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1.
Drug Dev Res ; 83(1): 208-216, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347904

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC), which is widely considered as the most common cancer in women around the world, evokes ~1.7 million new BC cases and 522,000 BC-related deaths each year. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is clinically confirmed as one of the most aggressive subtypes of BC. ORY-1001, a clinically used lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1/KDM1A) inhibitor, was investigated herein to confirm its role in the progression of TNBC and reveal the potential mechanism. After treatment with ORY-1001 in MDA-MB-231 and BT549 cells, the cell proliferation and apoptosis were respectively measured by CCK-8 and TUNEL assays. The expression of proliferation- and apoptosis-associated proteins was tested by means of western blot analysis. Then, R1881, an androgen receptor (AR) agonist, was used to evaluate whether the effects of ORY-1001 on proliferation and apoptosis of TNBC cells was mediated by regulating AR. Results indicated that ORY-1001 treatment restrained the proliferation while enhanced the apoptosis of BC cells, accompanied by the change of proliferation- and apoptosis-related proteins expression. Furthermore, ORY-1001 reduced the level of AR in BC cells. After the activation of AR by R1881, the decreased proliferation and enhanced apoptosis of BC cells triggered by ORY-1001 intervention were partially abolished. In conclusion, this paper has presented the first evidence to suggest that ORY-1001 inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of TNBC cells by suppressing AR expression, which may constitute the theoretical basis for the clinical use of ORY-1001 in the treatment of this disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Histona Desmetilases/farmacologia , Humanos , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo
2.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 770344, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35517817

RESUMO

Liver fibrosis is currently a global health challenge with no approved therapy, with the activation of hepatic stellate cells being a principal factor. Lipophilic constituents in Salvia miltiorrhiza (LS) have been reported to improve liver function and reduce the indicators of liver fibrosis for patients with chronic hepatitis B induced hepatic fibrosis. However, the pharmacological mechanisms of LS on liver fibrosis have not been clarified. In this study, 71 active compounds, 342 potential target proteins and 22 signaling pathways of LS were identified through a network pharmacology strategy. Through text mining and data analysis, the JAK1/STAT3 signaling pathway was representatively selected for further experimental validation. We firstly confirmed the protective effect of LS on liver fibrosis in vivo by animal experiments. Hepatic stellate cells, which proliferated and displayed a fibroblast-like morphology similar to activated primary stellate cells, were applied to evaluate its underlying mechanisms. The results showed that LS could inhibit the cell viability, promote the cell apoptosis, decrease the expression of liver fibrosis markers, and downregulate the JAK1/STAT3 signaling pathway. These results demonstrated that LS could exert anti-liver-fibrosis effects by inhibiting the activation of HSCs and regulating the JAK1/STAT3 signaling pathway, which is expected to benefit its clinical application.

3.
Front Vet Sci ; 9: 877066, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35518639

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the alleviative effects of trans-anethole (TA) on intestinal oxidative stress by enhancing the activities of intestinal antioxidant enzymes and activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway in subclinical necrotic enteritis (NE) infected broilers. A total of 192 1-day-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allocated into three treatment groups: (1) control (CON); (2) subclinical NE challenge (NE); (3) NE challenge + 600 mg/kg TA (NE+TA600). Subclinical NE was induced by oral administration of live coccidiosis vaccine containing 2 × 104 oocysts at 10 days of age and 2 ml of Clostridium perfringens type A solution (3 × 108 CFU/ml) daily from days 14 to 19. The results showed that NE infection led to a severe decline (p < 0.05) in the final body weight (BW) and average daily gain (ADG), but an increase (p < 0.05) in feed/gain (F/G) of broilers at day 10-21 and day 1-21 compared with the control group. TA administration improved (p < 0.05) the growth performance of NE birds. The intestinal villus height (VH) and villus height/crypt depth (VH/CD) were reduced (p < 0.05) by NE challenge as compared with those of the control group, which was elevated by TA administration. Subclinical NE infection decreased (p < 0.05) serum activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and jejunal and ileal glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), and T-SOD activity as well as T-AOC in the jejunum, while TA interventions positively elevated that (p < 0.05). Administration of TA protected the intestine against oxidative stress through up-regulation of intestinal nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway as compared with the NE group (p < 0.05). In addition, dietary inclusion of TA elevated (p < 0.05) mRNA abundance of c-mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (c-Met), jejunal epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-ß1) in the jejunum and ileum of birds after subclinical NE challenge. In conclusion, 600 mg/kg of TA may be a promising tool to prevent and control subclinical NE by increasing intestinal antioxidant status in broilers.

4.
Environ Res ; : 113260, 2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500853

RESUMO

Given the significant impact of ions on environment pollution and human health, it is urgently needed to establish effective and convenient ion detection approaches, particularly in living cells. In this paper, we constructed multicolor N-doped-carbon dots (mPD-CDs) by facile one-step hydrothermal carbonization of m-phenylenediamine (mPD). mPD-CDs were successfully deployed for multicolor cellular imaging for animal cells, fungi, and bacteria in a wash-free way with high photostability and satisfactory biocompability. Moreover, mPD-CDs can be used as a fluorescent sensing probe for ultrasensitive detection of both iodide ion (I-) and typical heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd2+), copper (Cu2+), mercury (Hg2+), gadolinium (Gd3+), ferrous ion (Fe2+), Zinc (Zn2+), and ferric ion (Fe3+). This is the first report using CDs as optical sensing probe for the detection of Gd3+, and for detection of Fe3+ with fluorescence "turn on". More significantly, with these versatile and fascinating properties, we applied mPD-CDs for intracellular ion detection in living cells like Hep G2 and S. cerevisiae, and zebra fish. Altogether, mPD-CDs displayed great potential for multicolor cell imaging and the multiple ion detection in vitro and in vivo, presenting a promising strategy for in-situ ultrasensitive sensing of multiple metal ions in the environment and the biological systems.

5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(9): 2516-2524, 2022 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531699

RESUMO

This study aims to explore the effect of butyl alcohol extract of Baitouweng Decoction(BAEB) on vulvovaginal candidiasis(VVC) in mice and to clarify the mechanism from Toll-like receptors(TLRs)/MyD88 and Dectin-1/Syk signal pathways and NLRP3 inflammasome. To be specific, female KM mice were randomized into control group(i.g., normal saline), model group, fluco-nazole group(i.g., 20 mg·kg~(-1)), and low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose BAEB groups(i.g., 20, 40, and 80 mg·kg~(-1), respectively). VVC was induced in mice except the control group. After the modeling, administration began and lasted 7 days. The ge-neral conditions and body weight of mice were recorded every day. On the 1 st, 3 rd, 7 th, and 14 th after vaginal infection by Candida albicans, the fungal load in the vaginal lavage fluid of the mice was measured with the plate method, and the morphology of C. albicans in vaginal lavage fluid was observed based on Gram staining. After the mice were killed, vaginal tissues were subjected to hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining and periodic acid-Schiff(PAS) staining for vaginal histopathological analysis. The content of cytokines in vaginal lavage fluid, such as interleukin(IL)-1ß, IL-18, tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), IL-6, and S100 a8, was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA), and content of reactive oxygen species(ROS) in vaginal tissues by tissue ROS detection kit. The protein expression of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, Dectin-1, Syk, MyD88, TLR2, TLR4, and nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB) in vaginal tissues was detected by Western blot, and the levels and distribution of NLRP3, Dectin-1, Syk, MyD88, TLR2, and TLR4 in vaginal tissues were determined with the immunohistochemical method. The results show that BAEB can improve the general conditions of VVC mice, reduce the fungal load and C. albicans hyphae in vaginal secretion, decrease ROS content in vaginal tissues and content of cytokines in vaginal lavage fluid, and down-regulate the expression of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, Dectin-1, Syk, MyD88, TLR2, TLR4, and NF-κB in vaginal tissues. The above results indicate that BAEB exerts therapeutic effect on VVC mice by down-regulating the key proteins in the TLRs/MyD88 and Dectin-1/Syk signal pathways and NLRP3 inflammasome.


Assuntos
Candidíase Vulvovaginal , 1-Butanol/farmacologia , 1-Butanol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Candida albicans , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/tratamento farmacológico , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/genética , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
6.
Poult Sci ; 101(6): 101889, 2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504065

RESUMO

Canthaxanthin is widely used as a feed additive to improve skin and yolk color in poultry. It is insoluble in water and sensitive to oxidation, so commercial canthaxanthin is often microencapsulated with wall materials to improve its solubility and stability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of canthaxanthin microencapsulation on yolk color and canthaxanthin deposition in egg yolk of laying hens. A total of 288 Hyline Brown laying hens (48 wk of age) were allocated to 4 groups with 6 replicates of 12 hens each, and fed a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 5 mg/kg canthaxanthin microencapsulated with modified starch (CMMS), gelatin (CMG), and sodium lignosulfonate (CMSL), respectively. Canthaxanthin supplementation did not affect laying performance of hens, but improved (P < 0.05) yolk color of fresh, fried, boiled, and stored (4 and 25°C) eggs. The improvement of yolk color of fresh eggs was greatest in the CMSL group and least in the CMG group (P < 0.05). Both CMMS and CMSL resulted in higher (P < 0.05) yolk canthaxanthin concentration than CMG. The CMSL resulted in higher (P < 0.05) yolk color score of fried eggs than CMMS and CMG and higher (P < 0.05) yolk color score of boiled eggs than CMG, but no difference was observed in stored eggs among three canthaxanthin groups. In conclusion, CMMS and CMSL were more effective in yolk pigmentation than CMG, and CMSL was slightly better than CMMS.

7.
Urol Int ; : 1-11, 2022 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504258

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To understand the significance of ANLN (anillin, actin-binding protein)-mediated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signal pathway on the progression of bladder urothelial carcinoma (BLCA). METHODS: The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database was utilized to perform the clinical significance of ANLN in BLCA. Then, ANLN expression was determined in human normal primary bladder epithelial cells (BdEC) and BLCA cells. Later, ANLN knockdown was performed in BLCA cells, where the expression of MAPK8, MAPK9, and p-JNK/JNK was detected. BLCA cells were divided into the Mock, siNC, siANLN, SP600125 (a selective JNK inhibitor), and ANLN + SP600125 group, followed by measurements of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, 3-4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide, Annexin V-FITC/PI, Wound-healing, Transwell, and immunofluorescence assays. RESULTS: ANLN was upregulated in the BLCA tissues, which showed a relation with the stage of patients. Besides, BLCA patients with high expression of ANLN had a worse prognosis than those with low expression of ANLN. Besides, the expression of ANLN in the BLCA tissues was positively correlated with MAPK8 and MAPK9. SP600125 suppressed the JNK signal pathway, reduced the proliferation, and increased BLCA cell apoptosis, with the reductions in the invasion and migration and the upregulation of phospho-histone H3 Ser-10 (pHH3), which was abolished by the overexpression of ANLN. CONCLUSION: ANLN, as an oncogene of BLCA, may associate with the activation of JNK signal pathway. Inhibiting ANLN could deactivate the JNK signal pathway, thereby suppressing the proliferation, invasion, and migration while promoting the apoptosis of BLCA cells.

8.
Macromol Rapid Commun ; : e2200154, 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511696

RESUMO

The construction of aggregation-induced emission-active (AIE-active) gelators with liquid crystal properties remains a challenge. Moreover, it is still unclear for the effect of AIE configuration on liquid crystal, gel and AIE behaviors in one system. Herein, two main-chain liquid crystalline copolyester gelators with a single configuration of AIEgen TPE, mesogen biphenyl and pendent amide groups have been synthesized through melt polycondensation. Both copolyesters display smectic phase, while E-P20 possesses a wider temperature range of liquid crystal and a narrower layer distance owing to the more serious nonlinear "defect" of Z-TPE than E-TPE units. In addition, E-P20 and Z-P20 can form AIE-active gels with the minimum gelation concentration (MGC) values of 10 wt% and 4 wt% in ethyl acetate mainly via hydrogen bond between the pendent amide groups, respectively. These AIE-active gels show potential applications in temperature sensor, information storage, and so on. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35514243

RESUMO

Sortase A (SrtA)-mediated ligation, a popular method for protein labeling and semi-synthesis, is limited by its reversibility and dependence on the LPxTG motif, where "x" is any amino acid. Here, we report that SrtA can mediate the efficient and irreversible ligation of a protein/peptide containing a C-terminal thioester with another protein/peptide bearing an N-terminal Gly, with broad tolerance for a wide variety of LPxT-derived sequences. This strategy, the thioester-assisted SrtA-mediated ligation, enabled the expedient preparation of proteins bearing various N- or C-terminal labels, including post-translationally modified proteins such as the Ser139-phosphorylated histone H2AX and Lys9-methylated histone H3, with less dependence on the LPxTG motif. Our study validates the chemical modification of substrates as an effective means of augmenting the synthetic capability of existing enzymatic methods.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522636

RESUMO

Modeling the spatiotemporal relationship (STR) of traffic data is important yet challenging for existing graph networks. These methods usually capture features separately in temporal and spatial dimensions or represent the spatiotemporal data by adopting multiple local spatial-temporal graphs. The first kind of method mentioned above is difficult to capture potential temporal-spatial relationships, while the other is limited for long-term feature extraction due to its local receptive field. To handle these issues, the Synchronous Spatio-Temporal grAph Transformer (S²TAT) network is proposed for efficiently modeling the traffic data. The contributions of our method include the following: 1) the nonlocal STR can be synchronously modeled by our integrated attention mechanism and graph convolution in the proposed S²TAT block; 2) the timewise graph convolution and multihead mechanism designed can handle the heterogeneity of data; and 3) we introduce a novel attention-based strategy in the output module, being able to capture more valuable historical information to overcome the shortcoming of conventional average aggregation. Extensive experiments are conducted on PeMS datasets that demonstrate the efficacy of the S²TAT by achieving a top-one accuracy but less computational cost by comparing with the state of the art.

11.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 10: 891034, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35497333

RESUMO

In recent years, faced with the improvement of environmental quality problems, cellulose and cellulose-based (nano) composites have attracted great attention as adsorbents. In this review article, we first report the recent progress of modification and functionalization of cellulose adsorbents. In addition, the adsorbents produced by the modification and functionalization of carboxymehyl cellulose are also introduced. Moreover, the cellulose-based (nano) composites as adsorbents are reviewed in detail. Finally, the development prospect of cellulose and cellulose-based (nano) composites is studied in the field of the environment. In this review article, a critical comment is given based on our knowledge. It is believed that these biomass adsorbents will play an increasingly important role in the field of the environment.

12.
Nutr Rev ; 2022 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35380734

RESUMO

CONTEXT: A high amount of red meat consumption has been associated with higher risks of coronary heart disease (CHD) and all-cause mortality in a single food-exposure model. However, this model may overlook the potentially differential influence of red meat on these outcomes depending on the foods replaced by red meat. OBJECTIVE: A PRISMA-compliant meta-analysis of prospective observational studies was performed to quantify the risks of CHD and all-cause mortality associated with the replacement of total, unprocessed, or processed red meat with fish/seafood, poultry, dairy, eggs, nuts, and legumes. DATA SOURCES: The PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched to identify relevant articles published in any language from database inception to October 30, 2021. DATA EXTRACTION: The prospective observational studies were considered relevant if they reported relative risks (RRs) and 95%CIs for the associations of interest. DATA ANALYSIS: Thirteen articles were included. A random-effects model was used to estimate the summary RRs and 95%CIs for the associations of interest. Replacing total red meat with poultry (RR, 0.88, 95%CI, 0.82-0.96; I2 = 0%), dairy (RR, 0.90, 95%CI, 0.88-0.92; I2 = 0%), eggs (RR, 0.86, 95%CI, 0.79-0.94; I2 = 7.1%), nuts (RR, 0.84, 95%CI, 0.74-0.95; I2 = 66.8%), or legumes (RR, 0.84, 95%CI, 0.74-0.95; I2 = 7.3%) was associated with a lower risk of CHD, whereas substituting fish/seafood (RR, 0.91, 95%CI, 0.79-1.04; I2 = 69.5%) for total red meat was not associated with the risk of CHD. The replacement of total red meat with fish/seafood (RR, 0.92, 95%CI, 0.89-0.96; I2 = 86.9%), poultry (RR, 0.92, 95%CI, 0.90-0.95; I2 = 61.6%), eggs (RR, 0.91, 95%CI, 0.87-0.95; I2 = 33.8%), or nuts (RR, 0.92, 95%CI, 0.87-0.97; I2 = 81.9%) was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality, whereas the substitution of dairy (RR, 0.97, 95%CI, 0.93-1.01; I2 = 33.9%) or legumes (RR, 0.97, 95%CI, 0.93-1.01; I2 = 53.5%) for total red meat was not associated with the risk of all-cause mortality. Lower risks of CHD and all-cause mortality were more consistently observed for processed red meat replacements than for unprocessed red meat replacements. The results did not materially change when the analyses of total, processed, and unprocessed red meat were restricted to the studies that used a uniform substitution amount per unit of 1 serving/d. CONCLUSION: Keeping red meat, particularly processed red meat, consumption to a minimum along with increasing healthier alternative protein sources to replace red meat in the diet may contribute to the prevention of CHD and premature death. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration no. CRD42021259446.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35385111

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the longitudinal association of quantitative infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP) signal intensity alteration with osteoarthritis (OA)-related biomarkers. METHOD: Eighteen OA-related biochemical biomarkers of 600 knee OA participants in the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health OA Biomarkers Consortium (FNIH) study were extracted. The quantitative IPFP signal intensity measures was acquired based on magnetic resonance imaging, including mean value [Mean (IPFP)] and standard deviation [sDev (IPFP)] of the whole IPFP, median value [Median (H)] and upper quartile value [UQ (H)] of high signal intensity, the ratio of volume of high signal intensity to volume of whole IPFP [Percentage (H)] and Clustering factor (H). The linear mixed-effect model was applied to determine the longitudinal associations between IPFP signal intensity alteration and biochemical biomarkers over 2 years. RESULTS: All IPFP measures except for Clustering factor (H) were positively associated with urine collagenase-cleaved type II collagen neoepitope (uC2C), urine C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type II collagen (uCTX-II), urine C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen-α (uCTX-Iα) and urine N-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (uNTX-I). Mean (IPFP), Median (H) and Percentage (H) were positively associated with nitrated form of an epitope located in the triple helix of type II collagen (Coll2-1 NO2). Mean (IPFP), Median (H) and UQ (H) were positively associated with sCTX-I and uCTX-Iß. Positive associations between sDev (IPFP), Percentage (H) and serum hyaluronic acid (sHA) were found. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest a role of IPFP signal intensity alteration in joint tissue remodelling on a molecular level.

14.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 863451, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35450040

RESUMO

Hypoxic environments at high altitudes influence the long-term non-altitude health of residents, by inducing changes in metabolism and the mitochondria, severe lung injury, and endangering life. This study was aimed to determine whether meldonium can ameliorate hypoxia-induced lung injury and investigate its possible molecular mechanisms. We used Swiss mice and exposed type Ⅱ alveolar epithelial cell to hypobaric hypoxic conditions to induce lung injury and found that meldonium has significant preventive effect, which was associated with the regulation of glycolysis. We found using human proteome microarrays assay, molecular docking, immunofluorescence and pull-down assay that the target protein of meldonium is a platelet-type phosphofructokinase (PFKP), which is a rate-limiting enzyme of glycolysis. Also, meldonium promotes the transfer of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, which mitigates oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage under hypoxic condition. Mechanistically, meldonium ameliorates lung injury by targeting PFKP to regulate glycolysis, which promotes Nrf2 translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus to alleviate oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage under hypoxic condition. Our study provides a novel potential prevention and treatment strategy against hypoxia-induced lung injury.

15.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 93(4): 043104, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35489950

RESUMO

The uncertainties of spot size and position need to be clarified for x-ray sources as they can affect the detecting precision of the x-ray probe beam in applications such as radiography. In particular, for laser-driven x-ray sources, they would be more significant as they influence the inevitable fluctuation of the driving laser pulses. Here, we have employed the penumberal coded aperture imaging technique to diagnose the two-dimensional spatial distribution of an x-ray emission source spot generated from a Cu solid target irradiated by an intense laser pulse. Taking advantage of the high detection efficiency and high spatial resolution of this technique, the x-ray source spot is characterized with a relative error of ∼5% in the full width at half maximum of the intensity profile in a single-shot mode for general laser parameters, which makes it possible to reveal the information of the unfixed spot size and position precisely. Our results show the necessity and feasibility of monitoring the spot of these novel laser-driven x-ray sources via the penumbral coded aperture imaging technique.

16.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 11(4)2022 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35453351

RESUMO

The present study investigated the potential of polydatin to protect against liver injury and the mitochondrial dysfunction of weanling piglets suffering from intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR). Thirty-six normal birth weight weanling piglets and an equal number of IUGR littermates were given a basal diet with or without polydatin (250 mg/kg) from 21 to 35 d of age. Plasma and liver samples were collected to measure biochemistry parameters at 35 d of age. IUGR caused hepatic apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative damage, along with a lower efficiency of energy metabolism and inferior antioxidant ability. Polydatin decreased apoptotic rate, improved the features of mitochondrial damage, inhibited mitochondrial swelling and superoxide anion formation, and preserved mitochondrial membrane potential in the liver. Concurrently, polydatin promoted mitochondrial biogenesis, increased sirtuin 1 activity, and upregulated the expression levels of several genes related to mitochondrial function and fitness. Polydatin also facilitated mitochondrial oxidative metabolism with a beneficial outcome of increased energy production. Furthermore, polydatin mitigated the IUGR-induced reduction in manganese superoxide dismutase activity and prevented the excessive accumulation of oxidative damaging products in the liver. These findings indicate that polydatin confers protection against hepatic injury and mitochondrial dysfunction in the IUGR piglets by improving energy metabolism and redox balance.

17.
J Anim Sci ; 100(4)2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35366314

RESUMO

Neonatal piglets often suffer low birth weights and poor growth performance accompanied by the disruption of protein metabolism, when intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) takes place during pregnancy, leading to a higher mortality and bigger economic loss than expected. Leucine has been proposed to function as a nutritional signal-regulating protein synthesis in numerous studies. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dietary leucine supplementation on the blood parameters and hepatic protein metabolism in IUGR piglets. Weaned piglets were assigned to one of four treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: 1) piglets fed a basal diet with normal birth weight, 2) piglets fed a basal diet plus 0.35% l-leucine with normal birth weight, 3) IUGR piglets fed a basal diet with low birth weight, and 4) IUGR piglets fed a basal diet plus 0.35% l-leucine with low birth weight. The results showed that IUGR decreased serum aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities and increased serum cortisol and prostaglandin E2 levels at 35 d of age (P < 0.05), suggesting the occurrence of liver dysfunction and stress response. Leucine supplementation increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity and decreased serum cortisol levels at 35 d of age (P < 0.05). IUGR decreased the lysozyme activity and complement 3 level in serum (P < 0.05), which were prevented by dietary leucine supplementation. IUGR piglets showed increased hepatic DNA contents while showing a reduced RNA/DNA ratio (P < 0.05). Piglets supplied with leucine had decreased RNA/DNA ratio in the liver (P < 0.05). Leucine supplementation stimulated hepatic protein anabolism through upregulating protein synthesis-related genes expression and activating the phosphorylation of mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) (P < 0.05). Moreover, IUGR inhibited the mRNA expression of hepatic protein degradation-related genes, indicating a compensatory mechanism for the metabolic response. Dietary leucine supplementation attenuated the suppression of the protein catabolism induced by IUGR in the liver. These results demonstrate that dietary leucine supplementation could alter the blood parameters and alleviated the disrupted protein metabolism induced by IUGR via enhanced mTOR phosphorylation to promote protein synthesis in weaned piglets.


Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) produces a notable disturbance of protein metabolism in piglets, leading to lower birth weights and economic loss. Leucine supplementation positively regulates protein metabolism in animals and has the potential to recover the impaired balance between protein synthesis and degradation. Our study showed that leucine supplementation alleviated the abnormal changes in blood parameters and stimulated protein synthesis through the mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin signal pathway in the liver. Leucine supplementation attenuated the suppression of protein degradation induced by IUGR, which might be involved in a hepatic compensatory mechanism contributing to health status.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Peso ao Nascer , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/metabolismo , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/veterinária , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Leucina/metabolismo , Leucina/farmacologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Mamíferos/genética , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Gravidez , Biossíntese de Proteínas , RNA/metabolismo , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Suínos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
18.
Environ Pollut ; 305: 119269, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35405219

RESUMO

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are ubiquitous in daily life, but their harmful effects on the human body have not been fully explored. Recent studies have shown that EDCs exposure could lead to infertility, menstrual disorder and menopause, resulting in subsequent effects on female health. Therefore, it is of great significance to clarify and summarize the impacts of EDCs on ovarian aging for explaining the etiology of ovarian aging and maintaining female reproductive health. Here in this review, we focused on the impacts of ten typical environmental contaminants on the progression of ovarian aging during adult exposure, including epidemiological data in humans and experimental models in rodents, with their clinical phenotypes and underlying mechanisms. We found that both persistent (polychlorinated biphenyls, perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances) and non-persistent (phthalates) EDCs exposure could increase an overall risk of ovarian aging, leading to the diminish of ovarian reserve, decline of fertility or fecundity, irregularity of the menstrual cycle and an earlier age at menopause, and/or premature ovarian insufficiency/failure in epidemiological studies. Among these, the loss of follicles can also be validated in experimental studies of some EDCs, such as BPA, phthalates, parabens and PCBs. The underlying mechanisms may involve the impaired ovarian follicular development by altering receptor-mediated pro-apoptotic pathways, inducing signal transduction and cell cycle arrest and epigenetic modification. However, there were inconsistent results in the impacts on fertility/fecundity, menstrual/estrous cycle and hormone changes response to different EDCs, and differences between human and animal studies. Our review summarizes the current state of knowledge on ovarian disrupters, highlights their risks to ovarian aging and identifies knowledge gaps in humans and animals. We therefore propose that females adopt healthy lifestyle changes to minimize their exposure to both persistent and non-persistent chemicals, that have the potential damage to their reproductive function.

19.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2200155, 2022 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35466570

RESUMO

Rational architecture design of the artificial protective layer on the zinc (Zn) anode surface is a promising strategy to achieve uniform Zn deposition and inhibit the uncontrolled growth of Zn dendrites. Herein, a red phosphorous-derived artificial protective layer combined with a conductive N-doped carbon framework is designed to achieve dendrite-free Zn deposition. The Zn-phosphorus (ZnP) solid solution alloy artificial protective layer is formed during Zn plating. Meanwhile, the dynamic evolution mechanism of the ZnP on the Zn anode is successfully revealed. The concentration gradient of the electrolyte on the electrode surface can be redistributed by this protective layer, thereby achieving a uniform Zn-ion flux. The fabricated Zn symmetrical battery delivers a dendrite-free plating/stripping for 1100 h at the current density of 2.0 mA cm-2 . Furthermore, aqueous Zn//MnO2 full cell exhibits a reversible capacity of 200 mAh g-1 after 350 cycles at 1.0 A g-1 . This study suggests an effective solution for the suppression of Zn dendrites in Zn metal batteries, which is expected to provide a deep insight into the design of high-performance rechargeable aqueous Zn-ion batteries.

20.
Molecules ; 27(7)2022 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35408477

RESUMO

Ni, V and Fe are the main contaminant metals that lead to the deactivation of the spent fluid catalytic cracking (SFCC) catalyst. In this work, the properties and distribution of Ni, V and Fe in the SFCC catalyst are investigated by employing EPMA-EDX, SEM and XPS techniques. The kinetics of Ni, V, Fe and Al leaching in organic and inorganic acids are studied under microwave heating. The EPMA-EDX results show that Fe and Ni mainly accumulate near the particle surface, while V eventually distributes throughout the catalyst particle. The XPS result suggests that the phase speciations of Ni in the SFCC catalyst are Ni, Ni2SiO4 and NiAl2O4, while Fe is present in a mixture of Fe3O4, Fe2O3 and Fe2SiO4. V is in the forms of V2O5 and VO2. Compared with oxalic acid, sulfuric acid has a better removal effect of contaminant metals, especially for Ni. The leaching kinetics results indicate that using either sulfuric acid or oxalic acid, the apparent activation energy of V is obviously lower than that of Fe and Ni, and the priority of the three contaminant metals in the removal effect is V > Fe > Ni. In addition, the leaching kinetics of contaminant metals in the microwave-assisted acid activation process are controlled by the surface chemical reaction control model.

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