranium, and zinc) were associated with unhealthy metabolic phenotypes in single-metal models, while in the multiple-metal model, only zinc and zinc-copper ratio remained significant. The ORs (95% CIs) comparing extreme tertiles were 2.57 (1.69, 3.89) for zinc and 1.68 (1.24, 2.27) for zinc-copper ratio after adjustment for confounders (both p-trends were <0.001). The numbers of metabolic abnormalities significantly increased with the levels of zinc and the zinc-copper ratio increased. Similar associations were observed with metabolic syndrome risk. High levels of urinary zinc were positively associated with elevated fasting blood glucose (p-trend < 0.001) and elevated triglycerides (p-trend = 0.003). The results suggest that urinary zinc and zinc-copper ratio are positively associated with increased risk of unhealthy metabolic phenotype. Further prospective studies with a larger sample size are required to verify these findings.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Metais/urina , Obesidade , Adulto , HDL-Colesterol , Cobre , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Ferro , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Sobrepeso , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos , Zinco
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 742: 140581, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721733

RESUMO

The carbon riched coke ash (CA) and organic components riched coking wastewater (CW) recovered from coking plants wastes were utilized for the preparation of coke ash coking wastewater slurry (CACWS), aiming for the fuel and waste reduction and recovery. The effects induced by the properties of CA and compositions of CW on the performances of CACWS, such as slurryability, rheology, stability and dispersant adsorption were investigated and discussed. Characterizations like zeta potentials and contact angles on the surface of CA were also conducted to draw a comprehensive formation mechanism of CACWS. Results showed that the CA was suitable for preparing slurry due to the lack of micropore structures and hydrophobicity in the surface. The maximum content of CA in the as-prepared CACWS could reach 66% and CACWS exhibited non-Newtonian pseudoplastic fluid behaviour. By reducing the particle size distribution, the slurryability of CA could be effectively improved. Although the components in CW enhance the wettability of CA surface, compared with cations in CW, the organic components had more influence on CACWS, which also obviously increased the viscosity of CACWS. The maximum CA content in CACWS (ω = 66 wt%) reduced by 9% comparing to CA water slurry (ω = 75 wt%) which improved the storage stability about 10%. In addition, results show that the dispersant Triton X-405 reduced viscosity and improved stability while in comparison with the anionic polycarboxylate dispersant. Overall, this study may provide an innovative and effective utilization of CA and CW from the coke plants wastes.

12.
Ann Transl Med ; 8(11): 697, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32617317

RESUMO

Background: About 30% of cell lines have been cellular cross-contaminated and misidentification, which can result in invalidated experimental results and unusable therapeutic products. Cell morphology under the microscope was observed routinely, and further DNA sequencing analysis was performed periodically to verify cell line identity, but the sequencing analysis was costly, time-consuming, and labor intensive. The purpose of this study was to construct a novel artificial intelligence (AI) technology for "cell face" recognition, in which can predict DNA-level identification labels only using cell images. Methods: Seven commonly used cell lines were cultured and co-cultured in pairs (totally 8 categories) to simulated the situation of pure and cross-contaminated cells. The microscopy images were obtained and labeled of cell types by the result of short tandem repeat profiling. About 2 million patch images were used for model training and testing. AlexNet was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of convolutional neural network (CNN) in cell classification. To further improve the feasibility of detecting cross-contamination, the bilinear network for fine-grained identification was constructed. The specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy of the model were tested separately by external validation. Finally, the cell semantic segmentation was conducted by DilatedNet. Results: The cell texture and density were the influencing factors that can be better recognized by the bilinear convolutional neural network (BCNN) comparing to AlexNet. The BCNN achieved 99.5% accuracy in identifying seven pure cell lines and 86.3% accuracy for detecting cross-contamination (mixing two of the seven cell lines). DilatedNet was applied to the semantic segment for analyzing in single-cell level and achieved an accuracy of 98.2%. Conclusions: The deep CNN model proposed in this study has the ability to recognize small differences in cell morphology, and achieved high classification accuracy.

13.
Ann Transl Med ; 8(11): 710, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32617330

RESUMO

Background: Cavernous hemangioma and schwannoma are tumors that both occur in the orbit. Because the treatment strategies of these two tumors are different, it is necessary to distinguish them at treatment initiation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is typically used to differentiate these two tumor types; however, they present similar features in MRI images which increases the difficulty of differential diagnosis. This study aims to devise and develop an artificial intelligence framework to improve the accuracy of clinicians' diagnoses and enable more effective treatment decisions by automatically distinguishing cavernous hemangioma from schwannoma. Methods: Material: As the study materials, we chose MRI images as the study materials that represented patients from diverse areas in China who had been referred to our center from more than 45 different hospitals. All images were initially acquired on films, which we scanned into digital versions and recut. Finally, 11,489 images of cavernous hemangioma (from 33 different hospitals) and 3,478 images of schwannoma (from 16 different hospitals) were collected. Labeling: All images were labeled using standard anatomical knowledge and pathological diagnosis. Training: Three types of models were trained in sequence (a total of 96 models), with each model including a specific improvement. The first two model groups were eye- and tumor-positioning models designed to reduce the identification scope, while the third model group consisted of classification models trained to make the final diagnosis. Results: First, internal four-fold cross-validation processes were conducted for all the models. During the validation of the first group, the 32 eye-positioning models were able to localize the position of the eyes with an average precision of 100%. In the second group, the 28 tumor-positioning models were able to reach an average precision above 90%. Subsequently, using the third group, the accuracy of all 32 tumor classification models reached nearly 90%. Next, external validation processes of 32 tumor classification models were conducted. The results showed that the accuracy of the transverse T1-weighted contrast-enhanced sequence reached 91.13%; the accuracy of the remaining models was significantly lower compared with the ground truth. Conclusions: The findings of this retrospective study show that an artificial intelligence framework can achieve high accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity in automated differential diagnosis between cavernous hemangioma and schwannoma in a real-world setting, which can help doctors determine appropriate treatments.

14.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127228, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535438

RESUMO

Urea hydrolysis in partial nitritation process forming nitrite and ammonia is advantageous to subsequent treatment with ANAMMOX for total nitrogen removal. In this study, stable partial nitritation for urea wastewater with urea increasing from 250 to 2000 mg L-1 were achieved in an aerobic SBR. Urea removal efficiency and nitrite accumulation percentage both kept above 98%, with nitrite production rate about 0.985 kg N·m-3·d-1. Urea hydrolysis mechanism in this aerobic system was described as, (1) massive urea in the bulk was absorbed into cell, (2) urea was hydrolyzed by intracellular urease inside cell, (3) produced ammonia then slowly diffused into the bulk through membrane, which is later converted by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) into nitrite. Due to this mechanism, the activity of AOB could not be inhibited by high FA (free ammonia) value under high urea concentration condition while nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) remained to be inhibited. An uncultured genus belonging to poorly characterized phylum Gemmatimonadetes was found enriched in this process and became dominant genus. This genus was speculated to have same energy pathway like ureaplasma, by absorbing excessive urea from environment and utilize urea hydrolysis to generate energy. So it was believed to be responsible for urea hydrolysis mechanism mentioned above. This SBR showed stable partial nitritation and high urea removal efficiency for treating urea wastewater, which was obviously feasible as the pretreatment process for subsequent ANAMMOX.


Assuntos
Amônia/análise , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Nitritos/análise , Ureia/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Aerobiose , Amônia/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Nitritos/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Ureia/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
15.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 117(9): 2715-2727, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32441815

RESUMO

We report the scalable production of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli, reliant on tightly controlled autoinduction, triggered by phosphate depletion in the stationary phase. The method, reliant on engineered strains and plasmids, enables improved protein expression across scales. Expression levels using this approach have reached as high as 55% of the total cellular protein. The initial use of the method in instrumented fed-batch fermentations enables cell densities of ∼30 gCDW/L and protein titers up to 8.1 ± 0.7 g/L (∼270 mg/gCDW). The process has also been adapted to an optimized autoinduction media, enabling routine batch production at culture volumes of 20 µl (384-well plates), 100 µl (96-well plates), 20 ml, and 100 ml. In batch cultures, cell densities routinely reach ∼5-7 gCDW/L, offering protein titers above 2 g/L. The methodology has been validated with a set of diverse heterologous proteins and is of general use for the facile optimization of routine protein expression from high throughput screens to fed-batch fermentation.

16.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430343

RESUMO

AIMS: To compare macular structure and vasculature between neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) using optical coherence tomography angiography. METHODS: NMOSD patients (n=124) with/without a history of optic neuritis (ON) (NMO+ON: 113 eyes; NMO-ON: 95 eyes), glaucomatous patients (n=102) with early/advanced glaucoma (G-E: 74 eyes; G-A: 50 eyes) and healthy controls (n=62; 90 eyes) were imaged. The main outcome measures were macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) thickness, vessel density (VD) and perfusion density (PD) in the superficial capillary plexus, and diagnostic capabilities of the parameters as calculated by area under the curve (AUC). RESULTS: Significant losses in GC-IPL, VD and PD were detected in both patients with NMOSD and POAG. With matched losses in the peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer, NMOSD group showed significant thinning of GC-IPL in the nasal-superior quadrant, whereas in POAG group, significant thinning was observed in the inferior and temporal-inferior quadrants. GC-IPL thinning was more prominent in the superior, nasal-superior and nasal-inferior quadrants in NMO+ON eyes. In G-A eyes, significant GC-IPL thinning was seen in the temporal-inferior quadrant. The specific structural parameters combining VD and foveal avascular zone (FAZ) indices showed the best diagnostic accuracies. The FAZ area in eyes with NMOSD was significantly smaller than the eyes of healthy controls and POAG. CONCLUSION: NMOSD and POAG have specific patterns of macular structural and vascular changes associated with pathophysiology. Our results indicate that FAZ could be a sensitive biomarker of macular changes in NMOSD.

17.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 117(9): 2852-2860, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462658

RESUMO

We report improved release of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli, which relies on combined cellular autolysis and DNA/RNA autohydrolysis, conferred by the tightly controlled autoinduction of both phage lysozyme and the nonspecific DNA/RNA endonuclease from Serratia marcescens. Autoinduction occurs in a two-stage process wherein heterologous protein expression and autolysis enzymes are induced upon entry into stationary phase by phosphate depletion. Cytoplasmic lysozyme and periplasmic endonuclease are kept from inducing lysis until membrane integrity is disrupted. After cell harvest, the addition of detergent (0.1% Triton X-100) and a single 30 min freeze-thaw cycle results in >90% release of protein, green fluorescent protein. This cellular lysis is accompanied by complete oligonucleotide hydrolysis. The approach has been validated for shake flask cultures, high-throughput cultivation in microtiter plates, and larger scale stirred-tank bioreactors. This tightly controlled system enables robust growth and resistance to lysis in routine media when cells are propagated and autolysis/hydrolysis genes are only induced upon phosphate depletion.

18.
Bioresour Technol ; 305: 123031, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126482

RESUMO

Influences of organics on partial nitritation performance were investigated in a lab-scale sequencing batch biofilm reactor filled with zeolite. Significant differences in nitrite production rate (NPR) were observed between different dosages of glucose. With influent COD/N ratio from 0 to 1.5, NPR declined from 0.4 to 0.05 kg/(m3·d). Meanwhile, an appropriate NO2--N/NH4+-N ratio (1.4 ± 0.5) could be obtained for simultaneous anammox denitrification at COD/N ratio of 0.5. Increasing airflow rate was found as an effective recovery strategy. Other than competition of heterotrophs with nitrifiers for dissolved oxygen, it has been verified that addition of organics generated higher free ammonia, and then further inhibitedammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Moreover, three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (3D-EEM) results revealed that protein-like and humic acid-like substances were the main components in extracellularpolymericsubstances (EPS). And high-throughput sequencing analysis demonstrated that the relative abundance of AOB decreased.

19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(15): 18831-18842, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207021

RESUMO

In this study, 2 (3), 9 (10), 16 (17), 23 (24)-tetrakis-(8-quinoline-oxy) phthalocyanine zinc(II) (ZnQPc) was prepared and then quaternized to obtain water soluble zinc phthalocyanine (ZnQPc4+). Then, ZnQPc4+ was used as a photosensitizer for a series of POM catalysts, including Dawson type K6[α-P2W18O62]·14H2O (P2W18) and K10[α-P2W17O61]·20H2O (P2W17) and Keggine type H3PW12O40·xH2O (PW12). The Keggin type PW12 showed higher efficiency with 18.2 µmol of H2 evolution (turnover number (TON) = 14,550) for 6 h upon ZnQPc4+ sensitization in relation to two Dawson P2W17 and P2W18 in a visible light-driven water-soluble system with isopropanol and H2PtCl6·6H2O. In addition, the complexes of ZnQPc4+ with a series of POM catalysts (P2W17, P2W18, and PW12) were also used as photocatalysts for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) in water, and it was found that the complexes of ZnQPc4+ with P2W17 and PW12 showed improved photocatalytic activity, and the degradation rates of MB reached 100% at a small dosage under natural pH and visible light. The high efficacy of POM catalysts for H2 evolution and the degradation of MB were attributed to the sensitization of POMs by ZnQPc4+, which was enabled by the transfer of photogenerated electrons of ZnQPc4+ to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of POM.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Compostos de Tungstênio , Hidrogênio , Indóis
20.
Gigascience ; 9(2)2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Color vision is the ability to detect, distinguish, and analyze the wavelength distributions of light independent of the total intensity. It mediates the interaction between an organism and its environment from multiple important aspects. However, the physicochemical basis of color coding has not been explored completely, and how color perception is integrated with other sensory input, typically odor, is unclear. RESULTS: Here, we developed an artificial intelligence platform to train algorithms for distinguishing color and odor based on the large-scale physicochemical features of 1,267 and 598 structurally diverse molecules, respectively. The predictive accuracies achieved using the random forest and deep belief network for the prediction of color were 100% and 95.23% ± 0.40% (mean ± SD), respectively. The predictive accuracies achieved using the random forest and deep belief network for the prediction of odor were 93.40% ± 0.31% and 94.75% ± 0.44% (mean ± SD), respectively. Twenty-four physicochemical features were sufficient for the accurate prediction of color, while 39 physicochemical features were sufficient for the accurate prediction of odor. A positive correlation between the color-coding and odor-coding properties of the molecules was predicted. A group of descriptors was found to interlink prominently in color and odor perceptions. CONCLUSIONS: Our random forest model and deep belief network accurately predicted the colors and odors of structurally diverse molecules. These findings extend our understanding of the molecular and structural basis of color vision and reveal the interrelationship between color and odor perceptions in nature.

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