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1.
Biocell ; 45(6): 1449-1451, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34539042

RESUMO

The exosome-mediated response can promote or restrain the diseases by regulating the intracellular pathways, making the exosome become an effective marker for diagnosis and therapeutic control at the single-cell level. However, real-time analysis is hard to be achieved with traditional approaches because the exosomes usually need to be enriched by ultracentrifugation for a measurable signal-to-noise ratio. Recently developed label-free single-molecule imaging approaches may become an real-time quantitative tool for the analysis of single exosomes and related secretion behaviors of single living cells owing to their extreme sensitivity.

2.
Front Chem ; 9: 718666, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552911

RESUMO

Prussian blue is an iron-cyanide-based pigment steadily becoming a widely used electrochemical sensor in detecting hydrogen peroxide at low concentration levels. Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs) have been extensively studied using traditional ensemble methods, which only provide averaged information. Investigating PBNPs at a single entity level is paramount for correlating the electrochemical activities to particle structures and will shed light on the major factors governing the catalyst activity of these nanoparticles. Here we report on using plasmonic electrochemical microscopy (PEM) to study the electrochemistry of PBNPs at the individual nanoparticle level. First, two types of PBNPs were synthesized; type I synthesized with double precursors method and type II synthesized with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) assisted single precursor method. Second, both PBNPs types were compared on their electrochemical reduction to form Prussian white, and the effect from the different particle structures was investigated. Type I PBNPs provided better PEM sensitivity and were used to study the catalytic reduction of hydrogen peroxide. Progressively decreasing plasmonic signals with respect to increasing hydrogen peroxide concentration were observed, demonstrating the capability of sensing hydrogen peroxide at a single nanoparticle level utilizing this optical imaging technique.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4908, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389711

RESUMO

C9ORF72 hexanucleotide GGGGCC repeat expansion is the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Repeat-containing RNA mediates toxicity through nuclear granules and dipeptide repeat (DPR) proteins produced by repeat-associated non-AUG translation. However, it remains unclear how the intron-localized repeats are exported and translated in the cytoplasm. We use single molecule imaging approach to examine the molecular identity and spatiotemporal dynamics of the repeat RNA. We demonstrate that the spliced intron with G-rich repeats is stabilized in a circular form due to defective lariat debranching. The spliced circular intron, instead of pre-mRNA, serves as the translation template. The NXF1-NXT1 pathway plays an important role in the nuclear export of the circular intron and modulates toxic DPR production. This study reveals an uncharacterized disease-causing RNA species mediated by repeat expansion and demonstrates the importance of RNA spatial localization to understand disease etiology.


Assuntos
Proteína C9orf72/genética , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Íntrons/genética , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , RNA/genética , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Proteína C9orf72/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Núcleo Celular/genética , Expansão das Repetições de DNA/genética , Dipeptídeos/genética , Dipeptídeos/metabolismo , Demência Frontotemporal/genética , Demência Frontotemporal/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Proteínas de Transporte Nucleocitoplasmático/genética , Proteínas de Transporte Nucleocitoplasmático/metabolismo , RNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Transdução de Sinais/genética
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(34)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417316

RESUMO

Metapopulation capacity provides an analytic tool to quantify the impact of landscape configuration on metapopulation persistence, which has proven powerful in biological conservation. Yet surprisingly few efforts have been made to apply this approach to multispecies systems. Here, we extend metapopulation capacity theory to predict the persistence of trophically interacting species. Our results demonstrate that metapopulation capacity could be used to predict the persistence of trophic systems such as prey-predator pairs and food chains in fragmented landscapes. In particular, we derive explicit predictions for food chain length as a function of metapopulation capacity, top-down control, and population dynamical parameters. Under certain assumptions, we show that the fraction of empty patches for the basal species provides a useful indicator to predict the length of food chains that a fragmented landscape can support and confirm this prediction for a host-parasitoid interaction. We further show that the impact of habitat changes on biodiversity can be predicted from changes in metapopulation capacity or approximately by changes in the fraction of empty patches. Our study provides an important step toward a spatially explicit theory of trophic metacommunities and a useful tool for predicting their responses to habitat changes.

5.
Ecol Lett ; 24(10): 2054-2064, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34319652

RESUMO

Livestock grazing is a major driver shaping grassland biodiversity, functioning and stability. Whether grazing impacts on grassland ecosystems are scale-dependent remains unclear. Here, we conducted a sheep-grazing experiment in a temperate grassland to test grazing effects on the temporal stability of productivity across scales. We found that grazing increased species stability but substantially decreased local community stability due to reduced asynchronous dynamics among species within communities. The negative effect of grazing on local community stability propagated to reduce stability at larger spatial scales. By decreasing biodiversity both within and across communities, grazing reduced biological insurance effects and hence the upscaling of stability from species to communities and further to larger spatial scales. Our study provides the first evidence for the scale dependence of grazing effects on grassland stability through biodiversity. We suggest that ecosystem management should strive to maintain biodiversity across scales to achieve sustainability of grassland ecosystem functions and services.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Pradaria , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ovinos
6.
Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc ; 96(5): 2333-2354, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080283

RESUMO

Biological insurance theory predicts that, in a variable environment, aggregate ecosystem properties will vary less in more diverse communities because declines in the performance or abundance of some species or phenotypes will be offset, at least partly, by smoother declines or increases in others. During the past two decades, ecology has accumulated strong evidence for the stabilising effect of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning. As biological insurance is reaching the stage of a mature theory, it is critical to revisit and clarify its conceptual foundations to guide future developments, applications and measurements. In this review, we first clarify the connections between the insurance and portfolio concepts that have been used in ecology and the economic concepts that inspired them. Doing so points to gaps and mismatches between ecology and economics that could be filled profitably by new theoretical developments and new management applications. Second, we discuss some fundamental issues in biological insurance theory that have remained unnoticed so far and that emerge from some of its recent applications. In particular, we draw a clear distinction between the two effects embedded in biological insurance theory, i.e. the effects of biodiversity on the mean and variability of ecosystem properties. This distinction allows explicit consideration of trade-offs between the mean and stability of ecosystem processes and services. We also review applications of biological insurance theory in ecosystem management. Finally, we provide a synthetic conceptual framework that unifies the various approaches across disciplines, and we suggest new ways in which biological insurance theory could be extended to address new issues in ecology and ecosystem management. Exciting future challenges include linking the effects of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning and stability, incorporating multiple functions and feedbacks, developing new approaches to partition biodiversity effects across scales, extending biological insurance theory to complex interaction networks, and developing new applications to biodiversity and ecosystem management.

7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3365, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099717

RESUMO

Quantification of molecular interactions on a surface is typically achieved via label-free techniques such as surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The sensitivity of SPR originates from the characteristic that the SPR angle is sensitive to the surface refractive index change. Analogously, in another interfacial optical phenomenon, total internal reflection, the critical angle is also refractive index dependent. Therefore, surface refractive index change can also be quantified by measuring the reflectivity near the critical angle. Based on this concept, we develop a method called critical angle reflection (CAR) imaging to quantify molecular interactions on glass surface. CAR imaging can be performed on SPR imaging setups. Through a side-by-side comparison, we show that CAR is capable of most molecular interaction measurements that SPR performs, including proteins, nucleic acids and cell-based detections. In addition, we show that CAR can detect small molecule bindings and intracellular signals beyond SPR sensing range. CAR exhibits several distinct characteristics, including tunable sensitivity and dynamic range, deeper vertical sensing range, fluorescence compatibility, broader wavelength and polarization of light selection, and glass surface chemistry. We anticipate CAR can expand SPR's capability in small molecule detection, whole cell-based detection, simultaneous fluorescence imaging, and broader conjugation chemistry.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Vidro/química , Refratometria/métodos , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície/métodos , Algoritmos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células HeLa , Humanos , Ácidos Nucleicos/química , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas/química , Propriedades de Superfície
8.
Ecol Lett ; 24(10): 2256-2266, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34002439

RESUMO

Despite much recent progress, our understanding of diversity-stability relationships across different study systems remains incomplete. In particular, recent theory clarified that within-species population stability and among-species asynchronous population dynamics combine to determine ecosystem temporal stability, but their relative importance in modulating diversity-ecosystem temporal stability relationships in different ecosystems remains unclear. We addressed this issue with a meta-analysis of empirical studies of ecosystem and population temporal stability in relation to species diversity across a range of taxa and ecosystems. We show that ecosystem temporal stability tended to increase with species diversity, regardless of study systems. Increasing diversity promoted asynchrony, which, in turn, contributed to increased ecosystem stability. The positive diversity-ecosystem stability relationship persisted even after accounting for the influences of environmental covariates (e.g., precipitation and nutrient input). By contrast, species diversity tended to reduce population temporal stability in terrestrial systems but increase population temporal stability in aquatic systems, suggesting that asynchronous dynamics among species are essential for stabilizing diverse terrestrial ecosystems. We conclude that there is compelling empirical evidence for a general positive relationship between species diversity and ecosystem-level temporal stability, but the contrasting diversity-population temporal stability relationships between terrestrial and aquatic systems call for more investigations into their underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Nutrientes , Dinâmica Populacional
9.
Ecol Lett ; 24(7): 1474-1486, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945663

RESUMO

Ecological stability refers to a family of concepts used to describe how systems of interacting species vary through time and respond to disturbances. Because observed ecological stability depends on sampling scales and environmental context, it is notoriously difficult to compare measurements across sites and systems. Here, we apply stochastic dynamical systems theory to derive general statistical scaling relationships across time, space, and ecological level of organisation for three fundamental stability aspects: resilience, resistance, and invariance. These relationships can be calibrated using random or representative samples measured at individual scales, and projected to predict average stability at other scales across a wide range of contexts. Moreover deviations between observed vs. extrapolated scaling relationships can reveal information about unobserved heterogeneity across time, space, or species. We anticipate that these methods will be useful for cross-study synthesis of stability data, extrapolating measurements to unobserved scales, and identifying underlying causes and consequences of heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Projetos de Pesquisa
10.
Bio Protoc ; 11(5): e3934, 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33796608

RESUMO

Electrophoresis and Western blot are important tools in protein research for detection and identification of proteins. These traditional techniques separate the proteins based on size and charge differences and identify the proteins by antibody binding. Over the past decade, the emergence of single-molecule techniques has shown great potential in improving the resolution of the traditional protein analysis methods to the single-molecule level. However, such single-molecule techniques measure either size or charge, and it is challenging to measure both at the same time. Recently, we have developed a single-molecule approach to address this problem. We tether the single proteins to a surface with a polymer linker and drive them into oscillation with an electric field. By tracking the electromechanical response of the proteins to the field using an optical imaging method, the size and charge can be obtained simultaneously. Binding of antibodies or ions to the tethered protein also changes the size and charge, which allows us to probe the interactions. This protocol includes fabrication of protein oscillators, configuration of the optical detection system, and analysis of the oscillation signal for quantification of protein size and charge. We wish this protocol will enable researchers to perform comprehensive single-protein analysis on a single platform.

11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(17): 5206-5215, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33877841

RESUMO

Exposure to particulate matter has been associated with diseases of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Owing to the dense vasculature of the kidney, it has also been identified as a PM2.5 target organ. A potential contributor to PM2.5-mediated damage may be the promotion of inflammation. The essential oil 2-undecanone (2-methyl nonyl ketone) is an H. cordata isolate, and it has been shown to possess diverse pharmacologic effects, including anti-inflammatory properties. In this study we explored the ability of 2-undecanone to protect against PM2.5-induced kidney inflammation and the exact mechanisms in this process. We found that PM2.5 elevated the levels of certain inflammatory cytokines in BALB/c mice and in HEK 293 cells. Supplementation with 2-undecanone attenuated this PM2.5-induced inflammatory injury. Interestingly, in HEK 293 cells, the PM2.5-associated inflammation was aggravated by the mitophagy inhibitor Medivi-1, while it was attenuated by rapamycin, indicating that the mechanism of 2-undecanone-mediated inhibition of inflammation may relate to mitophagy. Meanwhile, 2-undecanone induces mitophagy in HEK 293 cells by suppressing Akt1-mTOR signaling. These results indicate that PM2.5 can induce kidney inflammation, and mitophagy induced by 2-undecanone may play a protective role against this renal inflammation.


Assuntos
Mitofagia , Material Particulado , Animais , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/genética , Cetonas , Rim , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Material Particulado/toxicidade
12.
Anal Chem ; 93(18): 7011-7021, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909404

RESUMO

To combat the ongoing public health threat of antibiotic-resistant infections, a technology that can quickly identify infecting bacterial pathogens and concurrently perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) in point-of-care settings is needed. Here, we develop a technology for point-of-care AST with a low-magnification solution scattering imaging system and a real-time video-based object scattering intensity detection method. The low magnification (1-2×) optics provides sufficient volume for direct imaging of bacteria in urine samples, avoiding the time-consuming process of culture-based bacterial isolation and enrichment. Scattering intensity from moving bacteria and particles in the sample is obtained by subtracting both spatial and temporal background from a short video. The time profile of scattering intensity is correlated with the bacterial growth rate and bacterial response to antibiotic exposure. Compared to the image-based bacterial tracking and counting method we previously developed, this simple image processing algorithm accommodates a wider range of bacterial concentrations, simplifies sample preparation, and greatly reduces the computational cost of signal processing. Furthermore, development of this simplified processing algorithm eases implementation of multiplexed detection and allows real-time signal readout, which are essential for point-of-care AST applications. To establish the method, 130 clinical urine samples were tested, and the results demonstrated an accuracy of ∼92% within 60-90 min for UTI diagnosis. Rapid AST of 55 positive clinical samples revealed 98% categorical agreement with both the clinical culture results and the on-site parallel AST validation results. This technology provides opportunities for prompt infection diagnosis and accurate antibiotic prescriptions in point-of-care settings.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Bactérias , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
13.
J Anim Ecol ; 90(6): 1444-1454, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666227

RESUMO

Food webs capture the trophic relationships and energy fluxes between species, which has fundamental impacts on ecosystem functioning and stability. Within a food web, the energy flux distribution between a predator and its prey species is shaped by food quantity-quality trade-offs and the contiguity of foraging. But the distribution of energy fluxes among prey species as well as its drivers and implications remain unclear. Here we used 157 aquatic food webs, which contain explicit energy flux information, to examine whether a predator's foraging is asymmetric and biased towards lower or higher trophic levels, and how these patterns may change with trophic level. We also evaluate how traditional topology-based approaches may over- or under-estimate a predator's trophic level and omnivory by ignoring the asymmetric foraging patterns. Our results demonstrated the prevalence of asymmetric foraging in natural aquatic food webs. Although predators prefer prey at higher trophic levels with potentially higher food quality, they obtain their energy mostly from lower trophic levels with a higher food quantity. Both tendencies, that is, stronger feeding preference for prey at higher trophic levels and stronger energetic reliance on prey at lower trophic levels are alleviated for predators at higher trophic levels. The asymmetric foraging lowers trophic levels and omnivory at both species and food web levels, compared to estimates from traditional topology-based approaches. Such overestimations by topology-based approaches are most pronounced for predators at lower trophic levels and communities with higher number of trophic species. Our study highlights the importance of energy flux information in understanding the foraging behaviour of predators as well as the structural complexity of natural food webs. The increasing availability of flux-based food web data will thus provide new opportunities to reconcile food web structure, functioning and stability.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Animais , Comportamento Predatório
14.
ACS Sens ; 6(3): 1357-1366, 2021 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720692

RESUMO

Measuring molecular binding is critical for understanding molecular-scale biological processes and screening drugs. Label-free detection technologies, such as surface plasmon resonance (SPR), have been developed for analyzing analytes in their natural forms. However, the specificity of these methods is solely relying on surface chemistry and has often nonspecific binding issues when working with samples in complex media. Herein, we show that single-molecule-based measurement can distinct specific and nonspecific binding processes by quantifying the mass and binding dynamics of individual-bound analyte molecules, thus allowing the binding kinetic analysis in complex media such as serum. In addition, this single-molecule imaging is realized in a commonly used Kretschmann prism-coupled SPR system, thus providing a convenient solution to realize high-resolution imaging on widely used prism-coupled SPR systems.


Assuntos
Nanotecnologia , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Cinética , Ligação Proteica
15.
Ecology ; 102(6): e03347, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742438

RESUMO

The biotic mechanisms underlying ecosystem functioning and stability have been extensively-but separately-explored in the literature, making it difficult to understand the relationship between functioning and stability. In this study, we used community models to examine how complementarity and selection, the two major biodiversity mechanisms known to enhance ecosystem biomass production, affect ecosystem stability. Our analytic and simulation results show that although complementarity promotes stability, selection impairs it. The negative effects of selection on stability operate through weakening portfolio effects and selecting species that have high productivity but low tolerance to perturbations ("risk-prone" species). In contrast, complementarity enhances stability by increasing portfolio effects and reducing the relative abundance of risk-prone species. Consequently, ecosystem functioning and stability exhibit either a synergy, if complementarity effects prevail, or trade-off, if selection effects prevail. Across species richness levels, ecosystem functioning and stability tend to be positively related, but negative relationships can occur when selection co-varies with richness. Our findings provide novel insights for understanding the functioning-stability relationship, with potential implications for both ecological research and ecosystem management.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Biomassa , Simulação por Computador
16.
Ecology ; 102(6): e03332, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705570

RESUMO

Our planet is facing significant changes of biodiversity across spatial scales. Although the negative effects of local biodiversity (α diversity) loss on ecosystem stability are well documented, the consequences of biodiversity changes at larger spatial scales, in particular biotic homogenization, that is, reduced species turnover across space (ß diversity), remain poorly known. Using data from 39 grassland biodiversity experiments, we examine the effects of ß diversity on the stability of simulated landscapes while controlling for potentially confounding biotic and abiotic factors. Our results show that higher ß diversity generates more asynchronous dynamics among local communities and thereby contributes to the stability of ecosystem productivity at larger spatial scales. We further quantify the relative contributions of α and ß diversity to ecosystem stability and find a relatively stronger effect of α diversity, possibly due to the limited spatial scale of our experiments. The stabilizing effects of both α and ß diversity lead to a positive diversity-stability relationship at the landscape scale. Our findings demonstrate the destabilizing effect of biotic homogenization and suggest that biodiversity should be conserved at multiple spatial scales to maintain the stability of ecosystem functions and services.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema
17.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1946): 20202779, 2021 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33715425

RESUMO

The biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF) relationship is expected to be scale-dependent. The autocorrelation of environmental heterogeneity is hypothesized to explain this scale dependence because it influences how quickly biodiversity accumulates over space or time. However, this link has yet to be demonstrated in a formal model. Here, we use a Lotka-Volterra competition model to simulate community dynamics when environmental conditions vary across either space or time. Species differ in their optimal environmental conditions, which results in turnover in community composition. We vary biodiversity by modelling communities with different sized regional species pools and ask how the amount of biomass per unit area depends on the number of species present, and the spatial or temporal scale at which it is measured. We find that more biodiversity is required to maintain functioning at larger temporal and spatial scales. The number of species required increases quickly when environmental autocorrelation is low, and slowly when autocorrelation is high. Both spatial and temporal environmental heterogeneity lead to scale dependence in BEF, but autocorrelation has larger impacts when environmental change is temporal. These findings show how the biodiversity required to maintain functioning is expected to increase over space and time.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Biomassa
18.
ACS Sens ; 6(2): 285-289, 2021 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631937
19.
ACS Sens ; 6(2): 364-370, 2021 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842724

RESUMO

Most label-free detection technologies detect the masses of molecules, and their sensitivities thus decrease with molecular weight, making it challenging to detect small molecules. To address this need, we have developed a charge-sensitive optical detection (CSOD) technique, which detects the charge rather than the mass of a molecule with an optical fiber. However, the effective charge of a molecule decreases with the buffer ionic strength. For this reason, the previous CSOD works with diluted buffers, which could affect the measured molecular binding kinetics. Here, we show a technique capable of detecting molecular binding kinetics in normal ionic strength buffers. An H-shaped sample well was developed to increase the current density at the sensing area to compensate the signal loss due to ionic screening at normal ionic strength buffer, while keeping the current density low at the electrodes to minimize the electrode reaction. In addition, agarose gels were used to cover the electrodes to prevent electrode reaction generated bubbles from entering the sensing area. With this new design, we have measured the binding kinetics between G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and their small molecule ligands in normal buffer. We found that the affinities measured in normal buffer are stronger than those measured in diluted buffer, likely due to the stronger electrostatic repulsion force between the same charged ligands and receptors in the diluted buffer.


Assuntos
Cinética , Íons , Ligantes , Concentração Osmolar , Eletricidade Estática
20.
Ecol Lett ; 24(1): 50-59, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029856

RESUMO

Understanding the mechanisms of biodiversity maintenance is a fundamental issue in ecology. The possibility that species disperse within the landscape along differing paths presents a relatively unexplored mechanism by which diversity could emerge. By embedding a classical metapopulation model within a network framework, we explore how access to different dispersal networks can promote species coexistence. While it is clear that species with the same demography cannot coexist stably on shared dispersal networks, we find that coexistence is possible on unshared networks, as species can surprisingly form self-organised clusters of occupied patches with the most connected patches at the core. Furthermore, a unimodal biodiversity response to an increase in species colonisation rates or average patch connectivity emerges in unshared networks. Increasing network size also increases species richness monotonically, producing characteristic species-area curves. This suggests that, in contrast to previous predictions, many more species can co-occur than the number of limiting resources.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Modelos Biológicos , Biodiversidade , Ecologia , Dinâmica Populacional
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