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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951910

RESUMO

Lithium (Li) metal anodes are regarded as prospective anode materials in next-generation secondary lithium batteries due to their ultrahigh theoretical capacities and ultralow potentials. However, inhomogeneous lithium deposition and uncontrollable growth of lithium dendrites always give rise to the low lithium utilization, rapid capacity fading, and poor cycling performance. Herein, we design the lithiophilic covalent organic frameworks (COFs) containing preorganized triazine rings and carbonyl groups as the multifunctional interlayer in lithium metal batteries (LMBs). Triazine rings rich in lone pair electrons can act as the donor attracting Li ions, and carbonyl groups serve as Li-anchoring sites effectively coordinating Li ions. These periodic arranged subunits significantly guide uniform Li ion flux distribution, guarantee smooth Li deposition and less lithium dendrite formation. Consequently, the symmetric batteries with COF interlayers exhibit an extraordinary cycling stability for more than 2450 and 1000 h with ultralow polarization voltage of about 12 and 14 mV at 0.5 and 1.0 mA cm-1. Coupling with sulfur (S) cathodes and LiFePO4 (LFP) cathodes, the full cells also demonstrate superb energy density achievement and rate performance. With introducing lithiophilic COFs interlayers, the Li-LFP batteries exhibit high capacity of 150 mAh g-1 and 86% capacity retention after 450 cycles at 0.5 C.

2.
Int Heart J ; 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952808

RESUMO

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) refers to a rare, progressive disorder that is characterized by occlusive pulmonary vascular remodeling, resulting in increased pulmonary arterial pressure, right-sided heart failure, and eventual death. Emerging evidence from genetic investigations of pediatric-onset PAH highlights the strong genetic basis underpinning PAH, and deleterious variants in multiple genes have been found to cause PAH. Nevertheless, PAH is of substantial genetic heterogeneity, and the genetic defects underlying PAH in the overwhelming majority of cases remain elusive. In this investigation, a consanguineous family suffering from PAH transmitted as an autosomal-dominant trait was identified. Through whole-exome sequencing and bioinformatic analyses as well as Sanger sequencing analyses of the PAH family, a novel heterozygous SOX17 mutation, NM_022454.4: c.379C>T; p. (Gln127*), was found to co-segregate with the disease in the family, with complete penetrance. The nonsense mutation was neither observed in 612 unrelated healthy volunteers nor retrieved in the population genetic databases encompassing the Genome Aggregation Database, the Exome Aggregation Consortium database, and the Single Nucleotide Polymorphism database. Biological analyses using a dual-luciferase reporter assay system revealed that the Gln127*-mutant SOX17 protein lost the ability to transcriptionally activate its target gene NOTCH1. Moreover, the Gln127*-mutant SOX17 protein exhibited no inhibitory effect on the function of CTNNB1-encode ß-catenin, which is a key player in vascular morphogenesis. This research firstly links SOX17 loss-of-function mutation to familial PAH, which provides novel insight into the molecular pathogenesis of PAH, suggesting potential implications for genetic and prognostic risk evaluation as well as personalized prophylaxis of the family members affected with PAH.

3.
Yi Chuan ; 43(4): 323-339, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972207

RESUMO

Plant homeodomain (PHD) is a class of transcription factor in the Zinc finger domain family. The most important function of which is to recognize various histone modifications, including histone methylation and acetylation, etc. They can also bind to DNA. Proteins with PHD domains, some of which possess histone modification enzyme activity, or can interact with histone modification enzymes, and some are associated with DNA methylation, with E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, or even can be chromatin remodeling factors. As transcriptional regulators, they play an important role in plant growth and development. In this review, we summarize the structural features and substrate binding specificity of PHD domains (including H3K4me3/0, H3K9me3, H3R2, H3K14ac) and DNA, the conservation of plant PHD domain in evolution, the molecular mechanism of known PHD domain-containing proteins in plants, providing a reference for further understanding of the involvement of these proteins during plant growth and development.

4.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 558: 14-21, 2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33894673

RESUMO

Sorafenib remains the standard first-line treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), although other clinical trials are currently underway for treatments that show better curative effects. However, some patients are not sensitive to sorafenib. α-Mangostin, extracted from the pericarp of the mangosteen, which is widely used as a traditional medicine, has anticancer and anti-proliferative properties in various types of cancers, including HCC. In the present study, we found that combining sorafenib and α-Mangostin could be synergistically toxic to HCC both in vitro and in vivo. We then demonstrated that the combination of sorafenib and α-Mangostin enhances the inhibition of cell proliferation in HCC cell lines. Combination therapy leads directly to apoptosis. In xenograft mouse models, the in vivo safety and effectivity was confirmed by a reduction in tumor size after combination treatment. RNA sequencing and protein testing showed that the expression of LRRC8A and RNF181 genes and mTOR and MAPK pathways may be associated with the synergistic effect of the two drugs. In conclusion, our results highlight the synergistic effect of the combination of sorafenib and α-Mangostin, which indicates a potential treatment for advanced HCC for patients that are not sensitive to sorafenib therapy.

5.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 119: 104462, 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839536

RESUMO

Primary stability and secondary fixation of orthopedic implants to bony tissues are important for healing and long-term functionality. Load sharing and stress transfer are key requirements of an effective implant/tissue interface. This paper presents a novel, macro-scale osseointegration surface morphology which addresses the implant/tissue interface from both the biologic as well as biomechanical perspective. The surface morphology is a controlled, engineered, open topography manifested as discrete pillars projecting from the implant enabling continuous bone ingrowth. The pillared surface is distinct from other porous surfaces and can be differentiated by the localization of the implant material into discrete pillars enabling a continuous mass of bone to freely and easily interdigitate into the pillared structure. Traditional porous structures distribute the implant material throughout the surface forcing the bone to grow in a discontinuous manner. Creating an open and continuous space or "open porosity" in and around the pillar structure allows the bone to easily interdigitate with the implant surface without encumberment from a continuous porous structure. An in-vivo study, using an established ovine model, was undertaken examining the effects of pillar morphology on bone ingrowth and mechanical performance. Cortical and cancellous sites were evaluated utilizing histology, histomophometry, and mechanical pushout, at 4 and 12 weeks. Robust bone ingrowth occurred for all morphologies as was noted in review of the study results. An increase in volume and maturity of bone was noted between the intermediated and final time points. Histomophometry demonstrated over 40% and 80% new bone occupied the available "ingrowth" area at 12 weeks for cancellous and cortical sites (respectively). Histologic review showed little fibrous tissue ingrowth at the interface with no adverse cellular reactions. Testing of cortical samples demonstrated a significant increase in pushout load between the 4 and 12 week timepoints and a 4-8 fold increase in pushout load as compared to the grit blast control. These results demonstrated the effectiveness of the novel interface for orthopedic applications in an in-vivo ovine model.

6.
Science ; 372(6541)2021 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926924

RESUMO

CRISPR-Cas systems provide RNA-guided adaptive immunity in prokaryotes. We report that the multisubunit CRISPR effector Cascade transcriptionally regulates a toxin-antitoxin RNA pair, CreTA. CreT (Cascade-repressed toxin) is a bacteriostatic RNA that sequesters the rare arginine tRNAUCU (transfer RNA with anticodon UCU). CreA is a CRISPR RNA-resembling antitoxin RNA, which requires Cas6 for maturation. The partial complementarity between CreA and the creT promoter directs Cascade to repress toxin transcription. Thus, CreA becomes antitoxic only in the presence of Cascade. In CreTA-deleted cells, cascade genes become susceptible to disruption by transposable elements. We uncover several CreTA analogs associated with diverse archaeal and bacterial CRISPR-cas loci. Thus, toxin-antitoxin RNA pairs can safeguard CRISPR immunity by making cells addicted to CRISPR-Cas, which highlights the multifunctionality of Cas proteins and the intricate mechanisms of CRISPR-Cas regulation.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Endoscopic radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an emerging technique for the palliation of inoperable malignant biliary strictures (MBSs). We aimed to systemically investigate the long-term outcome of RFA in a large cohort of patients. METHODS: We recruited 883 patients with various MBSs who underwent endoscopic interventions at two large-volume centers; 124 patients underwent RFA and stenting, whereas 759 underwent stenting alone. To overcome selection bias, we performed 1:4 propensity score matching (PSM). The main outcome was overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Following PSM, patients in the RFA group showed significantly longer OS (9.5 months; 95% CI: 7.7-11.3 months) than those in the stenting alone group (6.1 months; 95% CI: 5.6-6.6 months; P < .001). In stratified analyses, the improved OS was only demonstrated in the subgroup of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (11.3 months 95% CI: 10.2-12.4 vs 6.9 months 95% CI: 6.0-7.8; P < .001), but not in the subgroups of gallbladder cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, pancreatic cancer, and other metastatic cancers (all P > .05). The survival benefits were noted only in the patients with non-metastatic cholangiocarcinoma (11.5 vs 7.4 months, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The survival benefits of endoscopic RFA appear to be limited to patients with extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma without distant metastasis.

8.
Curr Med Sci ; 41(2): 342-347, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33877552

RESUMO

Yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are rare malignant germ cell tumors that usually affect young females. To date, there have been few studies on YSTs. We evaluated the relationship between clinicopathologic characteristics of patients with ovarian YSTs and disease outcome based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data. The Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test were used to evaluate differences in survival rates. Data for 269 patients were analyzed. The incidence of YSTs among ovarian germ cell tumors (OGCTs) cases was 0.4%; median patient age was 22.0 years, and most tumors were unilateral. Patients presented with distant metastasis (37.5%), localized disease (49.1%), and regional spread (8.9%). American Joint Committee on Cancer stage was available for 13 patients (stage IA, n=2; stage IC, n=1; stage IIIA, n=1; stage IIIB, n=3; stage IIIC, n=2; and stage IV, n=4). Survival rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 91.0%, 84.0%, and 83.2%, respectively, for overall survival (OS) and 92.0%, 85.4%, and 84.5%, respectively, for disease-specific survival (DSS). The 5-year OS and DSS of patients with ovary tumors were 91.5% and 92.9%, respectively, compared to 74.8% and 77.2%, respectively, for those with extra-ovarian spread (P<.001 for both OS and DSS). Age >50 years was associated with shorter OS and DSS (both P<0.001), whereas no associatios of OS and DSS were observed with pathologic grade (P=0.49 for OS and 0.52 for DSS). In summary, YSTs are typically unilateral, of a high grade, and localized to the ovary; extra-ovarian spread has a poor outcome, and postmenopausal women have worse prognosis than premenopausal women.

9.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879554

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of BRAFV600E in cell-free (cf) DNA (cfBRAFV600E) and lesion tissues (ltBRAFV600E) in pediatric LCH. This study included a total of 140 patients with successfully detected cfBRAFV600E and ltBRAFV600E at diagnosis. Treatment response at week 6 was correlated with both cfBRAFV600E and ltBRAFV600E. Moreover, the patients with positive cfBRAFV600E had a much lower 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate and a higher progression/reactivation rate than those with negative cfBRAFV600E (47.1% {plus minus} 7.6% vs. 78.4% {plus minus} 5.1%, P<0.0001; 44.6% vs. 19.0%, P=0.001, respectively). However, no significant difference was found in the 3-year PFS rate or progression/reactivation rate between patients with positive and negative ltBRAFV600E (P = 0.348 and 0.596, respectively). In addition, after patients were divided into group A (both cfBRAFV600E and ltBRAFV600E positive, n=56), group B (ltBRAFV600E positive and cfBRAFV600E negative, n=28), and group C (both cfBRAFV600E and ltBRAFV600E negative, n=56), there was a significant difference in the 3-year PFS rate and progression/reactivation rate among the three groups (47.1% {plus minus} 7.6%, 92.9% {plus minus} 6.1%, and 72.2% {plus minus} 6.1%, P<0.001; 44.6%, 3.6%, and 26.8%, P<0.001, respectively). In the multivariate analysis, cfBRAFV600E and age at diagnosis remained independent prognostic factors for 3-year PFS in childhood LCH. Therefore, cfBRAFV600E was more closely associated with important clinical characteristics, treatment response at week 6, and prognosis than ltBRAFV600E.

10.
Theranostics ; 11(11): 5107-5126, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33859737

RESUMO

Background: Pathological angiogenesis is the hallmark of many vision-threatening diseases. Anti-VEGF is a primary treatment with substantial beneficial effects. However, such agents require frequent intravitreal injections. Our previous work established a method for effectively modifying exosomes (EXOs) for loading therapeutic peptides. Here, we used this system to load the anti-angiogenic peptide KV11, aiming to establish an EXO-based therapy strategy to suppress neovascularization in the retina. Methods: Using an anchoring peptide, CP05, we linked KV11 to endothelial cell (EC) derived EXOs, yielding EXOKV11. We tested the delivery efficiency of EXOKV11 via two commonly used ocular injection methods: retro-orbital injection and intravitreal injection. Deploying an oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model and a VEGF injection model, we tested the effects of EXOKV11 on neovascular formation, EC proliferation, and vascular permeability. In vitro experiments were used to test the mechanism and to analyze the effects of EXOKV11 on EC proliferation, migration, and sprouting. Results: By using the EXO loading system, KV11 was more efficiently delivered to the blood vessels of the mouse retina via retro-orbital injection. In both OIR model and VEGF injection model, EXOKV11 was more effective than KV11 alone in inhibiting neovascularization and vessel leakage. The therapeutic effect of retro-orbital injection of EXOKV11 was comparable to the intravitreal injection of VEGF-trap. Mechanistically, KV11 alone inhibited VEGF-downstream signaling, while EXOKV11 showed a stronger effect. Conclusions: We used EXOs as a carrier for intraocular delivery of KV11. We showed that KV11 itself has an anti-angiogenic effect through retro-orbital injection, but that this effect was greatly enhanced when delivered with EXOs. Thus, this system has the potential to treat proliferative retinopathy via retro-orbital injection which is a less invasive manner compared with intravitreal injection.

11.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 594: 812-823, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794403

RESUMO

A novel and facile strategy is developed to tune parallel manganese dioxide (MnO2) to hollow parallel hydroxyl oxidize iron (FeOOH) replicas, which can exactly keep its original morphology. The key factors leading to the morphology-preserved transformation are the low-temperature and dropwise strategy via a serial of controlled experiments. Benefiting from the characteristics of parallel and hollow structures, the FeOOH replica delivers remarkable specific capacitance of 186.8F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1. The electrochemical performances delivered by the asymmetric supercapacitor (parallel MnO2//hollow parallel FeOOH) are much superior to those where conventional activated graphene or FeOOH nanoneedles are used as negative electrode materials. This can be attributed to the advantages of parallel nanostructure and high electrochemical matching effect of positive and negative electrode materials. The energy density is recorded up to 46.8 Wh kg-1 at the power density of 0.5 kW kg-1, while it still remains 20.7 Wh kg-1 with the maximum power density of 10 kW kg-1. Furthermore, this strategy shows great universality and can be broadened to almost all MnO2 related researches to synthesize ideal negative electrode materials with high structural and electrochemical matching effect, thus further enhances the electrochemical performances of as-prepared asymmetric supercapacitor devices.

12.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(5): 2101-2109, 2021 May 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884779

RESUMO

To explore the concentrations, characteristics, and sources of organic aerosols in winter in Beijing, atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were collected from November 10, 2016 to December 10, 2016. One hundred and twenty-nine particulate organic matters (POM) were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, accounting for approximately 9.3%±1.2% of the total concentration of organic matter. The most abundant class was sugar, among which levoglucosan alone accounted for 18% of the quantified organic matter mass. The next most abundant classes were alkanoic acids, normal alkanes, dicarboxylic acids, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The influence of winter heating and biomass burning emissions on organic aerosols in winter in Beijing was analyzed by the characteristics of the molecular markers in the POM. Compared with those during the non-heating period, the concentrations and proportions of hopane species, which are tracers for fossil fuels, increased in the organic matters during the heating period. Moreover, the influence of coal burning emissions on the distribution of hopane species was enhanced. The species with the maximum concentration and carbon predominance index in n-alkanes also reflected the influence of enhanced fossil fuel emissions. The results of the concentration-weighted trajectory model for levoglucosan, a tracer for biomass combustion, suggested that straw burning pollution in the surrounding areas of Beijing would affect the composition of organic aerosols in Beijing via airmass transport. A molecular marker-based chemical mass balance model was used to apportion the sources of organic carbon in the winter of 2016 in Beijing, and the results were compared with those of research in 2006 to quantify the changes in the source contributions over 10 years. The contribution of motor vehicles increased significantly in 2016 compared with that in 2006, whereas the contribution of coal burning and wood burning decreased to a large extent. The contribution of cooking emissions could not be ignored. Therefore, the control of motor vehicle and cooking emissions is of great importance to reduce the problem of PM2.5 pollution in winter in Beijing.

13.
Cells ; 10(3)2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800865

RESUMO

Dendritic cells (DCs), including conventional DCs (cDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs), serve as the sentinel cells of the immune system and are responsible for presenting antigen information. Moreover, the role of DCs derived from monocytes (moDCs) in the development of inflammation has been emphasized. Several studies have shown that the function of DCs can be influenced by gut microbes including gut bacteria and viruses. Abnormal changes/reactions in intestinal DCs are potentially associated with diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and intestinal tumors, allowing DCs to be a new target for the treatment of these diseases. In this review, we summarized the physiological functions of DCs in the intestinal micro-environment, their regulatory relationship with intestinal microorganisms and their regulatory mechanism in intestinal diseases.

14.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 29(2): 586-590, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812435

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To detect and analyze coagulation related indexes and genotypes of a patient with congenital fibrinogen deficiency and his family members, and to investigate the possible molecular pathogenesis. METHODS: Four peripheral blood samples (proband and 3 family members) were collected and the prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), fibrinogen (Fg), D-Dimer and eight coagulation factor indicators were detected. All exons and flanking sequences of the FGA, FGB, and FGG genes encoding the three peptide chains of fibrinogen were sequenced and analyzed by bioinformatics. RESULTS: Among the eight coagulation factors of the proband and the elder sister, F Ⅴ and F Ⅷ were slightly higher, TT was significantly prolonged, and Fg was significantly reduced. Sequencing results showed that c.901C>T heterozygous mutation existed in the FGG gene. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the mutation changed the original protein structure and reduced the number of hydrogen bonds. CONCLUSION: The fibrinogen gamma chain c.901C>T heterozygous mutation is the main cause of congenital fibrinogen deficiency in this family. This mutation is reported for the first time at home and abroad.


Assuntos
Afibrinogenemia , Afibrinogenemia/genética , Idoso , Fibrinogênio/genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Mutação , Linhagem
15.
Theranostics ; 11(12): 5986-6005, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33897894

RESUMO

Oxidative stress is a critical event in neuronal damage following seizures. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles (MSC-EVs) have been shown to be promising nanotherapeutic agents in neurological disorders. However, the mechanism underlying MSC-EVs therapeutic efficacy for oxidative stress-induced neuronal damage remains poorly understood. Methods: We investigated the antioxidant and restoration activities of MSC-EVs on hippocampal neurons in response to H2O2 stimulation in vitro and seizures in vivo. We also explored the potential underlying mechanism by injecting adeno-associated virus (AAV)-nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2, like 2 (Nrf2), a key antioxidant mediator, in animal models. Results: MSC-EVs were enriched in antioxidant miRNAs and exhibited remarkable antioxidant activity evident by increased ferric ion-reducing antioxidant ability, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase activities and decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, DNA/lipid/protein oxidation, and stress-associated molecular patterns in cultured cells and mouse models. Notably, EV administration exerted restorative effects on the hippocampal neuronal structure and associated functional impairments, including dendritic spine alterations, electrophysiological disturbances, calcium transients, mitochondrial changes, and cognitive decline after oxidative stress in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistically, we found that the Nrf2 signaling pathway was involved in the restorative effect of EV therapy against oxidative neuronal damage, while AAV-Nrf2 injection attenuated the antioxidant activity of MSC-EVs on the seizure-induced hippocampal injury. Conclusions: We have shown that MSC-EVs facilitate the reconstruction of hippocampal neurons associated with the Nrf2 defense system in response to oxidative insults. Our study highlights the clinical value of EV-therapy in neurological disorders such as seizures.

16.
Front Immunol ; 12: 594858, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790889

RESUMO

The skin is a complex organ that faces the external environment and participates in the innate immune system. Skin immune homeostasis is necessary to defend against external microorganisms and to recover from stress to the skin. This homeostasis depends on interactions among a variety of cells, cytokines, and the complement system. Collectins belong to the lectin pathway of the complement system, and have various roles in innate immune responses. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), collectin kidney 1, and liver (CL-K1, CL-L1) activate the lectin pathway, while all have multiple functions, including recognition of pathogens, opsonization of phagocytosis, and modulation of cytokine-mediated inflammatory responses. Certain collectins are localized in the skin, and their expressions change during skin diseases. In this review, we summarize important advances in our understanding of how MBL, surfactant proteins A and D, CL-L1, and CL-K1 function in skin immune homeostasis. Based on the potential roles of collectins in skin diseases, we suggest therapeutic strategies for skin diseases through the targeting of collectins and relevant regulators.

17.
Nanotechnology ; 32(24): 245704, 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755593

RESUMO

Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) is utilized to characterize the magnetic moment in nanostructured plant leaf-derived graphene quantum dot clusters (GQDCs). The MFM signal reveals that the magnetic response of the GQDCs depends on the height and width of the GQDCs. However, individual GQDs, and smaller clusters with widths of less than 20 nm, have not shown any observable magnetic signal. Importantly, experimental analyses suggest that the magnetic signal of GQDCs distributed in a plane can be effectively detected at room temperature. These results could pave the way for future graphene-based magnetic storage media and spin manipulation quantum devices.

18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734711

RESUMO

Horticultural food crops are important sources of nutrients for humans. With the increase of the global population, enhanced horticulture food crop production has become a new challenge, and enriching their nutritional content has also been required. Gene editing systems, such as zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9), have accelerated crop improvement through the modification of targeted genomes precisely. Here, we review the development of various gene editors and compare their advantages and shortcomings, especially the newly emerging CRISPR/Cas systems, such as base editing and prime editing. We also summarize their practical applications in crop trait improvement, including yield, nutritional quality, and other consumer traits.

19.
J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol ; 335(3): 367-380, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651924

RESUMO

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) receptors (5-HTRs) mediate neuroendocrine signaling via interactions with the ligand serotonin (5-HT). The 5-HT signaling system has been well studied in vertebrates, but rarely known in invertebrate animals, especially in the marine invertebrates. In this study, we identified and characterized a novel 5-HTR from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Aj5-HT4/6 ). The cloned Aj5-HT4/6 open reading frame comprised 1290 bp and encoded 429 amino acids. Bioinformatic analysis of the receptor indicated that it was a member of the class A of the G protein-coupled receptor family. Further experiments using Aj5-HT4/6 -transfected HEK293 cells demonstrated that treatment with 5-HT could induce rapid internalization of Aj5-HT4/6 fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein from the cell surface into the cytoplasm and triggered a significant increase in levels of the second messenger cAMP as well as mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in a 5-HT dose-dependent manner. Quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that Aj5-HT4/6 was predominantly expressed in the muscle and respiratory tree, and its expression was significantly decreased during estivation. Taken together, these results imply that Aj5-HT4/6 is potentially involved in the movement and metabolism of the sea cucumber.

20.
Poult Sci ; 100(5): 101061, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756250

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the beneficial effects of bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDC) on growth performance, glutathione (GSH) redox potential, antioxidant enzyme defense, and gene expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged broilers. A total of 320, male, 1-day-old broilers were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups including 8 replicates with 10 birds per cage in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: BDC supplementation (a basal diet with 0 or 150 mg/kg BDC) and LPS challenge (intraperitoneal injection of 1 mg/kg body weight saline or LPS at 16, 18, and 20 d of age). Results showed that dietary BDC supplementation prevented the LPS-induced decrease in ADG of broilers (P < 0.05). Compared to the saline-challenged group, LPS-challenged broilers showed higher jejunal and ileal malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC), and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) contents (P < 0.05). Dietary BDC supplementation alleviated LPS-induced increases in jejunal 8-OHdG, ileal MDA, and PC contents (P < 0.05). LPS challenge impaired the small intestinal antioxidant system, as evident by the decreases of GSH and total thiol contents, as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities. On the other hand, LPS challenge also increased GSH redox potential and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) contents (P < 0.05). Dietary BDC supplementation increased jejunal and ileal GSH contents, SOD activities, jejunal GR activity, and ileal GST activity, while it decreased jejunal and ileal redox potential, and jejunal GSSG contents (P < 0.05). Dietary BDC supplementation significantly alleviated the downregulation of mRNA expression levels of jejunal and ileal copper and zinc superoxide dismutase, catalytic subunit of γ-glutamylcysteine ligase, nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2, heme oxygenase 1, NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1, and jejunal catalase and GR induced by LPS challenge (P < 0.05). In conclusion, BDC demonstrated favorable protection against LPS-induced small intestinal oxidative damages, as indicated by the improved growth performance, decreased GSH redox potential, enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities, and upregulated antioxidant-related gene expression.

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