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1.
Acta Trop ; 201: 105211, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600522

RESUMO

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is a potentially important zoonotic pathogen. However, there is no information on E. bieneusi infection of captive long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Hainan Province, China. Here 193 fecal specimens of M. fascicularis were collected from a breeding base in Hainan Province, China, housing non-human primates for experimental use. E. bieneusi was identified and genotyped by nested PCR analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA gene. A total of 59 (30.6%) specimens were PCR-positive for E. bieneusi and 16 ITS genotypes were identified including nine known genotypes: Type IV (n = 19), D (n = 11), CM1 (n = 8), PigEBITS7 (n = 4), Pongo2 (n = 4), Peru8 (n = 3), Peru11 (n = 1), WL21 (n = 1) and CM2 (n = 1) and seven novel genotypes HNM-I to HNM-VII (one each). Importantly, genotypes D, Type IV, Peru8, PigEBITS7, and Peru11, which were the predominant (38/59, 64.4%) genotypes identified among captive M. fascicularis in this study, are also well-known human-pathogenic genotypes. All the genotypes of E. bieneusi identified here, including the seven novel ones, belonged to zoonotic Group 1. This is the first report of the identification of E. bieneusi in M. fascicularis in Hainan Province, China. The finding that the numerous known human-pathogenic types and seven novel genotypes of E. bieneusi all belong to zoonotic Group 1 indicates the possibility of transmission of this important pathogenic parasite between M. fascicularis and humans.

2.
Magn Reson Med ; 83(1): 322-336, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429993

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although recent deep learning methodologies have shown promising results in fast MR imaging, how to explore it to learn an explicit prior and leverage it into the observation constraint is still desired. METHODS: A denoising autoencoder (DAE) network is leveraged as an explicit prior to address the highly undersampling MR image reconstruction problem. First, inspired by the observation that the prior information learned from high-dimension signals is more effective than that from the low-dimension counterpart in image restoration tasks, we train the network in a multichannel scenario and apply the learned network to single-channel image reconstruction by a variables augmentation technique. Second, because of the fact that multiple implementations of artificial noise generation in DAE favors a better underlying result, we introduce a 2-sigma rule to complement each other for improving the final reconstruction. The whole algorithm is tackled by proximal gradient descent. RESULTS: Experimental results under varying sampling trajectories and acceleration factors consistently demonstrate the superiority of the enhanced autoencoding priors, in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio, structural similarity, and high-frequency error norm. CONCLUSION: A simple and effective way to incorporate the DAE prior into highly undersampling MR reconstruction is proposed. Once the DAE prior is obtained, it can be applied to the reconstruction tasks with different sampling trajectories and acceleration factors, and achieves superior performance in comparison with state-of-the-art methods.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714223

RESUMO

Subspace learning and reconstruction have been widely explored in recent transfer learning work. Generally, a specially designed projection and reconstruction transfer functions bridging multiple domains for heterogeneous knowledge sharing are wanted. However, we argue that the existing subspace reconstruction based domain adaptation algorithms neglect the class prior, such that the learned transfer function is biased, especially when data scarcity of some class is encountered. Different from those previous methods, in this paper, we propose a novel class-wise reconstruction-based adaptation method called Class-specific Reconstruction Transfer Learning (CRTL), which optimizes a well modeled transfer loss function by fully exploiting intra-class dependency and inter-class independency. The merits of the CRTL are three-fold. 1) Using a class-specific reconstruction matrix to align the source domain with the target domain fully exploits the class prior in modeling the domain distribution consistency, which benefits the cross-domain classification. 2) Furthermore, to keep the intrinsic relationship between data and labels after feature augmentation, a projected Hilbert-Schmidt Independence Criterion (pHSIC), that measures the dependency between data and label, is first proposed in transfer learning community by mapping the data from raw space to RKHS. 3) In addition, by imposing low-rank and sparse constraints on the class-specific reconstruction coefficient matrix, the global and local data structure that contributes to domain correlation can be effectively preserved. Extensive experiments on challenging benchmark datasets demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method over state-of-the-art representation-based domain adaptation methods. The demo code is available in https://github.com/wangshanshanCQU/CRTL.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689213

RESUMO

A prevailing problem in many machine learning tasks is that the training (i.e., source domain) and test data (i.e., target domain) have different distribution [i.e., non-independent identical distribution (i.i.d.)]. Unsupervised domain adaptation (UDA) was proposed to learn the unlabeled target data by leveraging the labeled source data. In this article, we propose a guide subspace learning (GSL) method for UDA, in which an invariant, discriminative, and domain-agnostic subspace is learned by three guidance terms through a two-stage progressive training strategy. First, the subspace-guided term reduces the discrepancy between the domains by moving the source closer to the target subspace. Second, the data-guided term uses the coupled projections to map both domains to a unified subspace, where each target sample can be represented by the source samples with a low-rank coefficient matrix that can preserve the global structure of data. In this way, the data from both domains can be well interlaced and the domain-invariant features can be obtained. Third, for improving the discrimination of the subspaces, the label-guided term is constructed for prediction based on source labels and pseudo-target labels. To further improve the model tolerance to label noise, a label relaxation matrix is introduced. For the solver, a two-stage learning strategy with teacher teaches and student feedbacks mode is proposed to obtain the discriminative domain-agnostic subspace. In addition, for handling nonlinear domain shift, a nonlinear GSL (NGSL) framework is formulated with kernel embedding, such that the unified subspace is imposed with nonlinearity. Experiments on various cross-domain visual benchmark databases show that our methods outperform many state-of-the-art UDA methods. The source code is available at https://github.com/Fjr9516/GSL.

5.
Phys Med Biol ; 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722327

RESUMO

Mammography is one of the most commonly applied tools for early breast cancer screening. Automatic segmentation of breast masses in mammograms is essential but challenging due to the low signal-to-noise ratio and the wide variety of mass shapes and sizes. Existing methods deal with these challenges by extracting mass-centered image patches manually or automatically. However, manual patch extraction is time-consuming and automatic patch extraction brings errors that could not be compensated in the following segmentation step. In this study, we propose a novel attention-guided dense-upsampling network (AUNet) for accurate breast mass segmentation in whole mammograms directly. In AUNet, we employ an asymmetrical encoder-decoder structure and propose an effective upsampling block, attention-guided dense-upsampling block (AU block). Especially, the AU block is designed to have three merits. Firstly, it compensates the information loss of bilinear upsampling by dense upsampling. Secondly, it designs a more effective method to fuse high- and low-level features. Thirdly, it includes a channel-attention function to highlight rich-information channels. We evaluated the proposed method on two publicly available datasets, CBIS-DDSM and INbreast. Compared to three state-of-the-art fully convolutional networks, AUNet achieved the best performances with an average Dice similarity coefficient of 81.8% for CBIS-DDSM and 79.1% for INbreast.

6.
Exp Cell Res ; 385(2): 111689, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678169

RESUMO

Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase 2 (ROCK2) and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 3 (PFKFB3) are widely involved in cell biological activities and play a key role in controlling various cell phenomena. However, the underlying mechanisms connecting ROCK2 and PFKFB3 in osteosarcoma growth and metastasis are poorly understood. In this study, we explored and analysed the role and molecular mechanism of ROCK2 and PFKFB3 in osteosarcoma. We analysed ROCK2 and PFKFB3 protein expression in 51 surgical specimens from osteosarcoma patients and determined the correlation between ROCK2 and PFKFB3. In addition, we used Transwell and wound-healing assays to detect cell invasion and migration and CCK8 and EdU assays to assess cell proliferation. Herein, we confirmed that ROCK2 and PFKFB3 proteins were significantly upregulated in osteosarcoma compared with adjacent normal tissues. Further studies revealed that knockdown of ROCK2 significantly decreased the expression levels of PFKFB3; moreover, growth and metastasis were decreased in shROCK2 osteosarcoma cells. Additionally, upregulation of PFKFB3 rescued the decreased proliferation and metastasis induced by ROCK2 knockdown, whereas knockdown of PFKFB3 decreased ROCK2-enhanced osteosarcoma proliferation and metastasis. These results suggest that PFKFB3 is essential for ROCK2-mediated proliferation and metastasis of osteosarcoma cells. Mechanistically, ROCK2 stabilizes PFKFB3 expression by modifying its ubiquitination and degradation. Taken together, our results link two drivers of proliferation and metastasis in osteosarcoma and identify a novel pathway for PFKFB3 regulation. Thus, we provide new evidence of the biological and clinical significance of PFKFB3 as a potential biomarker for osteosarcoma.

7.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol ; 117: 105640, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689531

RESUMO

The tyrosine kinase receptor ErbB2 is frequently found to be overexpressed in multiple cancer types. Targeted therapeutic approaches against ErbB2 have shown promising results and received FDA approvals in the treatment of breast cancer. However, this approach has not been granted in ovarian cancers till now. In order to assess the validity of ErbB2-targeted therapy in ovarian cancer, we investigated the effectiveness of two FDA-approved tyrosine kinase inhibitors of ErbB2, lapatinib and neratinib, on the growth of ovarian cancers. We observed that both lapatinib and neratinib displayed inhibitory effects towards the proliferation and migration of ErbB2-positive ovarian cancer cells in vitro, with neratinib showing stronger suppression in general. Neratinib treatment led to the reduction of ErbB2 protein levels, with concomitant attenuation of the phosphorylation of AKT, MEK, and ERK1/2. Immunofluorescence assays revealed that neratinib induced the internalization and lysosomal degradation of ErbB2, which was accompanied by its hyperubiquitylation. Lapatinib and neratinib also repressed the in vivo growth of SKOV3 cells, and neratinib downregulated ErbB2 levels in xenograft tumors to cause potent inhibition. Therefore, the ubiquitylation-mediated endocytic degradation of ErbB2 incurred by neratinib treatment conferred potent inhibition of ovarian cancer growth. Clinical investigations of neratinib in ErbB2-positive ovarian cancer are warranted.

8.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1412, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal exposure to air pollution is related to fetal dysplasia. However, the association between maternal exposure to air pollution and the risk of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in the offspring is largely unknown. METHODS: We conducted a national database based study in China to explore the association between these two parameters. The incidence of CH was collected from October 1, 2014 to October 1, 2015 from the Chinese Maternal and Child Health Surveillance Network. Considering that total period of pregnancy and consequently the total period of particle exposure is approximately 10 months, average exposure levels of PM2.5, PM10 and Air Quality Index (AQI) were collected from January 1, 2014 to January 1, 2015. Generalized additive model was used to evaluate the association between air pollution and the incidence of CH, and constructing receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to calculate the cut-off value. RESULTS: The overall incidence of CH was 4.31 per 10,000 screened newborns in China from October 1, 2014 to October 1, 2015. For every increase of 1 µg/m3 in the PM2.5 exposure during gestation could increase the risk of CH (adjusted OR = 1.016 per 1 µg/m3 change, 95% CI, 1.001-1.031). But no significant associations were found with regard to PM10 (adjusted OR = 1.009, 95% CI, 0.996-1.018) or AQI (adjusted OR = 1.012, 95% CI,0.998-1.026) and the risk of CH in the offspring. The cut-off value of prenatal PM2.5 exposure for predicting the risk of CH in the offspring was 61.165 µg/m3. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggested that maternal exposure to PM2.5 may exhibit a positive association with increased risk of CH in the offspring. We also proposed a cut-off value of PM2.5 exposure that might determine reduction in the risk of CH in the offspring in highly polluted areas.

9.
Pharmacology ; : 1-8, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Berberine is a promising natural drug that has a potential therapeutic effect on neurodegenerative diseases. OBJECTIVES: Using U251 cells in vitro, we investigated whether berberine exerts its neuroprotective effect via regulation of CYP2J2. METHOD: After pretreatment with increasing concentrations (1, 3, and 10 µmol/L) of berberine for 0.5 h, U251 cells were stimulated with 1 µg/mL of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Cell viability was measured 24 h later using a CCK8 kit. mRNA and protein levels of CYP2J2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) were measured by quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively, after 24 h of exposure to 1, 3, or 10 µmol/L berberine. Fluorescence immunocytochemistry was also used to evaluate PPARα protein expression after treatment of U251 cells with 10-µmol/L berberine for 24 h. Transient transfection (cotransfection with the plasmid of PPARα- and RXRα-containing) followed by luciferase and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays was used to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the observed effects. RESULTS: Compared to the control, LPS-induced U251 cell death was attenuated by berberine in a dose-dependent manner. After 24 h, cell viability was found to be 52.3% (p < 0.05), 66.2% (p < 0.01), and 70.9% (p < 0.001) using 1, 3, and 10 µmol/L berberine treatment, respectively. At these concentrations, berberine increased the CYP2J2 mRNA levels by 1.31-fold (p < 0.05), 1.48-fold (p < 0.01), and 1.88-fold (p < 0.01), respectively, and increased the PPARα mRNA levels 1.17-fold (p < 0.05), 1.29-fold (p < 0.05), and 1.53-fold (p < 0.01), respectively, compared with the respective control groups. In addition, the CYP2J2 and PPARα protein level was also significantly upregulated in U251 cells by berberine (concentrations in 1, 3, and 10 µmol/L) in a dose-dependent manner, compared with the respective control groups. Further investigation indicated that berberine enhances the heterodimerization of PPARα and RXRα, which together bind to the CYP2J2 promoter to induce the expression of CYP2J2 in U251 cells. CONCLUSION: Upon exposure of U251 cells to berberine, CYP2J2 expression is induced as a result of PPARα stimulation, resulting in a neuroprotective effect.

10.
Plant Cell Rep ; 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680208

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Cotton pollen abortion, under drought stress, was closely associated with changes in anther carbohydrate metabolism, and pollen abortion rate due to drought was higher in drought-sensitive cultivars than drought-tolerant cultivars. Cotton reproductive failure under drought stress is intrinsically connected with altered male fertility, however, studies investigating the effect of drought stress on cotton male fertility are nonexistent. Thus, a drought stress experiment was conducted with two cotton cultivars, differing in drought tolerance, to study pollen fertility and anthers' physiology. Results indicated that drought stress reduced pollen fertility of both cultivars due to decreases in anther starch and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis. Lower assimilate supply capacity in conjunction with impaired activities of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and soluble starch synthase were the main reasons for the decreased starch levels in drought-stressed anthers. The decreased activities of sucrose synthetase and acid invertase were responsible for the higher sucrose level in drought-stressed anthers than well-watered anthers and the changing trend of sucrose was intensified by the decreased expressions of sucrose synthase genes (GhSusA, GhSusB, GhSusD) and acid invertase genes (GhINV1, GhINV2). However, despite sucrose degradation being limited in drought-stressed anthers, glucose level was higher in droughted anthers than well-watered ones, and that might be attributed to the down-regulated respiration since decreased anther ATP levels were detected in drought-stressed plants. Furthermore, compared to the drought-tolerant cultivar, pollen fertility was more suppressed by drought stress for the drought-sensitive cultivar, and that was attributed to the larger decrease in starch and ATP contents.

11.
Microb Ecol ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720759

RESUMO

External environments to microbial eukaryotic communities often change gradually with time. However, whether the responses of microbial eukaryotic communities to these gradually changed environments are continuous or hysteretic and the mechanisms underlying these responses are largely unknown. Here, we used a microcosm to investigate the temporal variation of microbial eukaryotic communities with the gradually decreased nutrient concentrations (nitrogen and phosphorus). We found the differences of microbial eukaryotic community composition and species richness between the control and treatment groups were low during the days 0 to 12, although the nutrient concentrations decreased rapidly during this period in treatment group. However, these differences were clear during the days 14 to 18, although the nutrient concentrations decreased slowly during this period in treatment group. The mechanisms for these results are that the strong homogenous selection (perhaps due to the biotic factors) during the days 8 to 10 in treatment group might enhance the stability of microbial eukaryotic communities. However, the continuously decreased nutrient concentrations weakened the homogenous selection and promoted the strength of environmental filtering, and therefore resulted in the distinct change of microbial eukaryotic communities during the days 14 to 18 in treatment group. Fungi, Chlorophyta and Chrysophyta which associated with the nutrient removal played important roles in this hysteretic change of microbial eukaryotic communities. Overall, our findings suggest that disentangling the non-linear response of communities to gradual environmental changes is essential for understanding ecosystem restoration and degradation in future.

12.
Anal Chem ; 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769282

RESUMO

Signal amplification for electrochemiluminescence (ECL) plays a significant role in ultrasensitive detection of disease biomarkers. We report herein a new signal amplification strategy - quasi-photonic crystal nanomembrane-based light scattering enhancement for ECL signal amplification, via fabricating a novel close-packed monolayered SiO2-nanomembrane as solid-state ECL electrodes. In the system, the quasi-photonic crystal structure of the monolayered SiO2-nanomembrane led to intense light scattering within the nanofilm, which significantly increases the photon flux and then definitely improves the excitation number of the luminescent molecules (Ru(bpy)32+). Reinforced by the nanostructured electrode surface of the nanomembrane, the as-prepared ECL electrode exhibited significant ECL enhancement, ~ 77-fold enhancement in the classic Ru(bpy)32+-TPrA system. We further constructed a sandwich-type SiO2-nanomembrane based solid-state ECL immunobiosensor for ultrasensitive detection of cardiac troponin I (cTnI). Under optimal conditions, the immunobiosensor showed a very low detection limit of 5.6 fg mL-1 for cTnI. Due to the cheap and easy availability of the materials, this study and finding will not only provides an efficient way to improve the ECL intensity but also benefits the design of novel ECL electrodes for various biomarker detections.

13.
PLoS Genet ; 15(11): e1008510, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765390

RESUMO

Cellulolytic fungi have evolved a complex regulatory network to maintain the precise balance of nutrients required for growth and hydrolytic enzyme production. When fungi are exposed to cellulose, the transcript levels of cellulase genes rapidly increase and then decline. However, the mechanisms underlying this bell-shaped expression pattern are unclear. We systematically screened a protein kinase deletion set in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa to search for mutants exhibiting aberrant expression patterns of cellulase genes. We observed that the loss of stk-12 (NCU07378) caused a dramatic increase in cellulase production and an extended period of high transcript abundance of major cellulase genes. These results suggested that stk-12 plays a critical role as a brake to turn down the transcription of cellulase genes to repress the overexpression of hydrolytic enzymes and prevent energy wastage. Transcriptional profiling analyses revealed that cellulase gene expression levels were maintained at high levels for 56 h in the Δstk-12 mutant, compared to only 8 h in the wild-type (WT) strain. After growth on cellulose for 3 days, the transcript levels of cellulase genes in the Δstk-12 mutant were 3.3-fold over WT, and clr-2 (encoding a transcriptional activator) was up-regulated in Δstk-12 while res-1 and rca-1 (encoding two cellulase repressors) were down-regulated. Consequently, total cellulase production in the Δstk-12 mutant was 7-fold higher than in the WT. These results strongly suggest that stk-12 deletion results in dysregulation of the cellulase expression machinery. Further analyses showed that STK-12 directly targets IGO-1 to regulate cellulase production. The TORC1 pathway promoted cellulase production, at least partly, by inhibiting STK-12 function, and STK-12 and CRE-1 functioned in parallel pathways to repress cellulase gene expression. Our results clarify how cellulase genes are repressed at the transcriptional level during cellulose induction, and highlight a new strategy to improve industrial fungal strains.

14.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754723

RESUMO

Influenza A viruses cause widespread human respiratory disease. The viral multifunctional NS1 protein inhibits host antiviral responses. This inhibition results from the binding of specific cellular antiviral proteins at various positions on the NS1 protein. Remarkably, binding of several proteins also requires the two amino-acid residues in the NS1 N-terminal RNA-binding domain (RBD) that are required for binding double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Here we focus on the host restriction factor DHX30 helicase that is countered by the NS1 protein, and establish why the dsRNA-binding activity of NS1 is required for its binding to DHX30. We show that the N-terminal 152 amino-acid residue segment of DHX30, denoted DHX30N, possesses all the antiviral activity of DHX30 and contains a dsRNA-binding domain, and that the NS1-DHX30 interaction in vivo requires the dsRNA-binding activity of both DHX30N and the NS1 RBD. We demonstrate why this is the case using bacteria-expressed proteins: the DHX30N-NS1 RBD interaction in vitro requires the presence of a dsRNA platform that binds both NS1 RBD and DHX30N. We propose that a similar dsRNA platform functions in interactions of the NS1 protein with other proteins that requires these same two amino-acid residues required for NS1 RBD dsRNA-binding activity.

15.
Neurotoxicology ; 76: 144-152, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aluminum (Al) exerts neurotoxic effects following overexposure. We previously reported worse cognitive performance in workers exposed to Al than non-exposed individuals. Cognition involves multiple domains. The effect of Al on multi-domain cognition has been studied for decades, but still remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between plasma Al levels and multi-domain cognitive performance among in-service aluminum-exposed workers at the SH Aluminum Factory in China and identify possible types of early cognitive damage caused by exposure to aluminum. METHODS: Eight hundred thirty-one in-service aluminum-exposed workers at the SH Aluminum Factory in China were investigated. The plasma Al concentrations were measured using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and served as an internal exposure indicator. The participants were divided into four subgroups based on the quartiles of plasma Al concentrations, namely, the Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4 subgroups. Cognitive function was assessed using the Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) and the clock-drawing test (CDT). Multi-domain cognition was evaluated using sub-tests of the MMSE and the CDT. RESULTS: The average plasma Al concentration was 15.26 (8.28, 27.02) µg/L. The neurobehavioral tests showed negative correlations between plasma Al levels and total CDT scores and executive/visuospatial cognitive performance, and a positive correlation between plasma Al levels and CDT-position errors (all P<0.05). Additionally, dose-response relationships between higher plasma Al levels and lower total CDT scores, worse executive/visuospatial cognitive performance, and more error rates in the CDT-position were observed (all Ptrend<0.05). However, no significant correlations or trends were observed between plasma Al levels and other cognitive domains (all P>0.05). The results from the multivariate logistic regression model and restricted cubic spline models of dose-response relationships were consistent with the results obtained from the general linear model. All potential confounders, such as age, marital status, education, income, type of work, and smoking and drinking habits, were considered. CONCLUSION: Based on the results, aluminum exposure may exert a substantial effect on impairing executive/visuospatial functions in multi-domain cognition at the early stage, particularly the identification of spatial positions.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640165

RESUMO

Previous research has found a relationship between child abuse and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). However, few studies have examined the role of social support underlying this association. Moreover, the influence of the only child status on the mediating effect of social support has not been studied yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the mediating role of social support on the association between specific forms of child abuse and NSSI as well as the role of the only child status on the mediated pathways, among undergraduates. A total of 4799 participants were selected from two medical colleges in the Anhui province using stratified cluster sampling. Pearson's correlation analysis was used in analyzing the relationship. Bootstrapping procedures were applied to examine the mediating effects. After adjusting for confounders, the results showed that the mediating effect of social support on the association between childhood abuse and NSSI was not significant in the total sample. However, among only children, the mediating effects of social support between overall childhood abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and NSSI were 9.65%, 14.82%, and 8.12%, respectively. Moreover, the mediating effect of social support from family and relatives was relatively higher than that from other sources. Social support had a mediating effect on the relationship between childhood abuse and NSSI among only-children. The enhancing of social support may contribute to the prevention and control of NSSI for those who were only-children in undergraduates, especially those who have experienced childhood abuse.

17.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 362, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There was a wider disparity in the diet characterization among most studies on diet and pregnancy outcomes in different countries, and the research in northern China is limited. Therefore, the purpose of the present study that was conducted in northwest China was to understand the dietary characteristics of periconceptional women and to explore the relationship between and specific dietary patterns with adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted from October 2017 to November 2018 in Shaanxi, China. Based on a prospective cohort of 368 women who were pregnant or prepared for pregnancy, 63 participants who developed the outcomes of gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, preterm birth, low birth weight, and birth defects were included in the case group. A total of 237 healthy pregnant women were included during the same period in the control group. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire for the three months before pregnancy and the first trimester. Information on delivery details and antenatal pregnancy complications was obtained from the hospital maternity records. Dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis. Stratified analysis was performed on the overall, single and multiple adverse pregnancy outcomes categories. Adjustment was made for sociodemographic characteristics and nutritional supplement status. RESULTS: Six major dietary patterns were identified. The 'starchy' dietary pattern, composed of high intake in noodle and flour products and/or rice and its products, was associated with the odds of developing of adverse pregnancy outcomes (OR: 2.324, 95% CI: 1.293-4.178). This risk remained significant following adjustment for potential confounders of maternal demographic characteristics and nutritional status (aOR: 2.337, 95% CI:1.253-4.331). Strong association were found during the first trimester of pregnancy, but showed no association during the three months before pregnancy (aOR:1.473, 95% CI: 0.682-3.234). CONCLUSIONS: High starchy food intake was associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, particularly during the first trimester of pregnancy. Health education focusing on periconceptional dietary patterns could be a practical strategy for preventing adverse pregnancy outcomes.

18.
Cell Cycle ; 18(22): 3095-3110, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564203

RESUMO

There is growing evidence of the position of microRNAs (miRs) in Alzheimer's disease (AD), thus our objective was to discuss the impact of miR-129-5p regulating nerve injury and inflammatory response in AD rats by modulating SOX6 expression. The AD rat model was established by injecting Aß25-35 into the brain. The pathological changes, ultrastructure, number of neurons, cell degeneration and apoptosis of hippocampal tissue were observed in vivo. MiR-129-5p, SOX6, IL-1ß, TNF-α, Bcl-2 and Bax expression in serum and hippocampal tissues were detected by ELISA, RT-qPCR or western blot analysis. The successfully modeled hippocampal neuronal cells of AD were transfected with miR-129-5p mimic, SOX6-siRNA or their controls to figure out their roles in proliferation, apoptosis and inflammatory reaction in vitro. Low expression of SOX6 and high expression of miR-129-5p in vivo of rats would shorten the escape latent period and increase the times of crossing platforms, alleviate the pathological injury, inhibit neuronal apoptosis and reduce the inflammatory reaction. Up-regulation of miR-129-5p and down-regulation of SOX6 promoted proliferation, suppressed apoptosis and degraded the inflammatory reaction of neuronal cells in vitro. Up-regulation of SOX6 reversed the expression of miR-129-5p to reduce the damage and inflammatory response of the cell model of AD. Our study presents that up-regulation of miR-129-5p or down-regulation of SOX6 can reduce nerve injury and inflammatory response in rats with AD. Thus, miR-129-5p may be a potential candidate for the treatment of AD.

19.
Physiol Plant ; 2019 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587275

RESUMO

The causes of reproductive failure under drought stress (DS) are poorly understood. We hypothesized that reproductive failure was related to drought-induced changes in pistil biochemistry. To address this hypothesis, a water deficit-induced experiment was conducted with two cotton cultivars (Dexiamian 1, drought tolerant; Yuzaomian 9110, drought sensitive). Results showed that DS decreased the photosynthesis of subtending leaf and downregulated sucrose transporter gene (GhSUT-1) expression in pistil for both cultivars, resulting in lower pistil carbon accumulation which was reflected in the decreased starch accumulation. Lower starch, as potential energy, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), as direct energy, in droughted pistils suggested less energy for pollen tube entrance into ovules, reducing the fertilized ovule number and fertilization efficiency. Further, although pistil peroxidase activity increased under DS, a higher hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) level still was measured in droughted pistils than well-watered pistils, damaging reproductive activities. Moreover, larger decreases in photosynthesis, pistil GhSUT-1 expression, carbon accumulation, starch and ATP contents caused by DS for Yuzaomian 9110 than Dexiamian 1, and different responses of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, and ascorbic acid and H2 O2 contents to DS between the two cultivars might be the reasons causing a greater decrease in fertilization efficiency for Yuzaomian 9110 than Dexiamian 1 under DS. Thus, we suggest that decreased ovule fertilization under DS was related to the disorganized carbohydrate metabolism and inefficient antioxidant defense in droughted pistils, and the effects of DS on pistil carbohydrate metabolism and antioxidant defense were more significant for drought-sensitive cultivars than drought-tolerant cultivars.

20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(45): 12461-12471, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613618

RESUMO

In this study, derivatization of epigallocatechin (EGC) by representative phytosterols (stigmasterol and ß-sitosterol) was performed employing Steglich esterification. The structural identity and purity of epigallocatechin ß-sitosterol (ESi) and epigallocatechin stigmasterol (ESt) were confirmed by NMR, FT-IR, and HPLC-MS. Further evaluation of ESi and ESt revealed their extraordinary antioxidant activities in O/W emulsion. Two different radical sources in oil or aqueous phase were applied to explore the antioxidant behavior in O/W emulsion. The mechanism was further investigated by fluorescent microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, incorporation of EGC with stigmasterol and ß-sitosterol notably enhanced the cholesterol-reducing activity. TEM studies suggested the hydrogen bonding of EGC strengthened the aggregation network of ESi and ESt in the bile salt micelle. The exceptional properties of ESi and ESt signified their intriguing utilization in the food industry.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Colesterol/química , Fitosteróis/química , Catequina/química , Emulsões/química , Esterificação , Oxirredução , Sitosteroides/química , Estigmasterol/química
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