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1.
Food Chem ; 402: 134518, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36303395

RESUMO

Ethyl vanillin is an important synthetic flavor that occupies a large market share in food additives. However, the shortcomings in terms of too fast aroma release rate and poor powder properties have severely limited its further application. In this work, the intrinsic mechanism of ethyl vanillin oiling-out process is revealed with the help of process analytical technologies. Further, a green and efficient spherical particles preparation technology is developed by constructing the oiling-out phase diagram of ethyl vanillin in the aqueous solution of sodium chloride. The ethyl vanillin spherical product has excellent powder properties with high bulk density (0.74 g/cm3), good sphericity (93.4 %), high flowability (29°), high yield (>95 %) and adjustable particle size distribution. More importantly, the spherical product exhibits 57.9 % lower aroma release rate at 323.15 K and 1400 % higher critical caking cycle compared to irregularly shaped powder, which confirms its sustained release and anti-caking function.


Assuntos
Benzaldeídos , Pós , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Solventes
2.
Food Chem ; 403: 134333, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36156400

RESUMO

The thermal degradation products of lactulose and the interaction between lactulose and ß-lactoglobulin (ßLg) were investigated in a thermal model system. Lactulose was thermally degraded into fructose and galactose, which were further degraded into methylglyoxal, glyoxal, 3-deoxyglucosone, and 2, 3-butanedione via heating. After incubating with lactulose, the structure of ßLg was changed, which manifested by the formation of new band with doubled the molecular weight of ßLg in the mobility spectrum and the changes in the internal fluorescence spectrum. Furthermore, the lysine and arginine residues of ßLg were confirmed to be the modification sites of the thermal degradation products of lactulose, and the modification types of linear-, loop-, and cross-linked were detected. The digestibility of ßLg incubated with lactulose was significantly decreased due to the modification of trypsin digestion sites and the formation of cross-linked conjunctions. Therefore, the adverse effects of lactulose application in thermally processed foods should be concerned.


Assuntos
Lactoglobulinas , Lactulose , Lactoglobulinas/química , Glioxal , Aldeído Pirúvico
3.
Food Chem ; 400: 133904, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055136

RESUMO

Resveratrol is a dietary polyphenol that interacts with gut microbiota to possess various biological activities. To identify the microbial metabolites of resveratrol, fresh feces from 12 volunteers were cultured in vitro. Their urine samples were collected after taking a commercial capsule containing 600 mg of resveratrol. Metabolites were characterized and quantified by UPLC-Q-Exactive plus orbitrap MS/MS. The results showed that dihydroresveratrol, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionic acid, and lunularin were the major microbial metabolites of RSV with interindividual differences. 3-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-propionic acid significantly attenuated the inflammatory response of LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells and DSS-induced colitis in antibiotics-treated pseudo-germ-free mice by regulating MAPK and NF-κB pathways. In contrast, dihydroresveratrol did not exhibit significant anti-inflammatory effects, and lunularin exhibited pro-inflammatory effects in cells. This study may help to better understand the health effects of resveratrol and its microbial metabolites.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios , Colite , Resveratrol , Animais , Antibacterianos , Bibenzilas , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Colite/genética , Sulfato de Dextrana , Lipopolissacarídeos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/genética , Fenóis , Fenilpropionatos , Polifenóis , Propionatos , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Estilbenos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
4.
Theriogenology ; 195: 46-54, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36283226

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effect of dexamethasone (DEX) on chemotaxis and phagocytic activity of neutrophils for spermatozoa and semen quality of preserved boar semen. The different concentrations of dexamethasone were added to boar semen dilutions to detect its effects on the chemotaxis of neutrophils and phagocytosis of neutrophils and sperm motility sperm malformation rate, plasma membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity, and spermatozoa motility parameters. The study results showed that the experimental groups of DEX significantly inhibited the phagocytosis and chemotaxis of PMNs for spermatozoa. With the increased concentration of DEX, there was an inhibition effect on PMNs activity. In addition, under 17 °C storage conditions, the addition of DEX 1 × 10-6 mol/mL concentration has the best preservation effect on boar semen, which can effectively improve the sperm motility, movement parameters, plasma membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity, T-AOC activity, and significantly reduce the sperm malformation rate and H2O2 content. Therefore, the most suitable concentration of DEX to preserve boar semen at 17 °C is 1 × 10-6 mol/mL. The significant increase of conception rate of sows and litter size of piglets proved that DEX has practical application value. Thus, it is shown that the use of DEX to inhibit uterine inflammation is effective and feasible for sperm damage providing new methods for developing low-dose artificial insemination technology.


Assuntos
Preservação do Sêmen , Sêmen , Suínos , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Sêmen/fisiologia , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Preservação do Sêmen/métodos , Motilidade Espermática , Quimiotaxia , Neutrófilos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Dexametasona/farmacologia
5.
Food Chem ; 404(Pt B): 134734, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327507

RESUMO

This study investigated the ability of 6-shogaol to reduce obesity in C57BL/6J mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD). After 12 weeks of 6-shogaol (20, 40, 60 mg/kg/2 days) intervention, obesity related indicators, gut microbiota and metabonomics of mice were analyzed. The obesity degree and blood lipid level of mice treated with 6-shogaol were reduced, and glucose homeostasis was improved, especially in mice treated with low-dose. The intervention of 6-shogaol increased the diversity of gut microbiota and decreased the ratio of Firmicutes and Bacteroides. 6-shogaol also led to changes in metabonomics. There were 5, 4 and 6 different metabolites of 6-shogaol at low, medium and high doses. Among them, Solacauline, PE (22:5 (4Z, 7z, 10z, 13z, 13z, 16z)/14:1 (9z)) and presqualene diphosphate have strong correlation with Akkermansia, Brucella, Odoribacter and Mucispirillum. This study aims to provide a theoretical foundation for clarifying the molecular mechanism of 6-shogaol in improving obesity.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Camundongos , Animais , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/genética , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Metabolômica
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 1): 159119, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36183764

RESUMO

The lateral transport of heavy metals can expand the scope of original contamination, and an accurate prediction of heavy metal migration is necessary to control heavy metal transport. However, previous studies have mainly focused on the migration of soil pollutants in the runoff-soil-groundwater system, whereas research on the lateral migration of heavy metals in surface soil driven by rainfall is relatively scarce. Therefore, in this study we analyzed the horizontal migration of water-soluble heavy metals with surface runoff and non-water-soluble heavy metals with sediment particles, investigated the main factors affecting the processes of runoff and sediment transport and the main factors affecting the mobility of heavy metals in soils, summarized the existing methods for the simulation of heavy metal transportation. The construction of a lateral migration model based on the migration mechanism of soil heavy metals, the hydrological model, and the application of the lateral migration model should be the focus of future research. This study provides a theoretical basis for establishing a model of the lateral migration of soil heavy metals and is of great significance for the prevention and control of the risks related to the lateral migration of soil heavy metals.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/análise , Mineração , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo , China
7.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 287(Pt 1): 122122, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36427403

RESUMO

In order to conduct in-depth research on the mechanisms of cancer diagnosis and treatment, it is very important to develop fluorescent probes to study the interactions between different organelles and understand the relationship between various organelles and cell viability. However, the lack of fluorescent probes to visualize two or more targets has resulted in limited studies of intracellular interactions between different organelles. To this end, in this work, we developed a near-infrared (NIR) AIE probe with dual-color emission, NAP-Py-E, for mitochondria and lipid droplets imaging. The probe NAP-Py-E consists of lipophilic fraction, pyridine cation structure and esterase hydrolysis site. Interestingly, NAP-Py-E first targets mitochondria and emits red fluorescence; after partially hydrolyed by esterase in living cells, the hydrolysate NAP-Py accumulates in lipid droplets and emits green fluorescence. The probe has been successfully used to assess cell viability due to its dual-color emission and dual-organelle targeted changes.


Assuntos
Esterases , Gotículas Lipídicas , Sobrevivência Celular , Corantes Fluorescentes , Mitocôndrias , Excipientes
8.
J Hazard Mater ; 444(Pt A): 130395, 2023 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36402106

RESUMO

Ultrasensitive and onsite detection of oxytetracycline (OTC) is of vital significance for ensuring public health. Herein, a novel and versatile fluorescence biomimetic nanosensor, Mg,N-CDs@MIL-101@MIP, was elaborately tailored for the assay of OTC. MIL-101 with extraordinarily high surface area and porosity, as a favorable supporter, suppressed self-quenching of Mg,N-CDs and boosted mass transfer rate, realizing signal amplification. As an ultrasensitive signal transducer, high luminescent Mg,N-CDs yielded conspicuous fluorescence responses for OTC, enhancing the sensitivity of Mg,N-CDs@MIL-101@MIP. High-affinity imprinting sites further endowed Mg,N-CDs@MIL-101@MIP with superior anti-interference ability and reusability. Given prominent merits, Mg,N-CDs@MIL-101@MIP demonstrated a good linear range (0.05-40 µg mL-1) with a lower limit of detection (16.8 ng mL-1), supplying high accessibility to realize ultrasensitive and highly selective measurement of OTC in samples. Additionally, to attain precise onsite profiling of OTC, an intelligent sensing platform was developed by integrating Mg,N-CDs@MIL-101@MIP with a portable smartphone-assisted optical device. As both signal reader and analyzer, smartphone can instantly capture concentration-dependent fluorescent images and accurately digitize them, accomplishing quantitative analysis of OTC. More delightfully, the portable platform was utilized for visual determination of OTC in milk samples with satisfactory results, offering a promising tool for the high-performance onsite evaluation of food safety and environmental health.


Assuntos
Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Oxitetraciclina , Cromo , Smartphone
9.
Food Chem ; 405(Pt B): 135018, 2023 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36436233

RESUMO

Integration of functional micro-/nano-frameworks with various analytical techniques is favored to produce advanced and practical methods for identification, inspection, and regulation of hazards in agro-food products. Herein, two novel synthetic strategies were developed for preparation of core-shell structured ZIF-8@COF by using metal halides as the catalyst, and further construction of hollow-structured covalent organic frameworks (HCOFs) with a sacrificial template method. The HCOFs adsorbent exhibited high stability, universality and adsorption affinity for advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and aflatoxins (AFTs) than pristine COF. Combined with HPLC and HPLC-MS/MS, the applicability of this method was verified by infant formula samples with satisfying recoveries of 87.3%-98.9%. Furthermore, HCOF showed potential ability of adsorbing and removing AGEs from plasma without causing other risk. This work opens up the road for further research on the simple method to synthesis HCOF, besides, provides a technological basis for monitoring and controlling AGEs and AFTs in milk powder.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Plasma , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão
10.
Carbohydr Polym ; 301(Pt B): 120327, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36446493

RESUMO

In this study, a chitosan-based composite multichannel nerve conduit consisting of a warp-knitted chitosan scaffold and internally oriented N-succinyl-chitosan (NS-chitosan) fibers was applied to bridge a 10-mm nerve defect in rats. This study confirmed that an external pipeline with appropriate mechanical support was obtained by warp knitting techniques and that NS-chitosan fibers were not toxic to L-929 and PC-12 cells. These fibers degraded slowly for over 90 days and exerted sustained neuroprotective effects on peripheral nerves through their ability to drive cellular migration, promote survival, and block apoptosis of damaged Schwann cells through the Bcl-2/Bax/caspase-3 pathway. The multichannel chitosan/NS-chitosan conduit represented a histologically and functionally successful nerve reconstruction across a damaged 10-mm peripheral nerve model, showing regenerative efficacy equal to that of an autograft. The results demonstrated that the chitosan/NS-chitosan conduit with a warp-knitted tube construct and aligned inner fiber had good mechanical and bioactive properties for nerve repair.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Animais , Ratos , Sobrevivência Celular , Quitosana/farmacologia , Células de Schwann , Regeneração Nervosa , Próteses e Implantes
11.
Food Chem ; 405(Pt B): 134963, 2023 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36413846

RESUMO

Various types of fluorescent nanoparticles have been proposed for the detection of veterinary drug residues in food. However, structure-induced fluorescence nanoparticles with biodegradability and the capacity to conjugate with molecular recognition elements are lacking. Here, a biodegradable tryptophan-phenylalanine dipeptide-based nanomaterial was assembled and modified with a sulfadimethoxine aptamer (TPNPs@aptamer). Then, a novel and efficient fluorescence sensing strategy, based on TPNPs@aptamer and BHQ1-labeled single-stranded DNA (BHQ1@cDNA), was developed for sulfadimethoxine determination. Under optimal conditions, the fluorescence was linear in the range of 0-200 ng/mL sulfadimethoxine with a detection limit of 1.47 ng/mL (S/N = 3). Satisfactory recoveries of standard additions were found between 92.88 % and 114.15 % for water and milk samples with a relative standard deviation less than 5.0 %, suggesting that the proposed fluorescence sensing strategy can be applied reliably in sulfadimethoxine analysis of liquid foods.


Assuntos
Dipeptídeos , Nanopartículas , Fluorescência , Sulfadimetoxina , Oligonucleotídeos
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36458878

RESUMO

AIMS: Although myocardial scar assessment using late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is frequently indicated for patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs), metal artefact can degrade image quality. With the new wideband technique designed to mitigate device related artefact, CMR is increasingly used in this population. However, the common clinical indications for CMR referral and impact on clinical decision-making and prognosis are not well defined. Our study was designed to address these knowledge gaps. METHODS AND RESULTS: One hundred seventy-nine consecutive patients with an ICD (age 59 ± 13 years, 75% male) underwent CMR using cine and wideband pulse sequences for LGE imaging. Electronic medical records were reviewed to determine the reason for CMR referral, whether there was a change in clinical decision-making, and occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs). Referral indication was the most common evaluation of ventricular tachycardia (VT) substrate (n = 114, 64%), followed by cardiomyopathy (n = 53, 30%). Overall, CMR resulted in a new or changed diagnosis in 64 (36%) patients and impacted clinical management in 51 (28%). The effect on management change was highest in patients presenting with VT. A total of 77 patients (43%) experienced MACE during the follow-up period (median 1.7 years), including 65 in patients with evidence of LGE. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that ICD patients with LGE had worse outcomes than those without LGE (P = 0.006). CONCLUSION: The clinical yield from LGE CMR is high and provides management changing and meaningful prognostic information in a significant proportion of patients with ICDs.

13.
Int Breastfeed J ; 17(1): 82, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36457121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of breastfeeding on childhood obesity has long been under debate, with most research showing significant association, and others showing weak or no association between breastfeeding and childhood obesity. What's more, almost all of the previous studies focused on the association between breastfeeding and childhood obesity, and no studies have assessed the association between breastfeeding and childhood underweight. This study aimed to examine the association between breastfeeding and childhood obesity as well as childhood underweight from 1 to 6 years old. METHODS: A retrospective population-based cohort study of 59,564 children born between May 2009 and April 2013 in China was conducted using the healthcare records data from the Tianjin Maternal and Child Healthcare System. Information on infant breastfeeding (exclusive breastfeeding, mixed feeding, and exclusive formula feeding) within 6 months old and childhood growth (6 times of repeated measured weight and height from 1 to 6 years old) was collected. Multinomial logistic regression was used to test the potential associations between infant feeding modalities and childhood growth (underweight, normal weight and obesity). RESULTS: Compared with exclusive formula feeding, breastfeeding was inversely associatied with childhood obesity from 2 to 6 years old, and there was a trend from mixed feeding to exclusive breastfeeding (Ptrend < 0.05). The largest association with obesity was displayed at 3 years old, with the multivariable adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for exclusive formula feeding, mixed feeding and exclusive breastfeeding of 1.00, 0.62 (95% CI 0.49, 0.80) and 0.57 (95% CI 0.44, 0.74) (Ptrend = 0.001), respectively. Compared with exclusive breastfeeding, exclusive formula feeding may increase the risk of childhood underweight at 3 and 5 years old. CONCLUSIONS: Breastfeeding was inversely associated with the risk of childhood obesity from 2 to 6 years old, and there was a trend from mixed feeding to exclusive breastfeeding. Infant exclusive formula feeding might be a risk factor for childhood underweight at preschool time.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Magreza , Criança , Feminino , Lactente , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Magreza/epidemiologia , Magreza/etiologia , Aleitamento Materno , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Coorte de Nascimento , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Food Chem ; 406: 135081, 2022 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36463602

RESUMO

Olaquindox residues in food from its illegal use has received great attention. Here, an immunoassay strategy integrating an upconversion nanoparticle (UCNP)-based immunochromatographic strip with a fluorescence reader was proposed for the highly selective and sensitive detection of olaquindox. Polyacrylic acid-functionalized UCNPs were synthesized using a simple ligand exchange process and combined with an olaquindox polyclonal antibody to form a fluorescent probe. This approach achieved a sensitive response and specific recognition of olaquindox. A convenient upconversion fluorescence reader was introduced to implement accurate and sensitive quantitative analysis of olaquindox based on the fluorescence intensity of control and test lines on a strip. Under optimal conditions, the method demonstrated a favorable linear range (0-50 ng/mL) and sensitive detection (1.42 ng/mL, S/N = 3). This method was applied successfully to determine olaquindox in fish muscle and water samples, and results were consistent with an HPLC approach, and considered a promising strategy for monitoring olaquindox residuals.

15.
mSystems ; : e0088322, 2022 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36468853

RESUMO

The role of dietary amino acids or intact proteins in the progression of colitis remains controversial, and the mechanism involving gut microbes is unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of an elemental diet (ED) enriched in amino acids and a polymeric diet enriched in intact protein on the pathogenesis of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Our results showed that the ED induced remission of colitis in mice. Notably, ED treatment reduced the abundance of the mucolytic bacteria Akkermansia and Bacteroides, which was attributed to decreased colonic protein fermentation. Consistently, the activities of mucolytic enzymes were decreased, leading to protection against mucus layer degradation and microbial invasion. Fecal microbiota transplantation from ED-fed mice reshaped microbial ecology and alleviated intestinal inflammation in recipient mice. The ED failed to induce remission of colitis in pseudogermfree mice. Together, our results demonstrate the critical role of the gut microbiota in the prevention of colitis by an ED. IMPORTANCE The prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease is rapidly increasing and has become a global burden. Several specific amino acids have been shown to benefit mucosal healing and colitis remission. However, the role of amino acids or intact proteins in diets and enteral nutrition formulas is controversial, and the mechanisms involving gut microbes remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of an elemental diet (ED) enriched in amino acids and a polymeric diet enriched in intact protein on the pathogenesis of colitis in mice. The underlying mechanisms were explored by utilizing fecal microbiota transplantation and pseudogermfree mice. ED treatment reduced the abundance of mucolytic bacteria, thereby protecting the mucus layer from microbial invasion and degradation. For the first time, we convincingly demonstrated the critical role of gut microbiota in the effects of the ED. This study may provide new insights into the gut microbiota-diet interaction and its role in human health.

17.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2022 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36462125

RESUMO

AIMS: The objective of this study was to develop and validate an easy-to-use risk score (APRS) to predict which patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) will need intensive care unit (ICU) treatment within 48 h post-hospitalization on the basis of the ubiquitously available clinical records. METHODS: Patients with acute pancreatitis were retrospectively included from three independent institutions (RM cohort, 5280; TJ cohort, 262; SN cohort, 196), with 56 candidate variables collected within 48 h post-hospitalization. The RM cohort was randomly divided into a training set (N = 4220) and a test set (N = 1060). The most predictive features were extracted by LASSO from the RM cohort and entered into multivariate analysis. APRS was constructed using the coefficients of the statistically significant variables weighted by the multivariable logistic regression model. The APRS was validated by RM, TJ, and SN cohorts. The C-statistic was employed to evaluate the APRS's discrimination. DeLong test was used to compare area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) differences. RESULTS: A total of 5738 patients with AP were enrolled. Eleven variables were selected by LASSO and entered into multivariate analysis. APRS was inferred using the above five factors (pleural effusion, ALT/AST, ALB/GLB, urea, and glucose) weighted by their regression coefficients in the multivariable logistic regression model. The C-statistics of APRS were 0.905 (95% CI 0.82-0.98) and 0.889 (95% CI 0.81-0.96) in RM and TJ validation. An online APRS web-based calculator was constructed to assist the clinician to earlier assess the clinical outcomes of patients with AP. CONCLUSION: APRS could effectively stratify patients with AP into high and low risk of ICU admission within 48 h post-hospitalization, offering clinical value in directing management and personalize therapeutic selection for patients with AP.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36470698

RESUMO

Detection of pulmonary nodules on chest x-rays is an important task for radiologists. Previous studies have shown improved detection rates using gray-scale inversion. The purpose of our study was to compare the efficacy of gray-scale inversion in improving the detection of pulmonary nodules on chest x-rays for radiologists and machine learning models (ML). We created a mixed dataset consisting of 60, 2-view (posteroanterior view - PA and lateral view) chest x-rays with computed tomography confirmed nodule(s) and 62 normal chest x-rays. Twenty percent of the cases were separated for a testing dataset (24 total images). Data augmentation through mirroring and transfer learning was used for the remaining cases (784 total images) for supervised training of 4 ML models (grayscale PA, grayscale lateral, gray-scale inversion PA, and gray-scale inversion lateral) on Google's cloud-based AutoML platform. Three cardiothoracic radiologists analyzed the complete 2-view dataset (n=120) and, for comparison to the ML, the single-view testing subsets (12 images each). Gray-scale inversion (area under the curve (AUC) 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.75-0.85) did not improve diagnostic performance for radiologists compared to grayscale (AUC 0.84, 95% CI 0.79-0.88). Gray-scale inversion also did not improve diagnostic performance for the ML. The ML did demonstrate higher sensitivity and negative predictive value for grayscale PA (72.7% and 75.0%), grayscale lateral (63.6% and 66.6%), and gray-scale inversion lateral views (72.7% and 76.9%), comparing favorably to the radiologists (63.9% and 72.3%, 27.8% and 58.3%, 19.5% and 50.5% respectively). In the limited testing dataset, the ML did demonstrate higher sensitivity and negative predictive value for grayscale PA (72.7% and 75.0%), grayscale lateral (63.6% and 66.6%), and gray-scale inversion lateral views (72.7% and 76.9%), comparing favorably to the radiologists (63.9% and 72.3%, 27.8% and 58.3%, 19.5% and 50.5%, respectively). Further investigation of other post-processing algorithms to improve diagnostic performance of ML is warranted.

19.
Food Res Int ; 162(Pt B): 112072, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36461391

RESUMO

Prebiotics are effective in modulating gut microbiota and may further benefit colitis remission. 2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL) and galactooligosaccharide (GOS) are the main prebiotics in human and animal milk, respectively. This study aimed to investigate the colitis-preventing effects of 2'FL and GOS, and explore the underlying mechanisms involving the gut microbiota. The chronic colitis was induced by 1.5 % dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 4 consecutive cycles and manifested as aggravation of colitis symptoms, gut barrier disruption, and colonic inflammation. We found that 2'FL was more effective than GOS against colitis at the same dosage (500 mg/kg bw). 2'FL and GOS have a differential response on gut microbiota, reflecting the inhibition of Romboutsia and the enrichment of Akkermansia, Bifidobacterium, Faecalibaculum, and unclassified_f_Lachnosipiaceae. In addition, the differential response on microbial metabolome was reflected in the elevation of secondary bile acids, which activated Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5) and further suppressed the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. Furthermore, fecal bacterial transplantation confirmed the critical role of gut microbiota in the prevention of colitis by 2'FL and GOS. Overall, microbiota and microbial metabolites are essential parts of 2'FL and GOS against colitis, and their differential responses may account for different effects in alleviating colitis.


Assuntos
Colite , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Humanos , Prebióticos , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Metaboloma
20.
Chemosphere ; 313: 137429, 2022 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36462565

RESUMO

Substrate clogging is one of the major operation challenges of subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SSF-CWs). And the phosphorus (P) removal performance and stability of P accumulation of SSF-CWs would be varied with the development of substrate clogging. In this study, three horizontal SSF-CWs microcosms with different clogging degrees were conducted to explore the mechanism of P accumulation behavior influenced by substrate clogging. Increase in clogging degree resulted in hydraulic retention time (HRT) diminution and adsorption sites increase, which jointly led to reduced P removal efficiency at low clogging degree (L-CW), however, higher P removal efficiency was obtained as adsorption sites increase offset HRT diminution at high clogging degree (H-CW). Substrate adsorption was the primary removal pathway in all SSF-CW systems. It accounted for 77.86 ± 2.63% of the P input in the H-CW, significantly higher than the control (60.08 ± 4.79%). This was attributed to a higher proportion of Fe/Al-P accumulated on the substrate of H-CW, since clogging aggravated the anaerobic condition and promoted the generation of Fe ions. The increase in clogging degree also elevated the release risk of the accrued P in SSF-CWs, since Fe/Al-P was considered bioavailable and readily released under environmental disturbance. The obtained results provide new insights into the P transport and transformation in SSF-CWs and would be helpful to optimize substrate clogging management.

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