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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34992253

RESUMO

The role of WT1 protein in hematopoiesis and leukemogenesisis incompletely elucidated. WT1 overexpression is common in acute myeloid leukemia (AML); however, WT1 mutations occur in only about 10% of cases, with increasing incidence in the setting of relapse. In this study, we investigated the clinical and molecular characteristics of WT1 mutations in NPM1-mutated AML, to enhance our understanding of the biology and potential therapeutic implications of WT1 mutations. Our study cohort included 67 patients with NPM1 mutated AML and a median follow-up of 13.7 months. WT1 mutations were identified in 7% (n = 5) of patients at the time of initial diagnosis. WT1 mutant clones were presumed to be present as co-dominant clones in 3/5 and in subclonal populations in 2/5 cases based on variant allelic frequency (VAF) when compared with NPM1 mutation VAF. All WT1 mutations became undetectable at time of MRD-negative (NPM1-wild type) remission. None of these patients experienced relapse at the time of last follow-up (median, 15 months; range, 4.5-20.2 months). A total of 15/67 (22%) patients relapsed; among these patient, four (27%) relapsed with WT1 mutant AML. Three of four patients had undergone allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). None of these patients had detectable WT1 mutations at the time of initial diagnosis. WT1 mutations were presumed clonal in two cases and subclonal in the other two cases, based on VAF. Our results indicate that WT1 mutations contribute to relapse in NPM1 mutated AML, especially in the setting of HSCT. These findings suggest that emerging WT1 mutations may serve as a conduit for relapse in NPM1-mutated AML, and that sequential molecular profiling to evaluate potential emergent WT1 mutations during surveillance and particularly at relapse likely has prognostic value in patients with NPM1 mutated AML.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34964255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with KMT2A (MLL) rearrangement is known for monocytic or myelomonocytic differentiation, but the full immunophenotypic spectrum and dynamic changes of the immunophenotype in this genetically defined disease have not been systematically studied. METHODS: We reviewed the immunophenotype, karyotype, and mutations at the time of initial diagnosis and relapse of adults with AML with KMT2A rearrangement in our institution between 2007 and 2020. RESULTS: We identified 102 patients: 44 men and 58 women with a median age of 52 years (range, 18-87). Forty-three patients were considered to be therapy-related. Twenty-four out of 64 patients relapsed from complete remission after induction therapy, 34 had persistent/progressive disease, and 58 patients died with a median overall survival of 17 months. We detected five immunophenotypes: immature monocytic (38%); myelomonocytic (22%); myeloblastic (22%); mature monocytic (10%); and acute promyelocytic (APL)-like (8%). By chromosomal breakpoints, we presumed 11 different partners; t(9;11) (p22;q23)/MLLT3-KMT2A was the most common rearrangement (n = 56, 55%), followed by t(6;11) (q27;q23)/AFDN-KMT2A (n = 13,13%). Patients with t(6;11) (q27;q23)/AFDN-KMT2A preferentially showed a myeloblastic phenotype (p = 0.026). Mutations were detected in 39/64 (61%) cases, and RAS pathway (NRAS/KRAS/PTPN11) was involved in 26/64 (41%) cases. None of the APL-like cases had mutations detected. At the time of disease relapse, 10/24 (42%) showed major immunophenotypic change, and 7/10 cases gained additional cytogenetic and/or molecular alterations. CONCLUSION: The immunophenotype of AML with KMT2A rearrangement is more diverse than previously recognized, with a substantial subset showing no evidence of monocytic differentiation. Major immunophenotype change is common at the time of relapse.

4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(24)2021 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34944936

RESUMO

Patients with anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) rarely develop a leukemic phase of the disease. The reported leukemic ALCL cases are almost all ALK-positive, which are frequently associated with small cell morphology, t(2;5)(p23;q35), and a poorer prognosis. Rare leukemic ALK-negative ALCL cases have been reported. In the present study, we investigated the clinical and pathologic features and outcomes of nine patients with leukemic ALK-negative ALCL and compared these features with 39 patients without leukemic disease. Compared with the non-leukemic ALK-negative ALCL group, patients with leukemic disease more often had absolute lymphocytosis (50% vs. 0%, p = 0.008), thrombocytopenia (60% vs. 11%, p = 0.03), bone marrow involvement (50% vs. 14%, p = 0.04), and CD7 positivity (71% vs. 19%, p = 0.02). Four of five (80%) patients with leukemic ALK-negative ALCL had a complex karyotype, which was significantly higher than that of the patients in the non-leukemic group. A fluorescence in situ hybridization for TP53 was performed on six leukemic ALK-negative ALCL cases and all (100%) had TP53 deletion. There were no significant differences in the other clinicopathologic features, treatment, and complete remission rates between patients in the leukemic versus non-leukemic group (all p > 0.05). The median follow-up of this cohort was 18 months with a range of 0.3-140 months. Eight of nine (90%) patients with leukemic ALK-negative ALCL died, and their overall survival was significantly shorter than that of the patients with non-leukemic disease (median 15.5 vs. 60 months, p = 0.001). In conclusion, we show that the leukemic phase of ALK-negative ALCL is associated with high-risk biologic features and, in particular, a complex karyotype and TP53 deletion. Compared with the non-leukemic ALK-negative ALCL patients, the patients with a leukemic phase of disease have poorer survival and may require more aggressive treatment.

5.
Ann Diagn Pathol ; 56: 151860, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a curative option for patients with myelofibrosis (MF). Bone marrow (BM) morphologic evaluation of myelofibrosis following allo-HSCT is known to be challenging in this context because resolution of morphologic changes is a gradual process. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We compared BM samples of patients with myelofibrosis who underwent first allo-HSCT and achieved molecular remission by day 100 with BM samples of patients who continued to have persistent molecular evidence of disease following allo-HSCT. RESULTS: The study group included 29 patients: 17 primary MF, 7 post-polycythemia vera (PV) MF, and 5 post-essential thrombocythemia (ET) MF. In this cohort there were 18 JAK2 p.V617F, 8 CALR; 1 MPL, and 2 patients had concurrent JAK2 p.V617F and MPL mutations. The control group included 5 patients with primary MF, one with post-PV MF, one with post-ET MF (5 JAK2 p.V617F; 2 CALR). Following allo-HSCT, both groups showed reduction in BM cellularity and number of megakaryocytes. The study cohort also less commonly had dense megakaryocyte clusters and endosteal located megakaryocytes and showed less fibrosis. There was no statistical difference in BM cellularity, presence of erythroid islands, degree of osteosclerosis, or megakaryocyte number, size, nuclear lobation, presence of clusters or intrasinusoidal location. CONCLUSIONS: Following allo-HSCT at 100 days, morphologic evaluation of BM in patients with MF cannot reliably predict persistence versus clearance of molecular evidence of MF. Disappearance of BM MF, dense megakaryocyte clusters, and endosteal localization of megakaryocytes are suggestive of disease response.

6.
Hum Pathol ; 119: 59-68, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767860

RESUMO

Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a mature B-cell neoplasm characterized by t(11;14) (q13;q32) and cyclin D1 overexpression in >95% of cases. Classic MCL cases are composed of a monotonous population of small- to medium-sized lymphocytes with irregular nuclear contours that are positive for cyclin D1 and SOX11 and negative for CD23 and CD200. By contrast, occasional MCL cases express CD23 and CD200 but lack SOX11 and morphologically and immunophenotypically resemble chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), termed as CLL-like MCL in this study. These neoplasms pose a diagnostic challenge and are easy to be diagnosed as CLL in daily practice. We studied 14 cases of CLL-like MCL to define their clinicopathologic features and compared them with 33 traditional CLL cases. There were 8 men and 6 women with a median age of 62 years (range, 44-80). Compared with CLL, patients with CLL-like MCL have lower levels of peripheral blood and bone marrow involvement and more frequently had mutated IGHV. Immunophenotypically, CLL-like MCL often showed moderate to bright expression of B-cell antigens and surface immunoglobulin light chain, dim and partial expression of CD23 and CD200, infrequent CD43 positivity, and lack of LEF1. The overall survival of patients with CLL-like MCL was similar to that of CLL patients. In conclusion, CD23+, CD200+, and SOX11-negative MCL closely resemble CLL, both clinically and pathologically, including a similar indolent clinical course. They may pose a diagnostic challenge. However, patients with CLL-like MCL also have distinctive immunophenotypic features that are useful to distinguish these neoplasms from CLL.

7.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(21)2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34771519

RESUMO

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a confirmatory test to establish a diagnosis of inv(16)/t(16;16) AML. However, incidental findings and their clinical diagnostic implication have not been systemically studied. We studied 1629 CBFB FISH cases performed in our institution, 262 (16.1%), 1234 (75.7%), and 133 (8.2%) were reported as positive, normal, and abnormal, respectively. The last included CBFB copy number changes (n = 120) and atypical findings such as 3'CBFB deletion (n = 11), 5'CBFB deletion (n = 1), and 5'CBFB gain (n = 1). Correlating with CBFB-MYH11 RT-PCR results, totally 271 CBFB rearrangement cases were identified, including five with discrepancies between FISH and RT-PCR due to new partner genes (n = 3), insertion (n = 1), or rare CBFB-MYH11 variant (n = 1) and eight with 3'CBFB deletion. All cases with atypical findings and/or discrepancies presented clinical diagnostic challenges. Correlating FISH signal patterns and karyotypes, additional chromosome 16 aberrations (AC16As) show impacts on the re-definition of a complex karyotype and prognostic prediction. The CBFB rearrangement but not all AC16As will be detected by NGS-based methods. Therefore, FISH testing is currently still needed to provide a quick and straightforward confirmatory inv(16)/t(16;16) AML diagnosis and additional information related to clinical management.

8.
Mod Pathol ; 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775472

RESUMO

Classification of myeloid neoplasms with isolated isochromosome i(17q) [17p deletion with inherent monoallelic TP53 loss plus 17q duplication] is controversial. Most cases fall within the WHO unclassifiable myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN-U) category. The uniformly dismal outcomes warrant better understanding of this entity. We undertook a multi-institutional retrospective study of 92 adult MDS/MPN-U cases from eight institutions. Twenty-nine (32%) patients had isolated i(17q) [MDS/MPN-i(17q)]. Compared to MDS/MPN without i(17q), MDS/MPN-i(17q) patients were significantly younger, had lower platelet and absolute neutrophil counts, and higher frequency of splenomegaly and circulating blasts. MDS/MPN-i(17q) cases showed frequent bilobed neutrophils (75% vs. 23%; P = 0.03), hypolobated megakaryocytes (62% vs. 20%; P = 0.06), and a higher frequency of SETBP1 (69% vs. 5%; P = 0.002) and SRSF2 (63% vs. 5%; P = 0.006) mutations that were frequently co-existent (44% vs. 0%; P = 0.01). TP53 mutations were rare. The mutation profile of MDS/MPN-U-i(17q) was similar to other myeloid neoplasms with i(17q) including atypical chronic myeloid leukemia, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm with ring sideroblasts and thrombocytosis, myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia, with frequent concomitant SETBP1/SRSF2 mutations observed across all the diagnostic entities. Over a median follow-up of 52 months, patients with MDS/MPN-i(17q) showed a shorter median overall survival (11 vs. 28 months; P < 0.001). The presence of i(17q) retained independent poor prognostic value in multivariable Cox-regression analysis [HR 3.686 (1.17-11.6); P = 0.026] along with splenomegaly. We suggest that MDS/MPN-i(17q) warrants recognition as a distinct subtype within the MDS/MPN-U category based on its unique clinico-biologic features and uniformly poor prognosis.

9.
Leuk Res ; 111: 106704, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735934

RESUMO

Light-chain restricted hematogones (LCR HGs) detected by flow cytometry analysis can mimic bone marrow involvement by B-cell lymphoma. This phenomenon can present a diagnostic pitfall and negatively impact patient management, as misinterpretation may upgrade disease stage. In this study, we characterized the immunophenotype of LCR HGs with an aim to differentiate them from B-cell lymphoma. We analyzed 24 patients with LCR HGs, 12 (50 %) were kappa light chain restricted and 12 (50 %) were lambda light chain restricted. LCR HGs account for 51 % (range, 1.5%-99%) of B cells, and 0.5 % (range, 0.1%-3.7%) of total cells. In 15 patients in whom multiple specimens were analyzed, 10 (67 %) showed persistent LCR HGs in more than 1 specimen, and the duration of the light chain restriction ranged from 4 months to 2 years. Among 24 patients, 4 (16.6 %) cases were concurrently involved by B-cell lymphoma/myeloma in addition to LCR HGs. With the exception of light chain restriction, LCR HGs showed a similar immunophenotype as normal HGs and had a distinct location on the CD45/Side Scatter (SSC) plot. They were also consistently positive for CD10, CD19, CD38 (bright), CD43, and CD200. CD20 expression showed a spectrum from dim/negative to positive.

11.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537419

RESUMO

In the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic era, the number of haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantations (HCTs) with peripheral blood (PB) grafts increased significantly compared with HCTs with bone marrow (BM) grafts, which may be associated with adverse outcomes. We compared outcomes of HCT in BM graft and PB graft recipients age ≥18 years with hematologic malignancies who underwent T cell- replete haploidentical HCT and received graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide, tacrolimus, and mycophenolate mofetil. Among the 264 patients, 180 (68%) received a BM graft and 84 (32%) received a PB graft. The median patient age was 50 years in both groups. The majority (n = 199; 75%) received reduced-intensity conditioning. The rate of acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome was higher in the BM graft recipients compared with the PB graft recipients (85% [n = 152] versus 55% [n = 46]; P < .01). The median times to neutrophil and platelet engraftment and the incidence of grade II-IV and grade III-IV acute GVHD (aGVHD) were comparable in the 2 groups. Among the patients with grade II-IV aGVHD, the rate of steroid-refractory aGVHD was 9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5% to 18%) in the BM group versus 32% (95% CI, 19% to 54%) in the PB group (hazard ratio [HR], 3.7, 95% CI, 1.5 to 9.3; P = .006). At 1 year post-HCT, the rate of chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was 8% (95% CI, 4% to 13%) in the BM group versus 22% (95% CI, 14% to 36%) in the PB group (HR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.4-6.6; P = .005), and the rate of systemic therapy-requiring cGVHD was 2.5% (95% CI, 1% to 7%) versus 14% (95% CI, 7% to 27%), respectively (HR, 5.6; 95% CI, 1.7 to 18; P = .004). The PB group had a significantly higher risk of bacterial and viral infections, with no appreciable advantage in the duration of hospitalization, immune reconstitution, relapse, nonrelapse mortality, or survival. Our data suggest a benefit of the use of BM grafts over PB grafts for haplo-HCT.

14.
Lancet Haematol ; 8(8): e552-e561, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Addition of the BCL2 inhibitor venetoclax to lower intensity therapy has been shown to improve overall survival in older (aged 75 years or older) and unfit patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of venetoclax combined with intensive chemotherapy in patients aged 65 years or younger with acute myeloid leukaemia. METHODS: This cohort study was done at the MD Anderson Cancer Center in the USA, as part of the single-centre, single arm, phase 2, CLIA trial. Here we report on the independent cohort investigating the safety and activity of venetoclax added to intensive chemotherapy (the CLIA regimen [cladribine, high-dose cytarabine, idarubicin]). Eligible patients were aged 18-65 years with a new diagnosis of acute myeloid leukaemia, mixed phenotype acute leukaemia, or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (≥10% blasts or International Prognostic Scoring System ≥2 [intermediate]), who received no previous potentially curative therapy for leukaemia. Patients received cladribine (5 mg/m2) and cytarabine (1·5 g/m2 for patients aged <60 years, 1 g/m2 for patients aged ≥60 years) intravenously on days 1-5 and idarubicin (10 mg/m2) intravenously on days 1-3. Consolidation was cladribine (5 mg/m2) and cytarabine (1 g/m2 for patients aged <60 years and 0·75 g/m2 for patients aged ≥60 years) on days 1-3 and idarubicin (8 mg/m2) on days 1-2. Venetoclax (400 mg) was given on days 2-8 with each course. Patients with a known FLT3-ITD or FLT3-TKD mutation received midostaurin or gilteritinib. The primary outcome was composite complete response (complete response plus complete response with incomplete blood count recovery). Secondary outcomes were overall response, duration of response, event-free survival, overall survival, and safety. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02115295. FINDINGS: Between Feb 25, 2019, and March 23, 2021, 77 patients were assessed for eligibility, 50 of whom were enrolled. Median age was 48 years (IQR 37-56). 47 (94% [95% CI 83-98]) patients had composite complete response, with the same proportion also having an overall response; two (4% [1-14]) patients did not respond, and one (2% [0-11]) patient died during induction. 37 (82% [95% CI 68-92]) of 45 patients had undetectable measurable residual disease (MRD). At a median follow-up of 13·5 months (IQR 6·4-19·5), the median duration of response, event-free survival, and overall survival were not reached. At 12 months, the estimated duration of response was 74% (95% CI 60-92), event-free survival was 68% (54-85), and overall survival was 85% (75-97). The most common adverse events of grade 3 or worse were febrile neutropenia (42 [84%] patients), infection (six [12%]), and alanine aminotransferase elevations (six [12%]). There was one death during induction in a patient treated with CLIA-venetoclax plus a FLT3 inhibitor. Two patients died of infectious complications while in complete response in consolidation cycles, both of whom had FLT3-mutated acute myeloid leukaemia and were receiving combined therapy with a FLT3 inhibitor. No deaths were deemed to be treatment related. INTERPRETATION: Venetoclax added to CLIA was safe and active in patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome, producing high rates of durable MRD-negative remissions and encouraging event-free survival and overall survival. FUNDING: MD Anderson Cancer Center.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/administração & dosagem , Cladribina/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Coortes , Citarabina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Idarubicina/administração & dosagem , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/patologia , Prognóstico , Indução de Remissão , Fatores de Risco , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
15.
Blood ; 138(18): 1733-1739, 2021 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115096

RESUMO

Although clonal hematopoiesis (CH) can precede the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), it can also persist after achieving remission. Long-term clonal dynamics and clinical implications of persistent CH are not well understood. Here, we studied the prevalence, dynamics, and clinical implications of postremission CH in 164 AML patients who attained complete remission after induction chemotherapies. Postremission CH was identified in 79 (48%) patients. Postremission CH persisted long term in 91% of the trackable patients despite treatment with various types of consolidation and maintenance therapies. Postremission CH was eradicated in 20 out of 21 (95%) patients who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplant. Although patients with postremission CH as a group had comparable hematopoiesis with those without it, patients with persistent TET2 mutations showed significant neutropenia long term. Postremission CH had little impact on relapse risk, nonrelapse mortality, and incidence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, although the clinical impact of post-CR CH was heterogeneous among different mutations. These data suggest that although residual clonal hematopoietic stem cells are generally resistant to consolidation and maintenance therapies, they retain the ability to maintain normal hematopoiesis and have little impact on clinical outcomes. Larger study is needed to dissect the gene-specific heterogeneity.

16.
JAMA Oncol ; 7(8): 1213-1219, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34110383

RESUMO

Importance: Oral targeted therapies have advanced the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). These therapies include Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors, used as monotherapy, and the Bcl-2 inhibitor venetoclax, typically combined with the CD20 monoclonal antibody. Preclinical studies have shown synergy between Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors and the Bcl-2 inhibitor venetoclax. Objective: To examine the rate of complete remission, complete remission with incomplete count recovery, and bone marrow-undetectable measurable residual disease (U-MRD) after treatment with the combination of ibrutinib and venetoclax. Design, Setting, and Participants: A single-center, phase 2 nonrandomized trial enrolled patients from August 17, 2016, to June 5, 2018. Participants included previously untreated patients with CLL who met International Workshop on CLL 2008 criteria for treatment indication. Patients were required to have at least 1 of the following features: del(17p), TP53-mutated CLL, del(11q), unmutated immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable gene, or age 65 years or older. Interventions: Therapy consisted of ibrutinib, 420 mg/d, monotherapy for 3 cycles, thereafter combined with venetoclax (standard weekly dose ramp-up to 400 mg/d) for a total of 24 cycles of combination treatment. Responses were assessed at serial points according to International Workshop on CLL 2008 criteria. Measurable residual disease (MRD) was assessed by multicolor flow cytometry with a sensitivity of 10-4. Main Outcomes and Measures: Outcomes included complete remission, complete remission with incomplete count recovery, and bone marrow U-MRD rate. Results: Eighty patients (57 [71%] men) were treated; median age was 65 years (range, 26-83 years). The median follow-up for all 80 patients was 38.5 months (range, 5.6-51.1 months). Five patients discontinued the study during the ibrutinib monotherapy phase; the remaining 75 patients received combination therapy. On an intent-to-treat analysis of combined treatment, 45 (56%) patients achieved bone marrow U-MRD remission at 12 cycles and 53 (66%) patients achieved bone marrow U-MRD remission at 24 cycles. Overall, 60 (75%) patients achieved bone marrow U-MRD remission as their best response. Responses were seen across all high-risk subgroups, independent of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable gene mutation status, fluorescence in situ hybridization category, or TP53 mutation. The 3-year progression-free survival was 93%, and 3-year overall survival was 96%. No patient had CLL progression; 2 patients developed Richter transformation. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that combination therapy with ibrutinib and venetoclax might be beneficial for previously untreated patients with CLL. Remissions appeared to be durable during a follow-up of more than 3 years, with activity seen across high-risk disease subgroups, including those with del(17p)/TP53-mutated CLL. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02756897.

17.
Ann Diagn Pathol ; 53: 151767, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118580

RESUMO

The t(9;22)(q34;q11.2), also known as the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome, results in BCR-ABL1 fusion residing on the derivative chromosome 22. This translocation is characteristic of chronic myeloid leukemia, but also can occur in a substantial subset of B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) cases. Ph-like B-ALL has a gene expression profile similar to that of BCR-ABL1 positive/Ph-positive B-ALL, but by definition Ph-like B-ALL does not have the sentinel BCR-ABL1 or the Ph chromosome. About half of Ph-like B-ALL cases carry CRLF2 rearrangements. Rare cases of de novo B-ALL with co-occurrence of BCR-ABL1 and CRLF2 rearrangements have been described. To our knowledge, this is the first report of concurrent BCR-ABL1 and CRLF2 rearrangements in blast phase of chronic myeloid leukemia. In this patient, CRLF2 rearrangement was acquired at the time of disease progression to B-lymphoblast phase of chronic myeloid leukemia. We also review the literature and discuss the distinct clinicopathologic, and genomic characteristics of CRLF2 rearranged B-ALL.

18.
Cancer ; 127(20): 3761-3771, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34171128

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have limited treatment options. In preclinical models of AML, inhibition of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis demonstrated antileukemic activity. Avelumab is an anti-PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) approved in multiple solid tumors. The authors conducted a phase 1b/2 clinical trial to assess the safety and efficacy of azacitidine with avelumab in patients with R/R AML. METHODS: Patients aged ≥18 years who had R/R AML received azacitidine 75 mg/m2 on days 1 through 7 and avelumab on days 1 and 14 of 28-day cycles. RESULTS: Nineteen patients were treated. The median age was 66 years (range, 22-83 years), 100% had European LeukemiaNet 2017 adverse-risk disease, and 63% had prior exposure to a hypomethylating agent. Avelumab was dosed at 3 mg/kg for the first 7 patients and at 10 mg/kg for the subsequent 12 patients. The most common grade ≥3 treatment-related adverse events were neutropenia and anemia in 2 patients each. Two patients experienced immune-related adverse events of grade 2 and grade 3 pneumonitis, respectively. The overall complete remission rate was 10.5%, and both were complete remission with residual thrombocytopenia. The median overall survival was 4.8 months. Bone marrow blasts were analyzed for immune-related markers by mass cytometry and demonstrated significantly higher expression of PD-L2 compared with PD-L1 both pretherapy and at all time points during therapy, with increasing PD-L2 expression on therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Although the combination of azacitidine and avelumab was well tolerated, clinical activity was limited. High expression of PD-L2 on bone marrow blasts may be an important mechanism of resistance to anti-PD-L1 therapy in AML. LAY SUMMARY: This report describes the results of a phase 1b/2 study of azacitidine with the anti-PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitor avelumab for patients with relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The clinical activity of the combination therapy was modest, with an overall response rate of 10.5%. However, mass cytometry analysis revealed significantly higher expression of PD-L2 compared with PD-L1 on AML blasts from all patients who were analyzed at all time points. These data suggest a novel potential role for PD-L2 as a means of AML immune escape.

20.
Leuk Res ; 108: 106614, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990003

RESUMO

Lymphomas and leukemias of T-cell and NK-cell lineages are highly heterogeneous disorders and lack effective therapeutic strategies. Targeted therapies including anti-CD94 agents are currently under clinical investigation, but studies of CD94 expression on mature T/NK-cell neoplasms are limited. In this study, we investigated the landscape of CD94 protein expression in 15 patients with reactive T/NK-cell proliferations and 124 patients with various T/NK cell neoplasms. CD94 expression was detected at a high level in reactive NK-cells, with a lower level of expression in a subset of reactive CD8 + T-cells; reactive CD4 + T-cells were negative for CD94 expression. All NK-cell neoplasms surveyed had high-level CD94 expression, which was significantly higher than that in T cell neoplasms (p = 0.0174). In neoplastic T-cell proliferations, CD94 expression was positive in all 10 hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma cases tested, with a high mean fluorescence intensity. Fifty-six percent of T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia cases were positive for CD94 expression in a subset of neoplastic cells. All T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia and 97 % of peripheral T-cell lymphoma cases showed no CD94 expression. Our findings demonstrate a broad range of CD94 expression among T/NK-cell neoplasms, in some at levels that suggest therapeutic vulnerability to CD94-targeted therapies.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Linfoma Extranodal de Células T-NK/patologia , Linfoma de Células T/patologia , Subfamília D de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Linfoma Extranodal de Células T-NK/imunologia , Linfoma Extranodal de Células T-NK/metabolismo , Linfoma de Células T/imunologia , Linfoma de Células T/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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