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1.
Breast ; 61: 108-117, 2021 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34942430

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To clarify the effect of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) on pT1-2N1 breast cancer patients with different molecular subtypes. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 5442 patients with pT1-2N1 breast cancer treated using modified radical mastectomy in 11 hospitals in China. Univariate, multivariate, and propensity score matching (PSM) analyses were used to evaluate the effect of PMRT on locoregional recurrence (LRR). RESULTS: With a median follow-up duration of 63.8 months, the 5-year LRR rates were 4.0% and 7.7% among patients treated with and without PMRT, respectively (p < 0.001). PMRT was independently associated with reduced LRR after adjustments for confounders (p < 0.001). After grouping the patients according to the molecular subtype of cancer and conducting PSM, we found that the 5-year LRR rates among patients treated with and without PMRT (in that order) were as follows: luminal HER2-negative cancer, 1.9% and 6.5% (p < 0.001); luminal HER2-positive cancer, 3.8% and 13.7% (p = 0.041); HER2-overexpressing cancer, 10.2% and 15.5% (p = 0.236); and triple-negative cancer, 4.6% and 15.9% (p = 0.002). Among patients with HER2-overexpressing and triple-negative cancers, the LRR hazard rate displayed a dominant early peak, and was extremely low after 5 years. However, patients with luminal cancer continued to have a long-lasting high annual LRR hazard rate during follow-up. CONCLUSION: PMRT significantly reduced the LRR risk in patients with pT1-2N1 luminal and triple-negative breast cancers, but had no effect on the LRR risk in patients with HER2-overexpressing cancer. Patients with different molecular subtypes displayed different annual LRR patterns, and the late recurrence of the luminal subtype suggests the necessity of long-term follow-up to evaluate the efficacy of PMRT.

2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2136116, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34846525

RESUMO

Importance: Several studies have explored the efficacy and toxic effects of concurrent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)- or capecitabine-based chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with or without oxaliplatin in the neoadjuvant setting. Addition of oxaliplatin to 5-FU or capecitabine elicited similar outcomes but with significantly increased toxic effects; however, there is a need for randomized clinical trials comparing 2 CRT regimens for patients receiving CRT in the adjuvant setting. Objective: To explore the efficacy and toxic effects of oxaliplatin combined with postoperative concurrent capecitabine and radiotherapy (RT) for pathological stage II and III rectal cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter randomized clinical trial enrolled patients from 7 centers in China between April 1, 2008, and December 30, 2015. Patients with pathologically confirmed stage II and III rectal cancer were randomized (1:1) to receive concurrent CRT with capecitabine or capecitabine plus oxaliplatin. Analysis was conducted from December 31, 2019, to March 15, 2020. Interventions: RT comprised 45 to 50 Gy in 25 fractions of 1.8 to 2.0 Gy over 5 weeks. In the capecitabine with RT group, concurrent chemotherapy included 2 cycles of capecitabine (1600 mg/m2) on days 1 to 14 and 22 to 35. The capecitabine and oxaliplatin with RT group received identical postoperative RT to that in the capecitabine with RT group combined with capecitabine (1300 mg/m2) on days 1 to 14 and 22 to 35 and a 2-hour infusion of oxaliplatin (60 mg/m2) on weeks 1, 2, 4, and 5. Patients in both groups received adjuvant chemotherapy (capecitabine or fluorouracil and oxaliplatin) after CRT. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was 3-year disease-free survival (DFS). Results: A total of 589 patients (median [IQR] age, 55 [47-52] years; 375 [63.7%] men and 214 [36.3%] women) were enrolled, including 294 patients randomized to the capecitabine with RT group and 295 patients randomized to the capecitabine and oxaliplatin with RT group. Median (IQR) follow-up was 68 (45-96) months. Most patients had stage III disease (574 patients [75.9%]). Three-year DFS was 76.3% for the capecitabine with RT group and 74.1% for the capecitabine and oxaliplatin with RT group, and 5-year DFS was 72.0% for the capecitabine with RT group and 71.1% for the capecitabine and oxaliplatin with RT group (hazard ratio [HR], 1.07; 95% CI, 0.79-1.44; P = .68). There was no significant difference between groups in overall survival (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.64-1.34; P = .70) or local recurrence (HR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.31-1.22; P = .16). More grade 3 and 4 acute toxic effects were observed in the capecitabine and oxaliplatin with RT group than in the capecitabine with RT group (114 patients [38.6%] vs 84 patients [28.6%]; P = .01). Conclusions and Relevance: This randomized clinical trial found that addition of oxaliplatin to capecitabine-based postoperative CRT did not improve the efficacy of treatment but increased the risk of severe acute toxic effects. This finding highlights the basic role of postoperative capecitabine with RT for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00714077.

3.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 1185, 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various randomized trials have demonstrated that postmastectomy radiotherapy (RT) to the chest wall and comprehensive regional nodal areas improves survival in patients with axillary node-positive breast cancer. Controversy exists as to whether the internal mammary node (IMN) region is an essential component of regional nodal irradiation. Available data on the survival benefit of IMN irradiation (IMNI) are conflicting. The patient populations enrolled in previous studies were heterogeneous and most studies were conducted before modern systemic treatment and three-dimensional (3D) radiotherapy (RT) techniques were introduced. This study aims to assess the efficacy and safety of IMNI in the context of modern systemic treatment and computed tomography (CT)-based RT planning techniques. METHODS: POTENTIAL is a prospective, multicenter, open-label, parallel, phase III, randomized controlled trial investigating whether IMNI improves disease-free survival (DFS) in high-risk breast cancer with positive axillary nodes (pN+) after mastectomy. A total of 1800 patients will be randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive IMNI or not. All patients are required to receive ≥ six cycles of anthracycline and/or taxane-based chemotherapy. Randomization will be stratified by institution, tumor location (medial/central vs. other quadrants), the number of positive axillary nodes (1-3 vs. 4-9 vs. ≥10), and neoadjuvant chemotherapy (yes vs. no). Treatment will be delivered with CT-based 3D RT techniques, including 3D conformal RT, intensity-modulated RT, or volumetric modulated arc therapy. The prescribed dose is 50 Gy in 25 fractions or 43.5 Gy in 15 fractions. Tiered RT quality assurance is required. After RT, patients will be followed up at regular intervals. Oncological and toxilogical outcomes, especially cardiac toxicities, will be assessed. DISCUSSION: This trial design is intended to overcome the limitations of previous prospective studies by recruiting patients with pN+ breast cancer, using DFS as the primary endpoint, and prospectively assessing cardiac toxicities and requiring RT quality assurance. The results of this study will provide high-level evidence for elective IMNI in patients with breast cancer after mastectomy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrails.gov , NCT04320979 . Registered 25 Match 2020, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04320979.

4.
Front Oncol ; 11: 751758, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34765557

RESUMO

Post-radiation soft tissue sarcomas (PRSTSs) are rare secondary malignancies. In this report, we describe the clinical presentation of a 52-year-old woman who underwent postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) for left-sided breast cancer 2.7 years ago and presented with a left internal mammary mass and left interpectoral nodule on computed tomography. On further evaluation, she was diagnosed with internal mammary rhabdomyosarcoma and interpectoral nodal breast cancer relapse, and was treated with chemotherapy, followed by surgery and endocrine therapy. She developed left pleural metastases and is currently receiving targeted therapy. Internal mammary rhabdomyosarcomas are rare among PRSTSs and pose a diagnostic challenge for patients with breast cancer. Histological evaluation is important for the differential diagnosis of breast cancer relapses with secondary malignancies. The management of post-radiation thoracic rhabdomyosarcomas is challenging, and the prognosis is poor.

5.
World J Gastrointest Oncol ; 13(10): 1532-1543, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34721783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (ACRT) with oral capecitabine and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were well tolerated in a phase I study in patients who had undergone partial or total gastrectomy for locally advanced gastric cancer (GC). This phase II study aimed to further determine the efficacy and toxicity of this combination after radical resection and D1/D2 lymph node dissection (LND) for patients with locally advanced GC. AIM: To further determine the efficacy and toxicity of this combination after radical resection and D1/D2 LND for patients with locally advanced GC. METHODS: Forty patients (median age, 53 years; range, 24-71 years) with pathologically confirmed adenocarcinoma who underwent D1/D2 LND were included in this study. The patients received ACRT comprising IMRT (total irradiation dose: 45 Gy delivered in daily 1.8-Gy fractions on 5 d a week over 5 wk) and capecitabine chemotherapy (dose: 800 mg/m² twice daily throughout the duration of radiotherapy). The primary study endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS), and the secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS), toxic effects, and treatment compliance. RESULTS: The 3-year DFS and OS were 66.2% and 75%, respectively. The median time to recurrence was 19.5 mo (range, 6.1-68 mo). Peritoneal implantation (n = 10) was the most common recurrence pattern, and the lung was the most common site of extra-abdominal metastases (n = 5). Nine patients developed grade 3 or 4 toxicities during ACRT. Two patients discontinued ACRT, while eleven underwent ACRT without receiving the entire course of capecitabine. There were no treatment-related deaths. CONCLUSION: The ACRT protocol described herein showed acceptable safety and efficacy for patients with locally advanced GC who received radical gastrectomy and D1/2 LND.

6.
Front Oncol ; 11: 738318, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604082

RESUMO

Purpose: To report patients' quality of life (QoL) at 1 year in a phase 2 randomized trial comparing partial breast irradiation (PBI) with whole-breast irradiation (WBI) after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for breast cancer. Methods: Women aged ≥ 45 years with low-risk breast cancer after BCS were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive PBI (40 Gy in 10 fractions over 2 weeks) or WBI (43.5 Gy in 15 fractions over 3 weeks). The primary endpoint-the incidence of toxicities of grade 2 or higher-will be reported when participants complete 5 years of follow-up. QoL was assessed at baseline (T0), at the end of radiotherapy (RT) (T1), 6 months (T2) and 1 year (T3) after RT by using the EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23 questionnaires. We calculated the scores for all QOL subscales and differences in mean scores were compared. This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03583619). Results: Between June 2017 and January 2019, 140 women were randomly assigned to receive PBI or WBI (n = 70 per group). Fifty-nine and 56 patients treated with PBI and WBI, respectively, were eligible for the QoL analysis. There were no significant differences in any subscale scores at T0, T1, T2, or T3 between the PBI and WBI arms. The scores for most QoL subscales that were influenced by RT recovered to a similar or better level relative to T0 scores within 1 year after RT, except for the scores of the dyspnea subscale. Longitudinal analysis showed that time since RT had a significant impact on physical functioning, role functioning, social functioning, fatigue, pain, dyspnea, financial difficulties, body image, and breast and arm symptoms. Conclusion: PBI using the intensity-modulated RT affords QoL comparable to that provided by WBI. Most QoL subscale scores that were influenced by RT recovered to a similar or better level relative to baseline scores within 1 year after RT.

7.
Radiother Oncol ; 161: 191-197, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to establish a nomogram for predicting locoregional recurrence (LRR) in breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and mastectomy. METHODS: A total of 2368 patients who received NAC and mastectomy between 2000 and 2014 from 12 grade A tertiary hospitals in China were analyzed retrospectively. The nomogram was developed based on the patients treated in three cancer hospitals (training set, n = 1629) and validated based on patients from the other nine general hospitals (validation set, n = 739). Factors identified from Fine and Gray's competing risk analysis were used to establish the nomogram. The predictive performance of the nomogram model was compared with the cTNM stage, ypTNM stage, and the Neo-Bioscore model by using the area under the time dependent receiver operating characteristic curves (tAUC), calibration curve, and decision curve analysis (DCA). RESULTS: The nomogram incorporated six risk factors derived from multivariable analysis of the training set including age, ypT stage, ypN stage, lymph node ratio, postmastectomy radiotherapy, and endocrine therapy. In the training set, the AUC of the nomogram was 0.792, which was higher than the values of the cTNM stage (0.582), ypTNM stage (0.737), and the Neo-Bioscore prognosis model (0.658). In the validation set, the AUC of the cTNM (0.619); ypTNM (0.636); and Neo-Bioscore staging system (0.584) were also significantly lower than the AUC of the nomogram (0.705). Both in the training and validation sets, the calibration curve showed good agreement between the nomogram-based predictions and the actual observations. CONCLUSION: The novel nomogram provides a more accurate evaluation of LRR for breast cancer patients treated with NAC and mastectomy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , China , Feminino , Humanos , Mastectomia , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Nomogramas , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Hepatology ; 74(5): 2595-2604, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Surgical resection is the primary treatment for HCC; however, it is associated with a high rate of recurrence and death. We conducted this phase 2 study to investigate the efficacy and safety of postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for HCC after narrow-margin hepatectomy. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We designed a single-arm, prospective phase 2 trial to evaluate overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), recurrence patterns, and toxicity in patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy. The eligibility criteria included the following: pathological diagnosis of HCC after hepatectomy, with narrow pathological margins (< 1 cm); age > 18 years; and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 0 or 1. Patients received IMRT within 4-6 weeks after surgical resection. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01456156). Between 2008 and 2016, a total of 76 eligible patients who underwent narrow-margin resection were enrolled. The median follow-up duration was 70 months; the 3-year OS and DFS rates were 88.2% and 68.1%, respectively; and the 5-year OS and DFS rates were 72.2% and 51.6%, respectively. Intrahepatic recurrence was the primary recurrence pattern. No marginal recurrence was found. Intrahepatic, extrahepatic, and combined recurrences at the first relapse were found in 33, 5, and 1 patient, respectively. The most common radiation-related grade-3 toxicities were leukopenia (7.9%), elevated alanine aminotransferase (3.9%) and aspartate aminotransferase (2.6%) levels, and thrombocytopenia (1.3%). Classical or nonclassical radiation-induced liver disease was not noted. CONCLUSIONS: Adjuvant radiotherapy is an effective, well-tolerated, and promising adjuvant regimen in patients with HCC who have undergone narrow-margin hepatectomy. Our trial provides evidence and a rationale for planning a future phase 3 trial.

9.
Breast ; 58: 72-79, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The phase 3 NCT00793962 trial demonstrated that postmastectomy hypofractionated radiation therapy (HFRT) was noninferior to conventional fractionated radiation therapy (CFRT) in patients with high-risk breast cancer. This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of postmastectomy HFRT vs CFRT based on the NCT00793962 trial. METHODS: A Markov model was adopted to synthesize the medical costs and health benefits of patients with high-risk breast cancer based on data from the NCT00793962 trial. Main outcomes were discounted lifetime costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). We employed a time-dependent horizon from Chinese, French and USA payer perspectives. Model robustness was evaluated with one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: Patients receiving CFRT versus HFRT gained an incremental 0.0163 QALYs, 0.0118 QALYs and 0.0028 QALYs; meanwhile an incremental cost of $2351.92, $4978.34 and $8812.70 from Chinese, French and USA payer perspectives, respectively. Thus CFRT versus HFRT yielded an ICER of $144,281.47, $420,636.10 and $3,187,955.76 per QALY from Chinese, French and USA payer perspectives, respectively. HFRT could maintain a trend of >50% probabilities of cost-effectiveness below a willingness-to-pay (WTP) of $178,882.00 in China, while HFRT was dominant relative to CFRT, regardless of the WTP values in France and the USA. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the ICERs were most sensitive to the parameters of overall survival after radiotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Postmastectomy HFRT could be used as a cost-effective substitute for CFRT in patients with high-risk breast cancer and should be considered in appropriately selected patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Feminino , Humanos , Mastectomia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Hipofracionamento da Dose de Radiação
10.
Gland Surg ; 10(1): 175-185, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33633974

RESUMO

Background: Breast cancer is currently the most common female malignancy in China. However, the clinical features and overall prognosis of young women diagnosed with this malignancy remain unclear. This study aimed to describe the clinicopathological characteristics of young patients (≤34 years of age) with breast cancer and explore the current treatment approaches used in China. Methods: This was a hospital-based, multicenter, retrospective study of women with breast cancer across seven Chinese hospitals from 1999 to 2008. A total of 295 young (≤34 years of age) patients (research group) and 2,119 women aged 35 to 49 years (control group) were included in the study. Patient epidemiology, pre-operative examinations, clinical pathology, and treatment were analyzed. Results: The percentage of young patients with breast cancer in the study group was 7.01%. These young women had a lower body mass index (BMI), a higher level of education, a lower number of previous births, and a lower history of breastfeeding than the control group (P<0.05). Increasingly, pre-operative use of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging are being used to diagnose breast cancer in young women in China. In young women with breast cancer, breast cancer not otherwise specified (NOS) was the primary pathology. The carcinoma in young women was more prone to lymph node metastasis, showed less progesterone receptor (PR) expression, and was more advanced than observed in the control group (P<0.05). We found that the number of young breast cancer patients undergoing breast-conserving surgery in China is increasing. Conclusions: Young breast cancer patients display unique clinicopathological features, including tumors of a higher grade than those aged 35 years or older. As breast cancer is more aggressive in younger women, prevention and early diagnosis are critical, and new policies should be developed in line with these findings.

11.
J Geriatr Oncol ; 12(4): 572-577, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) is a diagnostic method to assess the physical and mental health status of older patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy (preCRT) for intermediate or locally advanced rectal cancer in older people who were classified as "fit" by CGA. The interim analysis focusing on safety was reported here as the first part of this trial. METHODS AND MATERIALS: This is a single arm, multicenter, phase II trial. The eligible patients for this study were aged 70 years or above that fulfilled the standard of intermediate or locally advanced risk category, and met the standard of fit (SIOG1) evaluated by CGA. All patients received preCRT (50 Gy) with Raltitrexed (3 mg/m2 on d1 and d22). Qualitative and quantitative variables were described using descriptive statistics. The surgery adherence predicting was analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Thirty-nine fit patients were enrolled. All patients except one finished radiotherapy without dose reduction. Thirty-two patients finished the prescribed Raltitrexed therapy as scheduled. A serious toxicity was observed in 12 patients (30.8%), and only six patients (15.4%) experienced non-hematological side effects. CONCLUSION: Overall, our results showed that preCRT was feasible and safe in older patients with rectal cancer who were evaluated as fit based on CGA, supporting the use of CGA to tailor oncological treatment and predict the tolerance of a specific therapy. Completing this trial as planned would provide further valuable insights.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Neoplasias Retais , Idoso , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/terapia
12.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 1155, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To compare the survival outcomes between breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and modified radical mastectomy (MRM), and to investigate the role of radiotherapy (RT) in patients with pT1-2N1M0 breast cancer. METHODS: A total of 4262 women with T1-2N1M0 breast cancer treated at two institutions were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 3858 patients underwent MRM, and 832 (21.6%) of them received postoperative RT (MRM + RT). A total of 404 patients received BCS plus postoperative RT (BCS + RT). All patients received axillary lymph node dissection, while 3.8% of them had upfront sentinel node biopsy. The association of survival outcomes with different surgical modalities (BCS vs. MRM) and the role of RT were evaluated using multivariable proportional hazards regression and confirmed by the propensity score-matching (PSM) method. RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 71 months (range of 6-230 months), the 5-year overall survival (OS) rates of the BCS and MRM groups were 96.5 and 92.7%, respectively (P = .001), and the corresponding 5-year disease-free-survival (DFS) and locoregional recurrence (LRR) rates were 92.9 and 84.0%, and 2.0 and 7.0% (P = .001), respectively (P < .001). Multivariate analysis revealed that RT was an independent prognostic factor for improved OS (P = .001) and DFS (P = .009), and decreased LRR (P < .001). However, surgery procedure was not independently associated with either OS (P = .495), DFS (P = .204), or LRR (P = .996), which was confirmed by PSM analysis. CONCLUSION: Postoperative radiotherapy rather than the surgery procedures was associated with superior survival outcomes in patients with T1-2N1M0 breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
Front Oncol ; 10: 571390, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33072604

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the effect of chemotherapy and radiotherapy timing after breast conserving surgery (BCS) on recurrence and survival of women with early-stage breast cancer. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 900 patients who underwent BCS followed by both adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Of these, 488 women received chemotherapy first (CT-first group) while the other 412 received radiotherapy first (RT-first group). Locoregional recurrence (LRR), distant metastasis (DM), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and further confirmed with propensity-score matching (PSM) and the Cox proportional hazards model. The optimal cut-off value of interval time from surgery to the start of chemotherapy was calculated by Maxstat. Results: The median follow-up was 7.1 years. In pre-match analysis, the CT-first group had a significantly higher 8-year DFS than the RT-first group (90.4% vs. 83.1%, P = 0.005). PSM analysis of 528 patients indicated that the 8-year DFS (91.0% vs. 83.3%, P = 0.005) and DM (8.6% vs. 14.6%, P = 0.017) were significantly better in the CT-first group, but that the OS (P = 0.096) and LRR (P = 0.434) were similar. We found the optimal cut-off value of interval from surgery to chemotherapy was 12 weeks. Patients starting chemotherapy later than 12 weeks after surgery had significantly inferior survival outcomes. Conclusion: For women with breast cancer who require both chemotherapy and radiotherapy after BCS, adjuvant chemotherapy should be started within 12 weeks. Delaying the initiation of radiotherapy, for administration of long-course chemotherapy, does not compromise outcomes.

14.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(31): 3604-3614, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780661

RESUMO

PURPOSE: No randomized trials have compared hypofractionated radiotherapy (HFRT) with conventional fractionated radiotherapy (CFRT) after breast-conserving surgery in the Asian population. This study aimed to determine whether a 3.5-week schedule of HFRT is noninferior to a standard 6-week schedule of CFRT in China. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients from 4 Chinese institutions who had undergone breast-conserving surgery and had T1-2N0-3 invasive breast cancers participated this study. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) using a computer-generated central randomization schedule, without stratification, to receive whole-breast irradiation with or without nodal irradiation, followed by tumor-bed boost, either at a dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks with a boost of 10 Gy in five fractions over 1 week (CFRT) or 43.5 Gy in 15 fractions over 3 weeks with a boost of 8.7 Gy in three daily fractions (HFRT). The primary endpoint was 5-year local recurrence (LR), and a 5% margin of 5-year LR was used to establish noninferiority. RESULTS: Between August 2010 and November 2015, 734 patients were assigned to the HFRT (n = 368) or CFRT (n = 366) group. At a median follow-up of 73.5 months (interquartile range, 60.5-91.4 months), the 5-year cumulative incidence of LR was 1.2% in the HFRT group and 2.0% in the CFRT group (hazard ratio, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.20 to 1.88; P = .017 for noninferiority). There were no significant differences in acute and late toxicities, except that the HFRT group had less grade 2-3 acute skin toxicity than the CFRT group (P = .019). CONCLUSION: CFRT and HFRT with a tumor-bed boost may have similar low LR and toxicity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Hipofracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , China , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Mastectomia Segmentar , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Radiodermatite/etiologia , Radioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
15.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(17): 2061-2070, 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of oral contrast agents (OCAs) on dosimetry have not been studied in detail. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the influence of OCAs on dose calculation in volumetric-modulated arc therapy plans for rectal cancer. METHODS: From 2008 to 2016, computed tomography (CT) images were obtained from 33 rectal cancer patients administered OCA with or without intravenous contrast agent (ICA) and 14 patients who received no contrast agent. CT numbers of organs at risk were recorded and converted to electronic densities. Volumetric-modulated arc therapy plans were designed before and after the original densities were replaced with non-enhanced densities. Doses to the planned target volume (PTV) and organs at risk were compared between the plans. RESULTS: OCA significantly increased the mean and maximum densities of the bowels, while the effects of ICA on these parameters depended on the blood supply of the organs. With OCA, the actual doses for PTV were significantly higher than planned and doses to the bowel increased significantly although moderately. However, the increase in the volume receiving a high-range doses was substantial (the absolute change of intestine volume receiving ≥52 Gy: 1.46 [0.05-3.99, cubic centimeter range: -6.74 to 128.12], the absolute change of colon volume receiving ≥50 Gy: 0.34 [0.01-1.53 cc, range: -0.08 to 3.80 cc]. Dose changes due to ICA were insignificant. Pearson correlation showed that dose changes were significantly correlated with a high intestinal volume within or near the PTV (ρ > 0.5, P < 0.05) and with the density of enhanced intestine (ρ > 0.3, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Contrast agents applied in simulation cause underestimation of doses in actual treatment. The overdose due to ICA was slight, while that due to OCA was moderate. The bowel volume receiving ≥50Gy was dramatically increased when OCA within the bowel was absent. Physicians should be aware of these issues if the original plan is barely within clinical tolerance or if a considerable volume of enhanced intestine is within or near the PTV.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Humanos , Radiometria , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador
16.
Cancer ; 126 Suppl 16: 3857-3866, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) in women with pT1-T2N1 breast cancer is controversial. The authors developed a nomogram that was predictive for overall survival (OS) and identified patients who derived no benefit from PMRT. METHODS: The authors retrospectively evaluated 4869 patients with pT1-T2N1 breast cancer who were treated with mastectomy between 2000 and 2014 in 11 Chinese hospitals. Rates of locoregional recurrence and distant metastasis were calculated using competing risk analysis, and disease-free survival and OS rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Based on the risk factors identified from Cox regression analysis in 3298 unirradiated patients, a nomogram predicting OS was developed. The benefit of PMRT was evaluated in different risk groups stratified by the nomogram model. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 65.9 months, the 5-year OS, disease-free survival, locoregional recurrence, and distant metastasis rates were 93.3%, 84.3%, 5.2%, and 8.3%, respectively. A total of 1571 patients (32.3%) underwent PMRT. On multivariable analyses, PMRT was found to increase OS significantly (hazard ratio, 0.61; P = .002). An OS prediction nomogram evaluated the effect of age; tumor location; tumor size; positive lymph node ratio; estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status; and treatment with trastuzumab. Based on nomogram scores, the entire patient cohort was classified into 3 risk groups. PMRT significantly improved the OS of patients in the intermediate-risk (P < .001) and high-risk groups (P = .004), but not in the low-risk group (P = .728). CONCLUSIONS: The authors developed a nomogram that is predictive of OS among women with pT1-T2N1 breast cancer after mastectomy. This nomogram may help to select a subgroup of patients with a good prognosis who will not benefit from PMRT.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Nomogramas , Radioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , China , Feminino , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo , Metástase Linfática , Mastectomia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Leukemia ; 34(10): 2576-2591, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651542

RESUMO

To investigate progression-free survival (PFS) and event-free survival (EFS) as early efficacy endpoints in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), this systematic review included phase III randomized controlled trials (RCTs), phase II trials, and retrospective studies in newly diagnosed DLBCL receiving rituximab-containing chemotherapy through databases search up to 2019. Quality control was performed, where studies with high risk of bias were excluded. Prediction models were first established using the RCTs, and then externally validated in the phase II and retrospective populations. Trial-level surrogacy analysis was conducted by correlating the logarithmic (log) hazard ratio (HR) for PFS or EFS and log HR for OS. Correlation analysis at treatment arm-level was performed between 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-year PFS or EFS rates and 5-year OS. The correlation was evaluated using the Pearson correlation coefficient r in weighted linear regression, with weight equal to patient size. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the consistency of predictive model by leaving one subgroup of trials out at a time. Twenty-six phase III RCTs, 4 phase II trials and 47 retrospective studies were included. In trial-level surrogacy, PFS (r, 0.772; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.471-0.913) or EFS (r, 0.838; 95% CI, 0.625-0.938) were associated with OS. For rituximab immunochemotherapy treatment arms in RCTs, there was a linear correlation between 1 and 5-year PFS (r, 0.813-0.873) or EFS (r, 0.853-0.931) and 5-year OS. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated reasonable overall consistency. The correlation between PFS and OS was externally validated using independent phase II, and retrospective data (r, 0.795-0.897). We recommend PFS and EFS as earlier efficacy endpoints in patients with DLBCL primarily treated with rituximab-containing immunochemotherapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia/métodos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida
18.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 22(6): 561-566, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571452

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the current status of antibiotic use for very and extremely low birth weight (VLBW/ELBW) infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) of Hunan Province. METHODS: The use of antibiotics was investigated in multiple level 3 NICUs of Hunan Province for VLBW and ELBW infants born between January, 2017 and December, 2017. RESULTS: The clinical data of 1 442 VLBW/ELBW infants were collected from 24 NICUs in 2017. The median antibiotic use duration was 17 days (range: 0-86 days), accounting for 53.0% of the total length of hospital stay. The highest duration of antibiotic use was up to 91.4% of the total length of hospital stay, with the lowest at 14.6%. In 16 out of 24 NICUs, the antibiotic use duration was accounted for more than 50.0% of the hospitalization days. There were 113 cases with positive bacterial culture grown in blood or cerebrospinal fluid, making the positive rate of overall bacterial culture as 7.84%. The positive rate of bacterial culture in different NICUs was significantly different from 0% to 14.9%. The common isolated bacterial pathogens Klebsiella pneumoniae was 29 cases (25.7%); Escherichia coli 12 cases (10.6%); Staphylococcus aureus 3 cases (2.7%). The most commonly used antibiotics were third-generation of cephalosporins, accounting for 41.00% of the total antibiotics, followed by penicillins, accounting for 32.10%, and followed by carbapenems, accounting for 13.15%. The proportion of antibiotic use time was negatively correlated with birth weight Z-score and the change in weight Z-score between birth and hospital discharge (rs=-0.095, -0.151 respectively, P<0.01), positively correlated with death/withdrawal of care (rs=0.196, P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotics used for VLBW/ELBW infants in NICUs of Hunan Province are obviously prolonged in many NICUs. The proportion of routine use of third-generation of cephalosporins and carbapenems antibiotics is high among the NICUs.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido de Peso Extremamente Baixo ao Nascer , Antibacterianos , Peso ao Nascer , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 108(4): 1030-1039, 2020 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585337

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with node-positive stage II to III (cT1-4N1-2M0) breast cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 1813 patients from 12 institutions were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were classified into 1 of 3 groups based on the pathologic lymph node status after neoadjuvant chemotherapy: ypN0, ypN1, and ypN2-3. The role of PMRT was separately evaluated in each group. Locoregional control, disease-free survival, and overall survival (OS) were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The effect of PMRT was assessed by propensity score-matched analyses and multivariate Cox analyses. RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 72.9 months, 5-year locoregional control, disease-free survival, and OS rates were 86.3%, 68.4%, and 83.1% for the entire cohort, respectively. There were 490 (27.0%), 567 (31.3%), and 756 (41.7%) patients in the ypN0, ypN1, and ypN2-3 groups, respectively. PMRT significantly improved 5-year OS in the ypN2-3 group (74.2% vs 55.9%; P < .001) but had no effect on 5-year OS in the ypN0 group (93.1% vs 95.5%; P = .517) and ypN1 group (88.4% vs 87.8%; P = .549). CONCLUSIONS: With modern systemic therapy, PMRT significantly improved OS in the ypN2-3 group but not in the ypN0 and ypN1 groups. Whether PMRT can be safely omitted in the ypN0 and ypN1 groups should be addressed prospectively.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Excisão de Linfonodo , Linfonodos/patologia , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Mastectomia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Pontuação de Propensão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 108(1): 277-285, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147519

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine whether radiation-induced lymphopenia affects the survival of patients with breast cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Post hoc analysis was conducted on data from 598 patients with breast cancer from a randomized controlled trial comparing postmastectomy hypofractionated radiation therapy (HFRT; 43.5 Gy in 15 fractions over 3 weeks) with conventional fractionated radiation therapy (CFRT; 50 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks). Mean peripheral lymphocyte count (PLC) at different time points in the 2 groups was compared by the t test. Disease-free survival and overall survival were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared between groups by the log-rank test. RESULTS: Baseline PLC (pre-PLC) was comparable between HFRT and CFRT patients (1.60 ± 0.57 × 109/L vs 1.56 ± 0.52 × 109/L; P = .33). In both groups, the PLC declined steadily during the course of radiation therapy but started to recover at 1 month after radiation therapy. Incidence of lymphopenia was significantly lower in HFRT patients (45.4% vs 55.7%; P = .01). Nadir-PLC was significantly higher in HFRT patients (1.08 ± 0.37 × 109/L vs 0.97 ± 0.31× 109/L; P < .001), as was the nadir-PLC/pre-PLC ratio (0.72 ± 0.28 vs 0.67 ± 0.28; P = .02). Median follow-up was 57.6 months (interquartile range, 38.5-81.4). The 5-year disease-free survival was significantly lower in patients with a nadir-PLC/pre-PLC ratio <0.8 than in those with a ratio ≥0.8 (71.8% vs 82.6%; P = .01); however, overall survival was comparable between the groups (85.8% vs 90.6%; P = .24). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of radiation-induced lymphopenia in patients with breast cancer is lower with HFRT than with CFRT. A low nadir-PLC/pre-PLC ratio may predict poor prognosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Linfopenia/etiologia , Mastectomia , Hipofracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
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