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1.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 332, 2022 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36138417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Melanoma is a malignant tumor with a high mortality rate. Some microorganisms have been shown to activate the immune system and limit cancer progression. The objective of this study is to evaluate the anti-melanoma effect of Neospora caninum, a livestock pathogen with no pathogenic activity in humans. METHODS: Neospora caninum tachyzoites were inoculated into a C57BL/6 mouse melanoma model by intratumoral and distal subcutaneous injections. Tumor volumes were measured, and cell death areas were visualized by hematoxylin and eosin staining and quantified. Apoptosis in cell cultures and whole tumors was detected by propidium iodide (PI) and TUNEL staining, respectively. Cytokine and tumor-associated factor levels in tumors and spleens were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Infiltration of macrophages and CD8+ T cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME) were detected by immunohistochemistry with anti-CD68 and anti-CD8 antibodies, respectively. Finally, 16S rRNA sequencing of mice cecal contents was performed to evaluate the effect of N. caninum on gut microbial diversity. RESULTS: Intratumoral and distal subcutaneous injections of N. caninum resulted in significant inhibition of tumor growth (P < 0.001), and more than 50% of tumor cells were dead without signs of apoptosis. Neospora caninum treatment significantly increased the mRNA expression levels of IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-10, TNF-α, and PD-L1 in the TME, and IL-12 and IFN-γ in the spleen of tumor-bearing mice (P < 0.05). An increase in the infiltration of CD8+ T cells and macrophages in the TME was observed with these cytokine changes. Neospora caninum also restored the abundance of gut microbiota Lactobacillus, Lachnospiraceae, Adlercreutzia, and Prevotellaceae associated with tumor growth, but the changes were not significant. CONCLUSION: Neospora caninum inhibits B16F10 melanoma by activating potent immune responses and directly destroying the cancer cells. The stable, non-toxic, and efficacious properties of N. caninum demonstrate the potential for its use as a cancer treatment.

2.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 79(9): 507, 2022 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36059036

RESUMO

Patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) typically experience substantial social isolation, which may cause secondary adverse effects on their brain development. miR-124 is the most abundant miRNA in the human brain, acting as a pivotal molecule regulating neuronal fate determination. Alterations of miR-124 maturation or expression are observed in various neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric, and neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study, we analyzed a panel of brain-enriched microRNAs in serums from 2 to 6 year old boys diagnosed with ASD. The hsa-miR-124 level was found significantly elevated in ASD boys than in age and sex-matched healthy controls. In an isolation-reared weanling mouse model, we evidenced elevated mmu-miR-124 level in the serum and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). These mice displayed significant sociability deficits, as well as myelin abnormality in the mPFC, which was partially rescued by expressing the miR-124 sponge in the bilateral mPFC, ubiquitously or specifically in oligodendroglia. In cultured mouse oligodendrocyte precursor cells, introducing a synthetic mmu-miR-124 inhibited the differentiation process through suppressing expression of nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 1 (Nr4a1). Overexpressing Nr4a1 in the bilateral mPFC also corrected the social behavioral deficits and myelin impairments in the isolation-reared mice. This study revealed an unanticipated role of the miR-124/Nr4a1 signaling in regulating early social experience-dependent mPFC myelination, which may serve as a potential therapy target for social neglect or social isolation-related neuropsychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , MicroRNAs , Animais , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Bainha de Mielina/genética , Bainha de Mielina/metabolismo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo
3.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(8)2022 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36011358

RESUMO

Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder, but there has been limited analysis of a large cohort of Chinese children with Angelman syndrome. This study aims to assess the phenotype and genotype of Chinese children with Angelman syndrome. We retrospectively analyzed data through a detailed online survey combined with an on-site study. Furthermore, phenotype analysis stratified by deletion and non-deletion groups was carried out. The responses of family members of 695 individuals with AS revealed that 577 patients (83.02%) had maternal deletions, 65 patients (9.35%) carried UBE3A mutations, 31 (4.46%) patients had UPD15pat (one patient with UPD15pat constituted by a mosaic), 10 patients (1.44%) had imprinting defects and 12 (1.58%) patients only showed abnormal methylation without further detection. We identified 50 different pathogenic variants in this cohort, although 18 of these variants were unreported. Recurrent variant c.2507_2510del (p.K836Rfs*4) was found in 7 patients. In the deletion group, patients were diagnosed at an earlier age, had a more severe clinical phenotype, a higher rate of epilepsy with more multiple seizure types, and more frequently combined medication. Strabismus and sleep disturbances were both common in deletion and non-deletion groups. The top three resources invested in caring for AS children are: daily involvement in patient care, rehabilitation cost, and anti-epileptic treatment. Our study showed the genetic composition of Chinese children with 83.02% of maternal deletions, and the mutation spectrum for UBE3A variants was expanded. Developmental outcomes are associated with genotype, and this was confirmed by deletion patients having a worse clinical phenotype and complex epilepsy.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Angelman , Epilepsia , Síndrome de Angelman/genética , China , Genótipo , Humanos , Fenótipo , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
J Med Chem ; 65(16): 10992-11009, 2022 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35960655

RESUMO

Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK) and its ligand, RANKL, play pivotal roles in bone remodeling. The monoclonal antibody denosumab successfully inhibited the maturation of osteoclasts (OCs) by binding to RANKL in the clinic. We continued our efforts to develop small-molecule inhibitors of RANKL. In this work, 41 ß-carboline derivatives were synthesized based on previously synthesized compound Y1599 to improve its drug-like properties. Compound Y1693 was identified as a potent RANKL inhibitor that improved absorption-distribution-metabolism-excretion properties and effectively prevented RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Furthermore, Y1693 also suppressed the expression of OC marker genes. Moreover, Y1693 demonstrated good tolerability and efficacy in an orally administered mouse model of osteoporosis as well as the ability to rescue alveolar bone loss in vivo caused by periodontal disease. Collectively, the above findings may provide a valuable direction for the development of novel antiresorptive therapies that target RANKL.


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea , Ligante RANK , Animais , Reabsorção Óssea/tratamento farmacológico , Reabsorção Óssea/prevenção & controle , Diferenciação Celular , Ligantes , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Osteoclastos , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , Receptor Ativador de Fator Nuclear kappa-B/metabolismo
5.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(8): 4212-4218, 2022 Aug 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35971718

RESUMO

Characterizing the lead (Pb) transfer in the "source-soil-wheat" chain is of great importance for the prevention and control of the Pb accumulation risk in wheat grain harvested from the croplands of China. In this study, we used the Jiyuan City, northern China, as a case study to investigate the influence of contamination sources and soil factors on the accumulation of Pb in wheat grain. A site-specific source risk assessment model (SRAM), coupling the positive matrix factorization model, Freundlich-type function, and the Monte Carlo simulation method, was developed to estimate the risk of Pb accumulation in wheat grain harvested from different scenarios. Based on the results of the spatial analysis, the effectiveness and potential risk of the control measures applied in the study area was also evaluated. Atmospheric deposition and phosphate fertilizer application were identified as major sources contributing to 29.0% of the Pb accumulations in wheat grain. Soil pH and cation-exchange capacity (CEC) were the primary causative factors affecting the Pb accumulation in wheat grain. Cropping wheat in the high Pb continuation risk areas (western and northwestern areas) of Jiyuan City caused a 10.5% likelihood of Pb to accumulate above the China food standard limit of 0.2 mg·kg-1 (DW). This risk was significantly decreased to 2.39% when the CEC levels of affected soils was improved to 20 cmol·kg-1 and above.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , China , Grão Comestível/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Chumbo/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Triticum/química
6.
Adv Mater ; 34(38): e2205175, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35901519

RESUMO

The irregular and random electrodeposition of zinc has emerged as a non-negligible barrier for deeply rechargeable aqueous zinc (Zn)-ion batteries (AZIBs), yet traditional texture regulation of the Zn substrate cannot continuously induce uniform Zn deposition. Here, a Janus separator is constructed via parallelly grown graphene sheets modified with sulfonic cellulose on one side of the commercial glass fiber separator through the spin-coating technique. The Janus separator can consistently regulate Zn growth toward a locked crystallographic orientation of Zn(002) texture to intercept dendrites. Furthermore, the separator can spontaneously repel SO4 2- and anchor H+ while allowing effective transport of Zn2+ to alleviate side reactions. Accordingly, the Zn symmetric cell harvests a long-term lifespan over 1400 h at 10 mA cm-2 /10 mAh cm-2 and endures stable cycling over 220 h even at a high depth of discharge (DOD) of 56%. The Zn/carbon nanotube (CNT)-MnO2 cell achieves an outstanding capacity retention of 95% at 1 A g-1 after 1900 cycles. Furthermore, the Zn/NH4 V4 O10 pouch cell with a Janus separator delivers an initial capacity of 178 mAh g-1 and a high capacity retention of 87.4% after 260 cycles. This work provides a continuous regulation approach to achieve crystallographic homogeneity of the Zn anode, which can be suitable for other metal batteries.

7.
Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) ; 98: 105717, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35834965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The high incidence of thrombosis in the portal venous system following splenectomy (a frequently adopted surgery for treating portal hypertension in patients with splenomegaly and hypersplenism) is a critical clinical issue. The aim of this study was to address whether quantification of postsplenectomy hemodynamics has potential value for assessing the risk of postsplenectomy thrombosis. METHODS: Computational models were constructed for three portal hypertensive patients treated with splenectomy based on their preoperative clinical data to quantify hemodynamics in the portal venous system before and after splenectomy, respectively. Each patient was followed up for three or five months after surgery and examined with CT to screen potential thrombosis. FINDINGS: The area ratio of wall regions exposed to low wall shear stress was small before splenectomy in all patients, which increased markedly after splenectomy and exhibited enlarged inter-patient differences. The largest area ratio of low wall shear stress and most severe flow stagnation after splenectomy were predicted for the patient suffering from postsplenectomy thrombosis, with the wall regions exposed to low wall shear stress corresponding well with the CT-detected distribution of thrombus. Further analyses revealed that postoperative hemodynamic characteristics were considerably influenced by the anatomorphological features of the portal venous system. INTERPRETATION: Postoperative hemodynamic conditions in the portal venous system are highly patient-specific and have a potential link to postsplenectomy thrombosis, which indicates that patient-specific hemodynamic studies may serve as a complement to routine clinical assessments for refining risk stratification and postoperative patient management.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Portal , Trombose , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/complicações , Hipertensão Portal/cirurgia , Veia Porta , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Esplenectomia/efeitos adversos , Trombose/etiologia
8.
RSC Med Chem ; 13(6): 688-710, 2022 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35814933

RESUMO

Cyclin dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) plays an essential role in regulating transcriptional elongation. Aberrations in CDK9 activity have been observed in various cancers, which make CDK9 an attractive therapeutic target for cancers. This led to an intensive development of small-molecule CDK9 inhibitors or new emerging strategies, such as proteolysis targeting chimeras (PROTACs). Here, we review the CDK9 modulators in cancer not only for research purposes, but also for therapeutic applications.

9.
Cell Rep ; 40(3): 111128, 2022 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35858579

RESUMO

Neutrophils, the most abundant white blood cells in circulation, are closely related to cancer development and progression. Healthy primary neutrophils present potent cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines through direct contact and via generation of reactive oxygen species. However, due to their short half-life and resistance to genetic modification, neutrophils have not yet been engineered with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) to enhance their antitumor cytotoxicity for targeted immunotherapy. Here, we genetically engineered human pluripotent stem cells with synthetic CARs and differentiated them into functional neutrophils by implementing a chemically defined platform. The resulting CAR neutrophils present superior and specific cytotoxicity against tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, we established a robust platform for massive production of CAR neutrophils, paving the way to myeloid cell-based therapeutic strategies that would boost current cancer-treatment approaches.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Neoplasias/terapia , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/metabolismo
10.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 28(8): 1229-1239, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess the temporal changes in the characteristics of ischemic stroke drug clinical trials conducted in mainland China in 2005-2021. METHODS: A statistical analysis of registered clinical trials on ischemic stroke was performed using the platform of the Center for Drug Evaluation of China National Medical Products Administration, the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, and ClinicalTrials.gov websites. RESULTS: From January 1, 2005 to August 1, 2021, a total of 384 registered drug clinical trials on ischemic stroke were identified in mainland China. Over time, the number of trials gradually increased each year, with a significant growth in 2014, from 16 in 2013 to 42 in 2014. Phase IV trials (31.8%) accounted for the majority, followed by phase II (16.4%), phase I (10.9%), and phase III (8.6%). In terms of sponsorship, the proportion of investigator-initiated trials (IITs) (60.7%) was higher than industry-sponsored trials (ISTs) (39.3%). Additionally, trials involving traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) (36.2%) accounted for the largest proportion, followed by trials involving antithrombotic therapy (19.5%) and cerebral protection agents (16.7%). Furthermore, over the past 17 years, the number of leading drug clinical trial units for ischemic stroke in mainland China has continuously increased. The leading principal units from Beijing, Shanghai, Guangdong, Jiangsu, and Liaoning accounted for the majority of the trials (67.4%). CONCLUSION: In the past 17 years, great progress has been made in the research and development (R&D) of drugs and clinical trials for ischemic stroke in mainland China. The most extensive progress was observed in TCMs, antithrombotic therapy, and cerebral protection agents. More clinical trials are needed to confirm whether the newly developed drugs can improve the clinical efficacy of ischemic stroke. Simultaneously, more pharmaceutical R&D efforts of innovative drugs are warranted.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , AVC Isquêmico , China , Avaliação de Medicamentos , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , AVC Isquêmico/tratamento farmacológico
11.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(11)2022 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35681814

RESUMO

The number of thoracolumbar vertebrae is a quantitative trait positively correlated with the economic traits of livestock. More thoracolumbar vertebrae individuals could genetically be used to improve the livestock population, as more thoracolumbar vertebrae means a longer carcass, which could bring more meat production. Nuclear receptor subfamily 6 group A member 1 (NR6A1) is considered a strong candidate gene for effecting the number of vertebrae in livestock. The purposes of this study are as follows: (a) Analyzing the effect of TLN variation on body size and carcass traits of Dezhou donkey; (b) Studying the distribution of seven single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in NR6A1 gene of Dezhou donkey; (c) Exploring the relationship between latent SNVs and TLN, the body size and carcass traits. We examined the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae number and seven SNVs in NR6A1 gene of 455 Dezhou donkeys, and analyzed the relationships between them. Five types of thoracolumbar combinations (T17L5 (individual with 17 thoracic and five lumbar vertebrae) 2.4%, T18L5 75.8%, T19L5 1.1%, T17L6 11.9%, and T18L6 8.8%) of Dezhou donkeys were detected in this study. For one thoracolumbar vertebra added, the body length of Dezhou donkey increases by 3 cm and the carcass weight increases by 6 kg. Seven SNVs (g.18093100G > T, g.18094587G > T, g.18106043G > T, g.18108764G > T, g.18110615T > G, g.18112000C > T and g.18114954T > G) of the NR6A1 gene were found to have a significant association with the TLN, body size and carcass traits of Dezhou donkey (p < 0.05), respectively. For instance, g.18114954C > T is significantly associated with lumber vertebrae number, the total number of thoracolumbar, and carcass weight, and individuals with TT genotype had significantly larger value than CC genotype (p < 0.05). Using these 7SNVs, 16 different haplotypes were estimated. Compared to Hap3Hap3, individuals homozygous for Hap2Hap2 showed significantly longer length in one thoracic spine (STL), the total thoracic vertebrae and one thoracolumbar spine. Our study will not only extend the understanding of genetic variation in the NR6A1 gene of Dezhou donkey, but also provide useful information for marker assisted selection in donkey breeding program.

12.
Folia Phoniatr Logop ; 2022 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35764052

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previous studies reported discrepant vocal qualities associated with different languages. However, possible physical differences associated with speakers of different ethnicities were not accounted for. The present study attempted to examine the effect of language on one's voice quality by eliminating the potential effects of physical differences associated with speakers of different languages. METHODS: Sixteen Chinese and fourteen Americans who were proficient in both Mandarin Chinese and English were recruited. They were instructed to read one Chinese and one English passage. Time-domain and long-term average spectral (LTAS) analyses were carried out, and speaking fundamental frequency (sF0), jitter and shimmer, and first spectral peak (FSP), mean spectral energy (MSE), and spectral tilt (ST) were measured using Praat. RESULTS: Acoustic measures revealed no differences in sF0, FSP and ST between Americans and Chinese. However, jitter, shimmer, and MSE values appeared to be affected by ethnicity (Chinese vs. Americans). Jitter and shimmer tended to be greater when someone was speaking his/her mother tongue. For language effect, Chinese was found to be associated with a faster rate of vocal fold vibration than English. MSE was higher for Chinese than English produced by Chinese, but not by American speakers, despite the similar ST in both languages. CONCLUSION: Based on speech samples obtained from the balanced groups of bilingual speakers, the findings confirmed the presence of language effect on one's voice quality. Laryngeal activity appeared to be affected by the language being spoken.

13.
Acta Histochem ; 124(6): 151911, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35764040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) is constantly increasing with age. Adipose-derived (AD-) and umbilical cord-derived (UC-) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are attractive alternatives in OA therapy and regenerative medicine. However, whether there are differences in the efficacy of MSCs derived from different tissues in the cartilage regeneration, and the frequency of administration of MSCs needs to be further studied. EXPERIMENT: UC-MSCs and AD-MSC were isolated from the umbilical cord and subcutaneous fatty tissue of humans respectively and identified by flow cytometry. In vitro, the proliferation ability and chondrogenic potential of AD-MSCs and UC-MSCs were analyzed. In vivo, forty-three Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the OA model induced by ACLT surgery. OA rats were divided into a sham group, an ACLT model group, and two therapy groups (treated with AD-MSCs or UC-MSCs). Therapy groups were treated using a single or repeated twice injection of AD-MSCs and UC-MSCs at a concentration of 1.0 × 106 cells and were followed up for 12 weeks. Serial sections of knees were examined for histological, immunohistochemical and TUNEL analysis. RESULTS: We demonstrated that the proliferation of UC-MSCs was higher than that of AD-MSCs, consistent with the bigger pellets from UC-MSCs in a chondrogenic induction medium. Degeneration of articular cartilage was observed in histological appearance of Safranine O and Toluidine blue staining, and quantitative results of modified Mankin's Score. Importantly, both AD-MSCs and UC-MSCs transplantation significantly attenuated ACLT surgical-induced OA development. In addition, ACLT-induced reduction in cartilage extracellular matrix synthesis (aggrecan) was significantly suppressed by AD-MSCs or UC-MSCs transplantation. TUNEL assay showed that AD-MSCs and UC-MSCs treatments significantly protected chondrocytes against apoptosis compared with the ACLT group. No significant differences were observed between single injections and repeated twice injections. CONCLUSIONS: The current study suggested that, in vitro, AD-MSCs and UC-MSCs showed a comparable chondrogenic potential, although UC-MSCs displayed a superior proliferation capacity. Furthermore, our results confirmed that the injection of AD-MSCs and UC-MSCs, either single or repeated twice, could significantly inhibit the progression of ACLT-induced osteoarthritis with a similar effect, and MSCs transplantation can decrease the apoptosis of articular chondrocytes caused by ACLT.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Osteoartrite , Tecido Adiposo , Animais , Humanos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Osteoartrite/patologia , Osteoartrite/terapia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Cordão Umbilical
14.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 9(23): e2201703, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35678111

RESUMO

Nanozyme-based tumor catalytic therapy has attracted widespread attention in recent years, but its therapeutic outcome is drastically diminished by species of nanozyme, concentration of substrate, pH value, and reaction temperature, etc. Herein, a novel Cu-doped polypyrrole nanozyme (CuP) with trienzyme-like activities, including catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and peroxidase (POD), is first proposed by a straightforward one-step procedure, which can specifically promote O2 and ·OH elevation but glutathione (GSH) reduction in tumor microenvironment (TME), causing irreversible oxidative stress damage to tumor cells and reversing the redox balance. The PEGylated CuP nanozyme (CuPP) has been demonstrated to efficiently reverse immunosuppressive TME by overcoming tumor hypoxia and re-educating macrophage from pro-tumoral M2 to anti-tumoral M1 phenotype. More importantly, CuPP exhibits hyperthermia-enhanced enzyme-mimic catalytic and immunoregulatory activities, which results in intense immune responses and almost complete tumor inhibition by further combining with αPD-L1. This work opens intriguing perspectives not only in enzyme-catalytic nanomedicine but also in macrophage-based tumor immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Hipertermia Induzida , Neoplasias , Glutationa , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Macrófagos/patologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Polímeros , Pirróis , Microambiente Tumoral
15.
J Hazard Mater ; 437: 129373, 2022 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35728326

RESUMO

The pathogenic microorganisms in water pose a great threat to human health. Photothermal and photothermocatalytic disinfection using nanomaterials (NPs) has offered a promising and effective strategy to address the challenges in solar water disinfection (SODIS), especially in the point-of-use operations. This review aims at providing comprehensive and state-of-the-art knowledge of photothermal-based disinfection by NPs. The fundamentals and principles of photothermal-based disinfection were first introduced. Then, recent advances in developing photothermal/photothermocatalytic catalysts were systematically summarized. The light-to-heat conversion and disinfection performance of a large variety of photothermal materials were presented. Given the complicated mechanisms of photothermal-based disinfection, the attacks from reactive oxygen species and heat, the destruction of bacterial cells, and the antibacterial effects of released metal ions were highlighted. Finally, future challenges and opportunities associated with the development of cost-effective photothermal/photothermocatalytic disinfection systems were outlined. This review will provide guidance in designing future NPs and inspire more research efforts from environmental nano-communities to move towards practical water disinfection operations.


Assuntos
Nanoestruturas , Purificação da Água , Desinfecção , Humanos , Luz Solar , Água
16.
Med Image Anal ; 80: 102518, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35749981

RESUMO

Mounting evidence has demonstrated that complex brain function processes are realized by the interaction of holistic functional brain networks which are spatially distributed across specific brain regions in a temporally dynamic fashion. Therefore, modeling spatio-temporal patterns of holistic functional brain networks plays an important role in understanding brain function. Compared to traditional modeling methods such as principal component analysis, independent component analysis, and sparse coding, superior performance has been achieved by recent deep learning methodologies. However, there are still two limitations of existing deep learning approaches for functional brain network modeling. They either (1) merely modeled a single targeted network and ignored holistic ones at one time, or (2) underutilized both spatial and temporal features of fMRI during network modeling, and the spatial/temporal accuracy was thus not warranted. To address these limitations, we proposed a novel Multi-Head Guided Attention Graph Neural Network (Multi-Head GAGNN) to simultaneously model both spatial and temporal patterns of holistic functional brain networks. Specifically, a spatial Multi-Head Attention Graph U-Net was first adopted to model the spatial patterns of multiple brain networks, and a temporal Multi-Head Guided Attention Network was then introduced to model the corresponding temporal patterns under the guidance of modeled spatial patterns. Based on seven task fMRI datasets from the public Human Connectome Project and resting state fMRI datasets from the public Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange I of 1448 subjects, the proposed Multi-Head GAGNN showed superior ability and generalizability in modeling both spatial and temporal patterns of holistic functional brain networks in individual brains compared to other state-of-the-art (SOTA) models. Furthermore, the modeled spatio-temporal patterns of functional brain networks via the proposed Multi-Head GAGNN can better predict the individual cognitive behavioral measures compared to the other SOTA models. This study provided a novel and powerful tool for brain function modeling as well as for understanding the brain-cognitive behavior associations.


Assuntos
Conectoma , Rede Nervosa , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Conectoma/métodos , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Redes Neurais de Computação
17.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(9)2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35565542

RESUMO

Donkey hindgut is an enlarged fermentative chamber that harbors a highly complex and extremely abundant community of anaerobic bacteria. It can be divided into two different ecological sites: liquid (Lq) phase and adherent fraction (Ad) colonized by bacteria. However, the Ad bacteria have not previously been specifically collected or directly compared with the Lq bacteria. In the present study, the digesta collected from the caecum, ventral colon and dorsal colon of nine Dezhou donkeys was separated into Lq and Ad fractions. The bacterial community structure was comparatively determined using 16S rRNA gene sequences by Illumina MiSeq. The Ad bacteria had a higher bacterial diversity than Lq bacteria due to the higher Chao and ACE index (p < 0.05). The predominant bacteria at the phylum level were Firmicutes (55.4~74.3%) and Bacteroidota (13.7~32.2%) for both the Lq and Ad fraction. The relative abundance of Bacteroidota, Spirochaetota, Fibrobacterota and Patescibacteria in the Ad fraction was greater than Lq (p < 0.05), suggesting that bacteria associated with feed particles were mainly responsible for plant fiber degradation. At the genus level, the abundance of Lactobacillus in Lq was greater than that in the Ad fraction (p < 0.05), indicating that the bacteria in the Lq fraction were better at hydrolyzing readily fermentable carbohydrates. PICRUSt showed that the activities of enzymes related to fiber degradation in the Ad fraction were also greater than Lq. In addition, the hindgut region also had a significant effect on the bacterial community composition. The relative abundance of Rikenellaceae_RC9_gut_group, Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, Christensenellaceae_R-7_group and norank_Bacteroidales_BS11_gut_group was increased (p < 0.05) along the donkey hindgut. In summary, the present study provides evidence that bacteria adherent to plant biomass were different to those in the liquid phase within the donkey caeco-colic digesta, and bacteria associated with feed particles may mainly be responsible for plant fiber degradation.

19.
Therap Adv Gastroenterol ; 15: 17562848221092597, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35509421

RESUMO

Background: Mucosal healing (MH) is considered the preferred therapeutic target for ulcerative colitis (UC). Impaired quality of life (QoL), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-like symptoms, and functional bowel symptoms have been reported in several inactive patients with UC. This study aims to assess the occurrence of functional bowel disorders (FBD)-like symptoms and QoL in UC patients with MH, and to explore the factors related to FBD-like symptoms. Methods: UC patients with MH (Mayo endoscopic score, MES = 0 or 1) were required to complete the Rome IV diagnostic questionnaire, the 32-item version of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ-32), the 36-item short form healthy survey questionnaire (SF-36), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). UC patients who did not achieve MH (MES > 1) completed the IBDQ-32, the SF-36, and the HADS. Community-dwelling healthy controls (HCs) completed the SF-36 and the HADS. Results: Among the 119 UC patients with MH recruited, 45.4% reported functional bowel symptoms; functional constipation-like symptom (13.4%) was the most prevalent, followed by IBS-like symptom (10.9%), and functional diarrhea-like symptom (10.0%). The IBDQ-32 and SF-36 scores were significantly lower in MH patients with FBD-like symptoms than in those without FBD-like symptoms. Disease duration [odds ratio (OR): 1.022; p < 0.001], body mass index (BMI; OR: 0.726; p < 0.001) were independent predictors of FBD-like symptoms in UC patients with MH. Combining these two factors could attain area under the curve [0.786; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.701-0.856, p < 0.001] to predict FBD-like symptoms in MH patients. Conclusion: A number of UC patients with MH had accompanying FBD-like symptoms and significantly impaired QoL. Disease duration, BMI could predict the occurrence of FBD-like symptoms.

20.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 886028, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35573374

RESUMO

Objective: This study investigated the mental development of children with Angelman syndrome (AS) in China and evaluated the relationship between neurodevelopment and molecular subtype, age, epilepsy, and sex using the Chinese version of the Griffith Mental Development Scale (GMDS-C) to provide detailed baseline data regarding neurodevelopment with AS in China. Methods: Participants were recruited from the AS Natural History Study. The GMDS-C was used to evaluate all participants' mental age and developmental quotients. The general quotient (GQ) and quotients of five subscales (sports, personal-social, auditory language, eye-hand coordination, and comprehensive performance) were calculated. Results: A total of 119 children (average age: 42.12 months; range, 7.5-95.5 months) with a genetic diagnosis of AS were enrolled. The median GQ score of the GMDS was 29.6 points (95% confidence interval, 28.6-33.25). The children had relatively good locomotor and personal-social skills but poor language skills. Overall, 89% (106/119) had mental ages younger than 24 months for all five subscales. The non-deletion group (i.e., without deletion in chromosome 15q11-13) had higher GQs and locomotor, personal-social, and performance subscale quotients. The GQ was significantly different among the three age subgroups and significantly correlated with age. Compared with the non-epilepsy group, the epilepsy group had lower GQs and lower quotients for the locomotor, personal-social, speech, language, and eye-hand coordination subscales. Conclusion: Children with AS in China experience severe neurodevelopmental deterioration. In addition to age, molecular subtypes and the onset of seizures may also correlate with these patients' intellectual development. The GMDS-C is an accurate tool that can assess the clinical characteristics of AS. The data of this study can be used as baseline data for clinical trials performed to evaluate drug development or other AS treatment development.

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