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1.
Food Chem ; 306: 125593, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610327

RESUMO

The heat-induced aggregation of edible proteins has been regarded as one of the critical challenges for their application in protein-enriched beverages. Therefore, the formulation of thermal stable proteins to improve the stability of these beverages upon heating is highly desired. In this study, soy proteins (SPs) with enhanced heat stability were obtained by low-concentration-preheating (LCPH). Results from reheating of the above samples showed that pretreatment of SPs at low concentrations (≤1.0%, w/v) increased their resistance against aggregation. Additionally, when the suspensions of the particles were reheated at 10% (w/v) protein concentration, no gelation was found for samples prepared by LCPH, indicating collapsed protein-protein interactions, whereas gelled suspensions were obtained for native SPs and samples prepared by preheating at higher protein concentrations (≥2.0%, w/v). Furthermore, suspensions of particles prepared at lower protein concentration showed lower viscosities and higher flow behavior index values before and after reheat treatment. These findings highlighted that LCPH would provide fundamental information on the application of SPs in high protein beverages.

2.
Gene ; 722: 144101, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479714

RESUMO

The catadromous species, eels, invariably exposed to variable Ca2+ concentrations circumstance i.e., lagoon or ocean. They need to maintain Ca2+ homeostasis by exchanging Ca2+ under different culture conditions. To understand the effects of environmental Ca2+ to fish, three types of genes coding for voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels (cacnb1, 2, 3) were cloned by screening an A. marmorata cDNA library. Tissue distribution analysis of Western blot showed that Cacnb1, 2, 3 had a significantly high expression in gill; while mRNA results showed the expressions of cacnb1 and cacnb3 were predominated in skin tissue but only cacnb2 was expressed in intestine. Serum osmolality and Ca2+ concentrations of A.marmorata were increased in a high calcium environment while reduced in a low calcium environment within 7 days; however, they were not significantly different among Ca2+ treatments after the eels were acclimated for 7 days. We also examined the influence of ambient Ca2+ levels on cacnbs expression of eels. With the increasing of exposure time, mRNA and protein expressions of cacnb1 were up-regulated in high level of Ca2+ (10 mM) and down-regulated in deficient Ca2+ (0 mM) compared to the control Ca2+ (2 mM). However, the opposite results were observed in cacnb2 and cacnb3. Notably, the cacnb2 expression was not significant different among Ca2+ treatments on day 7. Our study provided the insightful evidence that cacnbs play important roles in maintaining Ca2+ homeostasis of fish.


Assuntos
Anguilla/metabolismo , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/metabolismo , Cálcio/fisiologia , Aclimatação , Anguilla/sangue , Anguilla/genética , Animais , Cálcio/sangue , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/química , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Brânquias/metabolismo , Concentração Osmolar , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual
3.
Talanta ; 207: 120294, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594563

RESUMO

Dual-functional nanosensors based on small molecule regulation can be widely used due to their simplicity, high sensitivity and selectivity. Herein, glutathione (GSH) calibrated dual-functional system for GSH and cadmium ions (Cd2+) detection based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between NH2-NaYF4:Yb,Er/NaYF4@SiO2 upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) is designed. Unmodified AuNPs are easy to aggregate in high-salt solution and thereby quenching the red emission of UCNPs. The presence of GSH prevents the aggregation of AuNPs, so GSH can be detected by the changes in the color of solution and the recovery of red emission of UCNPs. However, Cd2+ can interact with GSH, which makes AuNPs easy to aggregate, resulting in a gradual decrease in red emission of UCNPs. The fluorescence response of the system is linear with the concentrations of GSH and Cd2+ in a wide range of concentrations, with low detection limits of 0.016 µM and 0.059 µM, respectively. Furthermore, the nanosensor demonstrates high selectivity for GSH and Cd2+ detection and can be applied for the detection of GSH in human plasma and Cd2+ in drinking water.

4.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(2): 900-908, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383085

RESUMO

A series of polyurethane hydrogel and polyurethane thermoplastic elastomer composite based separation membranes were successfully prepared via wet phase inversion method. The morphology, chemical structure, phase transition temperature and crystallinity of the polyurethane (PU) membranes were characterized by SEM, FTIR, DSC, and XRD, respectively. The SEM observation showed that the PU membranes exhibited irregular porous structure on the surface and path of the hole was flexural and asymmetrical in cross-section. The FTIR analysis demonstrated that thermalsensitive groups and pH-sensitive components (-N(CH3)-) were incorporated into the PU network. The DSC experiment and XRD experiment showed that the regular arrangement of PU network was destroyed partly due to the introduction of polyurethane thermoplastic elastomer. The equilibrium swelling ratio (ESR) and water flux (J) for PU membranes clearly decreased and increased with functional groups and sophisticated structure of PU membranes, respectively. In addition, the permeation experiments indicated that the permeation percentage (P) of the glycine was strongly affected by the external temperature and pH value.

5.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 1563-1573, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672101

RESUMO

The episomal structures of all human bocavirus (HBoV) genotypes have been deciphered, including the circular genome of HBoV2 (HBoV2-C1). To discern the role of the circular HBoV2 genome, three distinct linearized HBoV2-C1 genomes were cloned into pBlueScript SKII(+) to obtain pBlueScript HBoV2 5043-5042 (retaining all secondary structures), pBlueScript-HBoV2 5075-5074 (retaining hairpin number 2 and the 5' terminal structure), and pBlueScript-HBoV2 5220-5219 (retaining only the 5' terminal structure at the 5' -genome end). The recombinant plasmids were separately transfected HEK293 cells, revealing that more HBoV2 DNA had accumulated in the pBlueScript HBoV2 5043-5042-transfected HEK293 cells at 72 h post-transfection, as determined by real-time PCR. However, more mRNA was transcribed by pBlueScript-HBoV2 5075-5074 than by the other constructs, as determined by dot-blot hybridization and RNAscope. No significant differences in NS1-70 protein expression were observed among the three HBoV2 genomic clones. However, electron microscopy showed that HBoV2 virus particles were only present in the pBlueScript HBoV2 5043-5042-transfected HEK293 cells. By using three hetero-recombinant HBoV2 genomic clones in HEK293 transfected cells, only the genome with intact secondary structures produced virus particles, suggesting that retaining these structures in a circular genome is important for HBoV2 DNA replication and virus assembly.

6.
Opt Express ; 27(19): 26689-26700, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674544

RESUMO

Continuous-variable quantum key distribution with a real local oscillator (LO) has been extensively studied recently due to its security and simplicity. Making it operate automatically and resistant to channel interference is the key to further long-term system operation. To overcome the dynamic changes in the state of polarization (SOP) of quantum signal caused by the random birefringence effect in fiber, Kalman filter is employed to estimate the polarization misalignment, thereby achieving polarization demultiplexing at the data level, and ultimately recovering the quantum signal with the help of a two-step phase compensation. The signal transmission and processing is simulated, which verifies the SOP tracking ability and the immunity to the fast phase drift. A proof-of-principle experiment is also conducted, and results show that it can resist the interference of SOP rotation at 1 krad/s, and has the ability to distribute 8.4 kbps secret key rate within 20 km when only considering SOP tracking imperfection, confirming its feasibility under harsh channel conditions.

7.
BMJ Open ; 9(10): e025336, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666259

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the association of specific serum amino acids (AAs) with the odds of arsenic-induced skin lesions (AISL) and their ability to distinguish patients with AISL from people chronically exposed to arsenic. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Three arsenic-exposed villages in Wuyuan County, Hetao Plain, Inner Mongolia, China were evaluated. PARTICIPANTS: Among the 450 residents aged 18-79 years, who were chronically exposed to arsenic via drinking water, 56 were diagnosed as having AISL (defined as cases). Another 56 participants without AISL, matched by gender and age (±1 year) from the same population, were examined as controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES AND METHODS: AA levels were determined by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based metabolomics analysis. Potential confounding variables were identified via a standardised questionnaire and clinical examination. Multivariable conditional logistic regression model and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were performed to investigate the relationship between specific AAs and AISL. RESULTS: Tryptophan and phenylalanine levels were negatively associated with AISL (p<0.05). Compared with that in the first quartile, the adjusted OR of AISL in the second, third and fourth quartiles were decreased by 44%, 88% and 79% for tryptophan and 30%, 80% and 80% for phenylalanine, respectively. The combination of these two higher-level AAs showed the lowest OR for AISL (OR=0.08; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.25; p<0.001). Furthermore, both AAs showed a moderate ability to distinguish patients with AISL from the control, with the area under the curve (AUC; 95% CI) as 0.67 (0.57 to 0.77) for tryptophan and 0.70 (0.60 to 0.80) for phenylalanine (p<0.05). The combined pattern with AUC (95% CI) was 0.72 (0.62 to 0.81), showing a sensitivity of 76.79% and specificity of 58.93% (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Specific AAs may be linked to AISL and play important roles in early AISL identification. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02235948.

8.
Org Lett ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686513

RESUMO

A strategy for the syntheses of benzofuranoquinolines and its analogues via the irradiation of o-phenylfuranyl/thienylpyridines/pyrimidines in DCM with UV light at rt under an argon atmosphere is described. The mechanism of this reaction through the process of 6π-electrocyclization, [1,5]-hydrogen shift, and 1,3-eneamine tautomerism leading to H2 evolution was elucidated. Notably, the syntheses of cis-8b-methyl-8b,13a-dihydrobenzo[f]benzofuro[3,2-h]quinolone via the photoinduced rearrangement of 2-(3-methylbenzofuran-2-yl)-3-phenylpyridine relevant to the mechanism of this reaction highlights the importance of the developed methodology.

9.
JCI Insight ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689243

RESUMO

The HER2-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb), Trastuzumab, has been the mainstay of therapy for HER2+ breast cancers (BC) for ~20 years. However, its therapeutic mechanism of action (MOA) remains unclear, with antitumor responses to Trastuzumab remaining heterologous and metastatic HER2+ BC remaining incurable. Consequently, understanding its MOA could enable rational strategies to enhance its efficacy. Using both novel murine and human versions of Trastuzumab, we found its antitumor activity dependent on Fcγ-Receptor stimulation of tumor-associated-macrophages (TAM) and Antibody-Dependent-Cellular-Phagocytosis (ADCP), but not cytotoxicity (ADCC). Trastuzumab also stimulated TAM activation and expansion, but did not require adaptive immunity, natural killer cells, and/or neutrophils. Moreover, inhibition of the innate immune ADCP checkpoint, CD47, significantly enhanced Trastuzumab-mediated ADCP, TAM expansion and activation, resulting in the emergence of a unique hyper-phagocytic macrophage population, improved antitumor responses and prolonged survival. In addition, we found tumor-associated CD47 expression was inversely associated with survival in HER2+ BC patients and that human HER2+ BC xenografts treated with Trastuzumab+CD47 inhibition underwent complete tumor regression. Collectively, our study identifies Trastuzumab-mediated ADCP as a significant antitumor MOA that may be clinically enabled by CD47 blockade to augment therapeutic efficacy.

10.
J Cell Physiol ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide and the prognosis remains poor. The recent introduction of the immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI), or plus chemotherapy, both resulted in the survival benefit for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but it remains unanswered which is superior. The current study aimed to estimate the comparative efficacy and safety of ICI-chemotherapy versus ICI-monotherapy in advanced NSCLC. METHODS: Studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library. The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that ICI monotherapy or ICI plus chemotherapy compared with chemotherapy in NSCLC were included with available primary endpoints of progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), objective response rate, or treatment-related adverse events. A fixed-effect or random-effects model was adopted depending on between-study heterogeneity. RESULTS: A total of 20 RCTs involving 12,025 patients with NSCLC were included. Both ICI-monotherapy and ICI-chemotherapy resulted in significantly prolonged survival compared to chemotherapy and the former led to significantly longer PFS. The magnitude of survival benefits appeared to be greatest among those treated with pembrolizumab plus platinum-based chemotherapy (OS, 0.56; PFS, 0.54). Additionally, OS and PFS advantages of ICI therapies were observed in patients with NSCLC with low or high programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression level, but not in intermediate PD-L1 TPS. CONCLUSIONS: Pembrolizumab plus platinum-based chemotherapy was recommended as the optimal first-line therapy for advanced patients with NSCLC. Additionally, PD-L1 alone is not recommended as an adequate molecular biomarker to identify eligible patients for routine clinical practice in immunotherapy.

11.
Adv Mater ; : e1904273, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693248

RESUMO

Aggregation-induced emission (AIE) is a beneficial strategy for generating highly effective solid-state molecular luminescence without suffering losses in quantum yield. However, the majority of reported AIE-active molecules exhibit only strong fluorescence, which is not ideal for electrical excitation in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). By introducing various substituent groups onto the biscarbazole compound, a series of molecular materials with aggregation-induced phosphorescence (AIP) is designed, which exhibits two distinctly different phosphorescence bands and an absolute solid-state room-temperature phosphorescence quantum yield up to 64%. Taking advantage of the AIE feature, the AIP molecules are fabricated into OLEDs as a homogeneous light-emitting layer, which allows for relatively small efficiency roll-off and shows an external electroluminescence quantum yield of up to 5.8%, more than the theoretical limit for purely fluorescent OLED devices. The design showcases a promising strategy for the production of cost-effective and highly efficient OLED technology.

12.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670346

RESUMO

An exogenous-oxidant- and catalyst-free electrochemical deoxygenative C2 sulfonylation reaction has been achieved. By employing quinoline N-oxides as the starting materials, the electrochemical C-H sulfonylation of electron-deficient quinolines was indirectly achieved at room temperature and a variety of sulfonylated quinoline derivatives were synthesized in modest to high yield with excellent regioselectivity. Notably, this protocol is the first example for synthesizing sulfonylated electron-deficient heteroarenes/arenes through electrochemistry.

13.
J Hazard Mater ; : 121506, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699487

RESUMO

Congo red (CR) is a typical and widely used azo dye in industries. It possesses the serious threat to ecosystem and public for its indiscriminate discharge. Microbial flocculant (MBF) with various functional groups is a potential flocculant applied in dyeing wastewater treatment, and it has the advantages of high treatment efficiency, biodegradability and non-toxicity. In this study, the functional groups, amino group, ammonium group and acyloxy group, were grafted onto MBF to further improve its thermal stability, solubility and performance. Grafting copolymerization occurred at the amino group of MBF was confirmed by XPS. Polyaluminum silicate (PSA) and self-prepared functional microbial flocculant, MBF-g-P(AM-DAC), played different roles in CR wastewater treatment. PSA contributed to charge neutralization, but its yielded flocs were small. On the contrary, MBF-g-P(AM-DAC) possessed weak charge neutralization but big flocs. Its settlement efficiency has significantly improved. The unsaturated active sites on MBF-g-P(AM-DAC) and its flocs contributed to the adsorption of CR in terms of high surface area and adsorption capacity of the flocs. Physical adsorption and chemical adsorption were both discovered in the treatment.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lower limb chronic venous disease (CVD), resulting from iliac vein compression syndrome (IVCS), manifests as a series of symptoms ranging from varicose veins to venous ulcerations. Stent implantation has been considered an effective treatment method; however, the management of CVD has rarely been reported. In the present study, we evaluated the treatment and outcomes of patients with CVD. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients with severe iliac vein stenosis with lower limb CVD. The patients were divided into two groups: group 1 had received stenting alone (n = 42), and group 2 had received stenting and high ligation/endovenous laser treatment (n = 29). We evaluated the clinical outcomes using the Venous Clinical Severity Score and visual analog scale, and assessed the quality of life (QoL) using the Chronic Venous Disease QoL questionnaire at a median follow-up point of 15 months (range, 6-25 months). RESULTS: In our cohort, the prevalence rate of nonthrombotic IVCS (NIVCS) was 11.7% (98 of 838 patients). The technical success rate was 100%, without severe complications. During the study period, three group 1 patients and two group 2 patients were lost to follow-up. The overall patency rate in the patients with NIVCS during a mean follow-up period of 15.0 months (range, 6-25 months) was 94.4%. For patients with a Clinical, Etiology, Anatomy, Pathophysiology (CEAP) clinical class of <4, all parameters showed similar improvements in the two groups, except for the disappearance of varicose veins. However, in patients with a CEAP clinical class of ≥4, the combination therapy significantly improved their QoL. The Venous Clinical Severity Score reduction was 4.64 ± 1.72 in group 1 and 11.89 ± 1.82 in group 2 (P < .01). Pain, scored using the visual analog scale, demonstrated a decrease from 4.41 to 2.52 (P < .05) in group 1 and 4.71 to 0.53 (P < .01) in group 2. The relief rate of stasis dermatitis in groups 1 and 2 was 26.9% and 90.5%, respectively (P < .05), and the venous ulceration healing rate was 16.7% and 87.5%, respectively (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of NIVCS should not be overlooked. The proposed combination treatment is an effective therapeutic strategy for patients with NIVCS and advanced CVD (CEAP clinical class, ≥4) during short-term follow-up.

15.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701659

RESUMO

Disruption of the gut barrier results in severe clinical outcomes with no specific treatment. Metabolic disorders and destruction of enterocytes play key roles in gut barrier dysfunction. Irisin is a newly identified exercise hormone that regulates energy metabolism. However, the effect of irisin on gut barrier function remains unknown. The therapeutic effect of irisin on gut barrier dysfunction was evaluated in gut ischemia reperfusion (IR). The direct effect of irisin on gut barrier function was studied in Caco-2 cells. Here, we discovered that serum and gut irisin levels were decreased during gut IR and that treatment with exogenous irisin restored gut barrier function after gut IR in mice. Meanwhile, irisin decreased oxidative stress, calcium influx and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress after gut IR. Moreover, irisin protected mitochondrial function and reduced enterocyte apoptosis. The neutralizing antibody against irisin significantly aggravated gut injury, oxidative stress and enterocyte apoptosis after gut IR. Further studies revealed that irisin activated the AMPK-UCP 2 pathway via binding to the integrin αVß5 receptor. Inhibition of integrin αVß5, AMPK or UCP 2 abolished the protective role of irisin in gut barrier function. In conclusion, exogenous irisin restores gut barrier function after gut IR via the integrin αVß5-AMPK-UCP 2 pathway.

16.
Stem Cell Reports ; 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680059

RESUMO

CADASIL (cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy) is the most common form of genetic stroke and vascular dementia syndrome resulting from mutations in NOTCH3. To elucidate molecular mechanisms of the condition and identify drug targets, we established a patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) model and demonstrated for the first time a failure of the patient iPSC-derived vascular mural cells (iPSC-MCs) in engaging and stabilizing endothelial capillary structures. The patient iPSC-MCs had reduced platelet-derived growth factor receptor ß, decreased secretion of the angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), were highly susceptible to apoptotic insults, and could induce apoptosis of adjacent endothelial cells. Supplementation of VEGF significantly rescued the capillary destabilization. Small interfering RNA knockdown of NOTCH3 in iPSC-MCs revealed a gain-of-function mechanism for the mutant NOTCH3. These disease mechanisms likely delay brain repair after stroke in CADASIL, contributing to the brain hypoperfusion and dementia in this condition, and will help to identify potential drug targets.

17.
Biosci Rep ; 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682263

RESUMO

Catestatin (CTS), a catecholamine-release inhibitory peptide, exerts pleiotropic cardiac protective effects. Pulmonary embolism caused by deep vein thrombosis involving vascular dysfunction. This study aims to investigate the effects of CTS on thrombus formation that may inhibit the development of pulmonary embolism and its potential pathway. Acute pulmonary embolism (APE) model was developed as an in vivo model. The effects of CTS on mice with APE were examined. Human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAECs) were pretreated with CTS before thrombin stimulation, and endothelial inflammation and underlying mechanisms were evaluated in vitro. That plasma CTS level was decreased in APE mice, while the number of platelets was significantly increased. The decreased circulating CTS level negatively associated with the number of platelets. CTS administration increased the survival rate of APE mice and protected against microvascular thrombosis in lung. APE-induced the increase of platelets number and plasma von Willerbrand factor (VWF) were inhibited by CTS. Platelets from CTS-treated APE mice showed impaired agonist-induced platelets aggregation and spreading. CTS also ameliorated APE-induced the systemic inflammatory response. In in vivo study, thrombin-induced the increase of inflammation, TLR-4 expression and p38 phosphorylation were abrogated by CTS in HPAECs. Furthermore, TLR-4 overexpression inhibited the effect of CTS on VWF release and inflammation in HPAECs. Collectively, CTS increases thrombus resolution by attenuating endothelial inflammation at partially via inhibiting TLR-4-p38 pathway. This study may provide a novel approach for anti-thrombosis.

18.
Genome Biol ; 20(1): 219, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hispanics living in the USA may have unrecognized potential birthplace and lifestyle influences on the gut microbiome. We report a cross-sectional analysis of 1674 participants from four centers of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL), aged 18 to 74 years old at recruitment. RESULTS: Amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA gene V4 and fungal ITS1 fragments from self-collected stool samples indicate that the host microbiome is determined by sociodemographic and migration-related variables. Those who relocate from Latin America to the USA at an early age have reductions in Prevotella to Bacteroides ratios that persist across the life course. Shannon index of alpha diversity in fungi and bacteria is low in those who relocate to the USA in early life. In contrast, those who relocate to the USA during adulthood, over 45 years old, have high bacterial and fungal diversity and high Prevotella to Bacteroides ratios, compared to USA-born and childhood arrivals. Low bacterial diversity is associated in turn with obesity. Contrasting with prior studies, our study of the Latino population shows increasing Prevotella to Bacteroides ratio with greater obesity. Taxa within Acidaminococcus, Megasphaera, Ruminococcaceae, Coriobacteriaceae, Clostridiales, Christensenellaceae, YS2 (Cyanobacteria), and Victivallaceae are significantly associated with both obesity and earlier exposure to the USA, while Oscillospira and Anaerotruncus show paradoxical associations with both obesity and late-life introduction to the USA. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis of the gut microbiome of Latinos demonstrates unique features that might be responsible for health disparities affecting Hispanics living in the USA.

19.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 86: 103965, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Centenarians are the fastest growing population worldwide. However, this group has been less studied in developing countries. Contemporary centenarians in China have experienced many ups and downs due to historical reasons, which may have resulted in a population with different characteristics from those in other countries. This study aimed to investigate the current sociodemographic characteristics, health profiles, and social relationships of Chinese centenarians. METHODS: We conducted face-to-face surveys in April 2017 with centenarian residents in Suixi County, the first "International Healthy Longevity Area" in China. A total of 100 centenarians were involved, including 67 females and 33 males. Information for socioeconomic and demographics characteristics, quality of life (physical, cognitive, and psychological function), and social support and relationships was collected. Sex differences in each measure were examined. RESULTS: We find that good self-reported health, good life satisfaction, intact memory function, independence, and unsatisfied healthcare needs were reported by 24.4%, 45.9%, 31.6%, 46.3%, and 33.4% of the respondents respectively. Subjective symptoms among males were less prevalent (p < 0.05). There were no statistical significant sex differences in cognitive and psychological function. The major source of care provision has been family. Generally, the centenarians had intimate relationships within families but maintained distant relationships with friends and communities. CONCLUSION: Our results bring attention to family-based care to provide informal care, and health education to promote healthy behaviors and healthcare utilization, for the oldest-old in China. The findings also imply a crucial role of good relationships with family in exceptional longevity.

20.
BMC Neurol ; 19(1): 266, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) is an inflammatory disorder in the central nervous system (CNS) with distinct clinical, radiological, and pathological characteristics. The pathophysiology of CLIPPERS still remains unclear. Because a few cases about lymphoma mimicking the manifestations of CLIPPERS were reported and the prognosis of lymphoma is much worse, early identification of lymphoma is very important. CASE PRESENTATION: A 31-year-old woman was admitted with 3 months' history of diplopia, dizziness, gait ataxia, and right facial numbness. The diagnosis of CLIPPERS was established based on the finding of punctate enhancing lesions in the cerebellum, thalamus, pons, medulla, and midbrain region in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), together with the favorable clinical and radiological responses to corticosteroids. However, she was diagnosed as peripheral T cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) by the pulmonary nodular and the skin biopsy almost 10 years later, and she got complete remission within 1 year after chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: We report the first case of CLIPPERS developing PTCL-NOS. This case proposes that when brain biopsy was difficult to achieve, biopsies in extra-cerebral lesions under the assisting examination of positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) can be helpful in further identification.

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