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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626218

RESUMO

Hubs in the brain network are the regions with high centrality and are crucial in the network communication and information integration. Patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) exhibit wide range of abnormality in the hub regions and their connected functional connectivity (FC) at the whole-brain network level. Study of the hubs in the brain networks supporting complex social behavior (social brain network, SBN) would contribute to understand the social dysfunction in patients with SCZ. Forty-nine patients with SCZ and 27 healthy controls (HC) were recruited to undertake the resting-state magnetic resonance imaging scanning and completed a social network (SN) questionnaire. The resting-state SBN was constructed based on the automatic analysis results from the NeuroSynth. Our results showed that the left temporal lobe was the only hub of SBN, and its connected FCs strength was higher than the remaining FCs in both two groups. SCZ patients showed the lower association between the hub-connected FCs (compared to the FCs not connected to the hub regions) with the real-life SN characteristics. These results were replicated in another independent sample (30 SCZ and 28 HC). These preliminary findings suggested that the hub-connected FCs of SBN in SCZ patients exhibit the abnormality in predicting real-life SN characteristics.

2.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 293: 110987, 2019 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629132

RESUMO

Prospection, which has a close relationship with motivation and goal-directed behavior, could be a potential target for alleviating negative symptoms. The present study aimed to examine the structural neural correlates of prospection impairments and the involvement of working memory in prospection in schizophrenia patients. Thirty-seven patients with schizophrenia and 28 healthy controls were recruited and all of them completed a prospection task. Working memory was assessed with the Letter Number Span test. In addition, all participants underwent a structural MRI scan. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis was used to measure grey matter (GM) volume. We found that in schizophrenia patients, GM loss in the right lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the right ventral medial PFC was correlated with decreased internal details in the prospection task. Moreover, GM volume of the right lateral PFC was found to mediate the relationship between working memory and internal details in these patients. In conclusion, GM loss in the PFC is associated with prospection impairments in schizophrenia patients. Working memory deficits may partially account for prospection impairments in schizophrenia patients.


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos da Memória/fisiopatologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30822447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prospection, which is closely related to negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia, is mainly associated with the Default Mode Network (DMN). Although abnormalities of the DMN have been reported in schizophrenia patients and at-risk individuals, little is known about the relationship between functional connectivity of the DMN and prospection in these clinical and subclinical populations. METHOD: Study 1 recruited 40 schizophrenia patients and 29 healthy controls, while 31 individuals with social anhedonia (SocAhn) and 28 controls participated in Study 2. Participants in both studies were asked to complete a prospection task and underwent resting-state functional MRI scans. Eleven regions of interest (ROIs) in the DMN were defined. Functional connectivity between each ROI and whole brain voxels were calculated and compared between groups (schizophrenia vs. control and SocAhn vs. control). Correlation analysis was conducted between altered functional connectivity and prospection variables in the schizophrenia and SocAhn groups. RESULTS: Schizophrenia patients showed both hyper-connectivity and hypo-connectivity at the medial temporal lobe (MTL) subsystem of the DMN. Decreased connectivity between the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) and the right superior temporal gyrus (rSTG) was correlated with poor thought/emotion details in prospection. In individuals with SocAhn, decreased connectivity between the retrosplenial cortex (Rsp), a region of the MTL subsystem, and the right fusiform gyrus, was found and this was correlated with their prospection performance. CONCLUSION: Altered functional connectivity of the key nodes of the MTL subsystem was found in both patients with schizophrenia and individuals with SocAhn. Moreover, hypo-connectivity of the vMPFC was found to be correlated with prospection impairments in schizophrenia patients.


Assuntos
Anedonia/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Neurol ; 17(1): 222, 2017 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29282001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nitrous oxide (N2O), a long-standing anesthetic, is also neurotoxic by interfering with the bioavailability of vitamin B12 if abused. A few case studies have reported the neurological and psychiatric complications of N2O. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we reported a patient of N2O induced subacute combined degeneration (SCD) with longitudinally extensive myelopathy with inverted V-sign exhibiting progressive limb paresthesia and unsteady gait. CONCLUSIONS: This case raises the awareness of an important mechanism of neural toxicity of N2O, and clinical physicians should be well recognized this in the field of substance-related disorders.


Assuntos
Óxido Nitroso/toxicidade , Degeneração Combinada Subaguda , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Doenças da Medula Espinal , Degeneração Combinada Subaguda/induzido quimicamente , Degeneração Combinada Subaguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Degeneração Combinada Subaguda/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Eur Neurol ; 78(1-2): 41-47, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28618415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to explore the relation between the microstructural integrity of white matter using the technique of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and changes of cognition in leukoaraiosis (LA). METHODS: Fifty patients with LA and 50 age- and gender-matched controls were recruited consecutively. The average values of mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were quantified both within white matter lesions (WMLs) and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) from the regions of interest (ROIs). RESULTS: We found significantly decreased FA and increased MD in WMLs at the 5 ROIs than that in NAWM and controls (p < 0.05). The values of FA in NAWM were significantly lower at centrum semiovale and posterior periventricular white matter than those of controls (p < 0.05). The values of MD in NAWM were significantly higher at the anterior periventricular white matter and corpus callosum than those of controls (p < 0.05). The values of FA in NAWM located at anterior periventricular white matter correlated inversely with the Z scores of executive function (r = -0.420, p = 0.028). CONCLUSIONS: DTI may provide some important information about the cognitive dysfunction in patients with LA, which may largely attribute to the "disconnection" of cortico-subcortical pathways, with the evidence of reduced FA and increased MD.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Leucoaraiose/patologia , Vias Neurais/patologia , Substância Branca/patologia , Adulto , Anisotropia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Leucoaraiose/complicações , Leucoaraiose/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
6.
Respirology ; 22(6): 1118-1124, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28374936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Smoking is a leading cause of death in the world. Aberrant brain function has been repeatedly linked to tobacco smoking. However, little is known about insula-based resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in non-deprived tobacco-dependent smokers. This study characterized the correlation between insula-based rsFC and tobacco dependence severity in non-deprived smokers. METHODS: A total of 37 male smokers and 37 age-matched male non-smokers completed resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) scans. The insula-based rsFC differences between smokers and controls were investigated and the correlation between insula-based rsFC and FTND (Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence) scores were then assessed. RESULTS: Compared with controls, smokers showed significantly lower rsFC between orbitofrontal cortex, superior frontal gyrus, temporal lobe and insula. The rsFC between orbitofrontal cortex, temporal lobe, inferior parietal cortex, occipital lobe and insula was positively correlated with FTND. However, the rsFC between anterior cingulate cortex and insula was negatively correlated with FTND. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest differences in brain functional connectivity between smokers and non-smokers. This study sheds new insights into the neural mechanisms of tobacco dependence.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Fumar Tabaco/fisiopatologia , Tabagismo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tabagismo/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Lobo Occipital/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Occipital/fisiopatologia , Lobo Parietal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Parietal/fisiopatologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Descanso/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Temporal/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Case Rep Neurol Med ; 2016: 2401809, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27478662

RESUMO

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, which has been associated with several vaccines such as rabies, diphtheria-tetanus-polio, smallpox, measles, mumps, rubella, Japanese B encephalitis, pertussis, influenza, and the Hog vaccine. Here, we presented a case of 12-year-old child who suffered from ADEM three weeks after hepatitis B vaccination. He was admitted to our hospital with symptoms of weakness of limbs, high fever, and alteration of consciousness. Some abnormalities were also found in CSF. Treatment with high-dose corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin had significant effect, with marked improvement of the clinical symptoms and the results of CSF. The findings of MRI also detected some abnormal lesions located in both brain and spinal cord. The clinical features, the findings of CSF and MRI, and therapeutic effect may contribute to such diagnosis of ADEM.

8.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 41(1): 3-10, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27141613

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on expression of pain sensory and affective processing-related µ-opioid receptor (MOR), glutamatergic AMPA receptor subunit GIuA 1, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK 1/2), cAMP response element binding protein(CREB) in the amygdala in chronic constrictive injury (CC) + negative affection(NA) rats, so as to reveal its mechanism underlying pain relief. METHODS: A total of 32 male Wistar rats were randomized into normal control, model, EA, and anesthesia+ EA (AEA) groups (n = 8 in each group). The neuropathic pain NA model was established by ligation of the left sciatic nerve and repeated electrical stimulation of the paw-bottom in the pain-paired compartment. EA was applied to bilateral "Zusanli" (ST 36) and "Yanglingquan" (GB 34) for 30 min, once daily for 7 days. Thermal pain threshold (paw withdrawl latency, PWL) of the bilateral paws was measured by using a Tail-Flick Unit. The expression levels of MOR and p-CREB in the central amygdala (CeA) and those of MOR, GluA 1, p-ERK 1/2 and p-CREB in the right amygdala area were determined using immunofluorescence and Western blot, respectively. RESULTS: in comparison with the normal group, PWL difference (PWLD) values of the model group were significantly increased (P < 0.001), and the time spent in the CPA-paired. compartment was considerably decreased (P < 0.001). After EA, the PWLD levels of both EA and AEA groups were apparently decreased (P < 0.05), showing a pain relief; and the time spent in the CPA-paired compartment was apparently increased in the EA group (P < 0.05) , rather than in the AEA group (P > 0.05). Additionally , compared to the normal group, the expression level of MOR protein in the amygdala was remarkably increased (P < 0.05) and those of GIuA 1, p-ERK 2 and p-CREB proteins were apparently decreased (P < 0.05). After EA intervention for 7 days, the expression levels of these four proteins in the EA group, and those of MOR, p-ERK 2 and p-CREB in the AEA group were significantly up-regulated (P < 0.001, P < 0.01, P < 0.05). The expression level of GIuA 1 was significantly higher in the EA group than in the AEA group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Repeated EA stimulation of ST 36-GB 34 has a definite effect in relieving both sensation and affection dimensions of pain in NA rats, which may be related to its effect in up-regulating the expression of GIuA 1 in the amygdala, but the effects of MOR, p-ERK 2 and p-CREB need being researched further.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/metabolismo , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Dor Crônica/terapia , Eletroacupuntura , Receptores Opioides/genética , Pontos de Acupuntura , Afeto , Animais , Dor Crônica/genética , Dor Crônica/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores Opioides/metabolismo , Sensação
11.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 40(5): 378-82, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26669194

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation of "Neiguan" (PC 6) at different frequencies on plasma vasoactive substance levels in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MIR) injury rats, so as to explore its mechanisms underlying improvement of acute myocardial ischemia. METHODS: A total of 40 Wistar rats were randomized into control, model, high frequency (HF, 120 Hz) and low frequency (LF, 20 Hz) groups (n = 10 in each group). The MIR model was established by occlusion of the anterior descending branch (ADB) of the left coronary artery for 30 min, followed by reperfusion for 40 min. EA (3 V, 120 Hz or 20 Hz) was applied to bilateral "Neiguan" (PC 6) for 50 min immediately after occlusion of ADB. Subsequently, the contents of plasma endothelin (ET), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), thromboxane B 2 (TXB2) and 6-Keto-PGF1, were assayed by radioimmunoassay, and the content of serum nitric oxide (NO) was detected by nitrate reductase method. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the contents of plasma ET, ANP and TXB2 in the model group were significantly increased (P < 0.05), and that of plasma 6-Keto-PGF1α in the model group was notably decreased (P < 0.05), but no significant change was found in serum NO level (P > 0.05). Compared with the model group, the contents of plasma ET, ANP and TXB2 were considerably decreased, and plasma 6-Keto-PGF1α and serum NO contents were obviously increased in both HF and LF groups (P < 0.05). No significant differences were found between the HF and LF groups in plasma ET , ANP, TXB2 and 6-Keto-PGF1α contents (P > 0.05), but the HF EA was markedly superior to the LF EA in up-regulating the content of serum NO (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: EA stimulation of "Neiguan" (PC 6) can down-regulate the contents of plasma ET, ANP and TXB2 and up-regulate contents of plasma 6-Keto-PGF1α and serum NO in MIR rats, which may contribute to its effect in relieving acute ischemic myocardial injury. The effect of HF EA is better than LF EA in raising blood NO level.


Assuntos
Pontos de Acupuntura , Eletroacupuntura , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/terapia , Vasoconstritores/sangue , 6-Cetoprostaglandina F1 alfa/sangue , Animais , Fator Natriurético Atrial/sangue , Endotelinas/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/sangue , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Tromboxano B2/sangue
12.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 92(3): 147-51, 2012 Jan 17.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22490733

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the characteristics of cognitive impairment in patients with leukoaraiosis (LA). METHODS: Forty-six LA patients and 38 age and gender-matched healthy subjects were recruited from the Department of Neurology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University between September 2010 and March 2011. All participants underwent the neuropsychological tests recommended by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Canadian Stroke Network Vascular Cognitive Impairment Harmonization Standards (NINDS/CSN). The were divided into 3 different groups (mild, moderate and severe) according to the Fazekas scale. The differences of neuropsychological performances were compared among 3 groups. RESULTS: The LA patients were associated with comprehensive cognitive function deficits, including MMSE (24.4 ± 3.2 vs 28.3 ± 1.2), MoCA (20.4 ± 3.0 vs 26.2 ± 0.8), digital span forward (5.7 ± 0.9 vs 6.8 ± 1.0), digital span backward (3.5 ± 0.7 vs 4.1 ± 0.7), Stroop-B (69 ± 13 vs 43 ± 5), Stroop-C (141 ± 42 vs 65 ± 10), trail making test-A (73 ± 15 vs 31 ± 7), trail making test-B (126 ± 18 vs 82 ± 6) and digit symbol test (25 ± 6 vs 37 ± 5, P < 0.05). However, there was no difference in the performance of verbal fluency (12.7 ± 2.5 vs 13.4 ± 2.5, P > 0.05). Correlation analysis showed that the severity of LA had a negative correlation with the performance of MoCA (r = -0.601, P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: The LA patients are closely correlated with cognitive impairments of attention, memory, executive function and information processing speed. It may be attributed to the frontal-subcortical circuitry dysfunction.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Leucoaraiose/psicologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos
13.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 92(5): 303-6, 2012 Feb 07.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22490831

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the pathological changes in patients with leukoaraiosis (LA) by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and examine its relationship with cognitive function. METHODS: Twenty-three LA patients and 23 age and gender-matched healthy subjects were recruited from the Department of Neurology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University between August 2010 and November 2010. All participants underwent the neuropsychological tests. Multi-voxel chemical shift imaging was performed and the regions of interest were positioned in bilateral frontal white matter. The relative metabolite ratios, involving N-acetyl aspartate/choline ratio (NAA/Cho), N-acetyl aspartate/creatine (NAA/Cr) and choline/creatine (Cho/Cr), were estimated. The correlation of the MRS data and the performance of cognitive function was analyzed. RESULTS: The LA patients were associated with a worse performance of mini mental state examination (MMSE) versus the healthy controls (24 ± 3 vs 28 ± 1, P < 0.05). Univariate analysis of the MRS data revealed the ratios of NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr significantly decreased in bilateral frontal white matter lesions in the LA group versus the control group (1.72 ± 0.20 vs 1.96 ± 0.36, 1.67 ± 0.17 vs 1.85 ± 0.21, P < 0.05). The values of NAA/Cr and NAA/Cho in normal appearing white matter increased versus the LA group (1.83 ± 0.24 vs 1.72 ± 0.20, 1.78 ± 0.28 vs 1.67 ± 0.17) and decreased versus the control group (1.83 ± 0.24 vs 1.96 ± 0.36, 1.78 ± 0.28 vs 1.85 ± 0.21). But no significant differences were found (P > 0.05). The ratio of Cho/Cr did not differ among 3 groups (P > 0.05). The pathological change of NAA/Cr in white matter lesion in LA patients was markedly correlated with the performance of MMSE (r = 0.47, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: NAA may be a marker of axonal loss/dysfunction in LA patients. And the changes of NAA/Cr have a positive correlation with cognitive impairment.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/patologia , Leucoaraiose/patologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Idoso , Encéfalo/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Leucoaraiose/psicologia , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos
14.
BMC Neurol ; 11: 142, 2011 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22067592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infarcts of the corpus callosum are rare and have not been well documented previously. As for a variety of signs and symptoms presented, alien hand syndrome (AHS) can be easily overlooked. CASE PRESENTATION: In this report, we present a patient with a mixed types of AHS coexistence secondary to the corpus callosum infarction, including a motor type of AHS by intermanual conflict (callosal type AHS) and a sensory type of AHS by alien hand and left hemianesthesia (posterior AHS). CONCLUSIONS: Our case may contribute to the early recognition of AHS and to explore the abnormal neural mechanism of AHS. To our knowledge, rare reports have ever documented such mixed AHS coexisting secondary to the callosal lesion, based on advanced neuroimaging methods as in our case.


Assuntos
Síndrome da Mão Alienígena/etiologia , Doenças Arteriais Cerebrais/diagnóstico , Infarto Cerebral/diagnóstico , Corpo Caloso/irrigação sanguínea , Corpo Caloso/patologia , Idoso , Síndrome da Mão Alienígena/diagnóstico , Apraxias/diagnóstico , Apraxias/etiologia , Doenças Arteriais Cerebrais/complicações , Doenças Arteriais Cerebrais/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto Cerebral/complicações , Infarto Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Doença das Coronárias/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Paresia/etiologia
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