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1.
Biotechnol Lett ; 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776751

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previously, we have found that the matrix attachment region (MAR) may confer a 'distance effect' on transgene expression. This work aims to systematically explore the increased transgene expression in transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells due to the characteristics of MAR and its mechanism. RESULTS: Compared with the control vector, 500 and 1000 bp DNA distances between MAR and the cytomegalovirus promoter can increase transgene expression by 1.77- and 1.56-fold, respectively. Meanwhile, transgene expression was not affected when 2000 and 2500 bp spacer DNAs were inserted, but a declining trend was observed when a 1500 bp spacer DNA was inserted. The vector containing a 500 bp DNA distance significantly increased the expression of the enhanced green fluorescent protein, and this increase was not related to transgene copy numbers. CONCLUSIONS: A short DNA distance-containing MAR confers high transgene expression level in transfected CHO cells, but a distance threshold does not exist in the vector system.

2.
Sci Adv ; 5(9): eaax2166, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31579823

RESUMO

RNA binding proteins are key players in posttranscriptional regulation and have been implicated in neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we report a significant burden of heterozygous, likely gene-disrupting variants in CSDE1 (encoding a highly constrained RNA binding protein) among patients with autism and related neurodevelopmental disabilities. Analysis of 17 patients identifies common phenotypes including autism, intellectual disability, language and motor delay, seizures, macrocephaly, and variable ocular abnormalities. HITS-CLIP revealed that Csde1-binding targets are enriched in autism-associated gene sets, especially FMRP targets, and in neuronal development and synaptic plasticity-related pathways. Csde1 knockdown in primary mouse cortical neurons leads to an overgrowth of the neurites and abnormal dendritic spine morphology/synapse formation and impaired synaptic transmission, whereas mutant and knockdown experiments in Drosophila result in defects in synapse growth and synaptic transmission. Our study defines a new autism-related syndrome and highlights the functional role of CSDE1 in synapse development and synaptic transmission.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4679, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616000

RESUMO

Postsynaptic density (PSD) proteins have been implicated in the pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Here, we present detailed clinical and genetic data for 20 patients with likely gene-disrupting mutations in TANC2-whose protein product interacts with multiple PSD proteins. Pediatric patients with disruptive mutations present with autism, intellectual disability, and delayed language and motor development. In addition to a variable degree of epilepsy and facial dysmorphism, we observe a pattern of more complex psychiatric dysfunction or behavioral problems in adult probands or carrier parents. Although this observation requires replication to establish statistical significance, it also suggests that mutations in this gene are associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders consistent with its postsynaptic function. We find that TANC2 is expressed broadly in the human developing brain, especially in excitatory neurons and glial cells, but shows a more restricted pattern in Drosophila glial cells where its disruption affects behavioral outcomes.

4.
Mol Biol Rep ; 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659692

RESUMO

Multicistronic vectors can increase transgene expression and decrease the imbalance of gene expression in the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell expression system. Small, self-cleaving 2A peptides have a high cleavage efficiency and are essential for constructing high-expression multicistronic vectors. In this study, we investigated the effects of two different 2A peptides on transgene expression in CHO cells via their mediating action on tricistronic vectors. The enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and red fluorescent protein (RFP) genes were linked by the porcine teschovirus-1 (P2A) and Thosea asigna virus (T2A) peptides in a multicistronic vector. We transfected CHO cells with these vectors and screened for the presence of blasticidin-resistant colonies. Flow cytometry and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) were used to detect the expression levels of eGFP and RFP and the copy numbers of stably transfected cells. The results showed that P2A could enhance eGFP and RFP expression by 1.48- and 1.47-fold, respectively, compared to T2A. The expression levels of the genes were not proportional to their copy numbers. In conclusion, we found that P2A can effectively drive transgene expression in CHO cells and a potent 2A peptide can be used for recombinant protein production in the CHO cell system.

5.
Mol Biol Cell ; 30(22): 2761-2770, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509492

RESUMO

Matrix attachment regions (MARs) can mediate the replication of vector episomes in mammalian cells; however, the molecular mode of action remains unclear. Here, we assessed the characteristics of MARs and the mechanism that mediates episomal vector replication in mammalian cells. Five shortened subfragments of ß-interferon MAR fragments were cloned and transferred into CHO cells, and transgene expression levels, presence of the gene, and the episomal maintenance mechanism were determined. Three shortened MAR derivatives (position 781-1320, 1201-1740, and 1621-2201) retained full MAR activity and mediated episomal vector replication. Moreover, the three shortened MARs showed higher transgene expression levels, greater efficiency in colony formation, and more persistent transgene expression compared with those of the original pEPI-1 plasmid, and three functional truncated MARs can bind to SAF-A MAR-binding protein. These results suggest that shortened MARs are sufficient for replication and maintenance of episomes in CHO cells.

6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3094, 2019 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300657

RESUMO

AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are tetrameric ligand-gated channels made up of combinations of GluA1-4 subunits encoded by GRIA1-4 genes. GluA2 has an especially important role because, following post-transcriptional editing at the Q607 site, it renders heteromultimeric AMPARs Ca2+-impermeable, with a linear relationship between current and trans-membrane voltage. Here, we report heterozygous de novo GRIA2 mutations in 28 unrelated patients with intellectual disability (ID) and neurodevelopmental abnormalities including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Rett syndrome-like features, and seizures or developmental epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). In functional expression studies, mutations lead to a decrease in agonist-evoked current mediated by mutant subunits compared to wild-type channels. When GluA2 subunits are co-expressed with GluA1, most GRIA2 mutations cause a decreased current amplitude and some also affect voltage rectification. Our results show that de-novo variants in GRIA2 can cause neurodevelopmental disorders, complementing evidence that other genetic causes of ID, ASD and DEE also disrupt glutamatergic synaptic transmission.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Receptores de AMPA/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Mutação com Perda de Função , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Cell Biochem ; 120(10): 18478-18486, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168866

RESUMO

Matrix attachment regions (MARs) are DNA fragments with specific motifs that enhance transgenic expression; however, the characteristics and functions of these elements remain unclear. In this study, we designed and synthesized three short chimeric MARs, namely, SM4, SM5, and SM6, with different numbers and orders of motifs on the basis of the features and motifs of previously reported MARs, namely, SM1, SM2, and SM3, respectively. Expression vectors with six synthetic MARs flanking the down or upstream of the expression cassette for enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) were constructed and introduced into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Results indicated that the EGFP expression of the CHO cells with transfection bySM4, SM5, or SM6-containing vectors was higher than that of those containing SM1, SM2, or SM3 regardless of the MAR insertion position. The improving effect of SM5 was particularly pronounced. Transgenic expression was further enhanced with the increasing SM5 copy number. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that several arrangements of the DNA-binding motifs for CEBP, FAST, Hox, glutathione, and NMP4 may help increase transgenic expression levels and the average population of highly expressed cells. Our findings on novel synthetic MARs will help establish stable expression systems in mammalian cells.

8.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 35(6): 1071-1078, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232003

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the chimeric intron in different directions on the expression of the nerve growth factor (NGF) in recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The chimeric intron that contained the splice sequence of the first intron of the human ß-globin and the human immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region intron was used. NGF gene was cloned into the expression vectors containing the chimeric intron in the forward or reverse direction, followed by transfecting into CHO cells, and screened under G418 to produce the stable transfected CHO cells. Fluorescence quantitative PCR, ELISA, and Western blotting were performed to detect the recombinant NGF gene expression in CHO cells. The results showed that the chimeric introns could significantly enhance the expression of NGF in recombinant CHO cells. Moreover, the enhancing effect on NGF expression level by the intron in the forward direction showed stronger than that of the reverse direction both at mRNA and protein level. In conclusion, the chimeric intron could increase NGF expression in stably transfected CHO cells and the effect is associated with the direction of the intron insertion.


Assuntos
Íntrons , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Células CHO , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Transfecção
9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2124, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064993

RESUMO

The original version of this Article contained errors in Figures 1, 3 and 4. In panels b and d of Figure 1, the labels 'Sdc4-/-' were inadvertently replaced by 'Sdc4+/+'. In panels c and d of Figure 3, the labels 'Sdc4-/-' were replaced by 'Sdc2-/-'. In panel f of Figure 3, the labels 'FGF2' were replaced by 'VEGFA165'. In panel e of Figure 6, a 'Sdc2-/-' label was inadvertently included. This has now been corrected in the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.

10.
J Cell Biochem ; 120(9): 15661-15670, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074065

RESUMO

Nonviral episomal vectors present attractive alternative vehicles for gene therapy applications. Previously, we have established a new type of nonviral episomal vector-mediated by the characteristic motifs of matrix attachment regions (MARs), which is driven by the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. However, the CMV promoter is intrinsically susceptible to silencing, resulting in declined productivity during long-term culture. In this study, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and DNA methyltransferase-deficient (Dnmt3a-deficient) CHO cells were transfected with plasmid-mediated by MAR, or CHO cells were treated with the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Flow cytometry, plasmid rescue experiments, fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), and bisulfite sequencing were performed to observe transgene expression, its state of existence, and the CpG methylation level of the CMV promoter. The results indicated that all DNA methylation inhibitor and methyltransferase deficient cells could increase transgene expression levels and stability in the presence or absence of selection pressure after a 60-generation culture. Plasmid rescue assay and FISH analysis showed that the vector still existed episomally after long-time culture. Moreover, a relatively lower CMV promoter methylation level was observed in Dnmt3a-deficient cell lines and CHO cells treated with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine. In addition, Dnmt3a-deficient cells were superior to the DNA methylation inhibitor treatment regarding the transgene expression and long-term stability. Our study provides the first evidence that lower DNA methyltransferase can enhance expression level and stability of transgenes mediated by episomal vectors in transfected CHO cells.

11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1562, 2019 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952866

RESUMO

The proteoglycan Syndecan-2 (Sdc2) has been implicated in regulation of cytoskeleton organization, integrin signaling and developmental angiogenesis in zebrafish. Here we report that mice with global and inducible endothelial-specific deletion of Sdc2 display marked angiogenic and arteriogenic defects and impaired VEGFA165 signaling. No such abnormalities are observed in mice with deletion of the closely related Syndecan-4 (Sdc4) gene. These differences are due to a significantly higher 6-O sulfation level in Sdc2 versus Sdc4 heparan sulfate (HS) chains, leading to an increase in VEGFA165 binding sites and formation of a ternary Sdc2-VEGFA165-VEGFR2 complex which enhances VEGFR2 activation. The increased Sdc2 HS chains 6-O sulfation is driven by a specific N-terminal domain sequence; the insertion of this sequence in Sdc4 N-terminal domain increases 6-O sulfation of its HS chains and promotes Sdc2-VEGFA165-VEGFR2 complex formation. This demonstrates the existence of core protein-determined HS sulfation patterns that regulate specific biological activities.


Assuntos
Neovascularização Fisiológica/genética , Sindecana-2/fisiologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Animais , Camundongos , Domínios Proteicos , Retina/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise de Sequência de Proteína , Sindecana-2/genética , Sindecana-2/metabolismo , Sindecana-4/genética , Sindecana-4/metabolismo , Sindecana-4/fisiologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia
12.
Biotechnol Lett ; 41(6-7): 701-709, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953310

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of full-length fragment of DNA topoisomerase I gene (TOP1) matrix attachment regions (MARs) originating from the human genome on transgene expression in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and explore the underlying mechanisms. RESULTS: Results showed that TOP1 MAR cannot only enhance the transient and stable transgenic expression of enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) but also increase long-term stability and ratio of positive colonies in transfected CHO cells with TOP1 MAR at the 5' or 3' ends of the EGFP expression cassette. Interestingly, the CHO cells were transfected with the 5',3' TOP1 MAR-containing vector featured the highest transient and stable expression, whereas those with the 3' TOP1 MAR-containing vector exhibited the most effective stability and ratio of positive colonies. We also observed that transgene copy numbers and mRNA of egfp gene were correlated with the expression levels of EGFP protein in polyclonal CHO cells. However, the heterogeneity of expression in monoclonal CHO cells was unaffected by transgene copy number. CONCLUSIONS: The findings may aid in the potential application of TOP1 MAR in expression enhancement of recombinant proteins in mammalian cells.


Assuntos
Células CHO , Engenharia Celular/métodos , DNA Topoisomerases Tipo I/genética , Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/biossíntese , Regiões de Interação com a Matriz , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Animais , Cricetulus , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Humanos , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética
13.
J Cell Biochem ; 120(8): 13985-13993, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957285

RESUMO

Matrix attachment regions (MARs) can enhance transgene expression levels and maintain stability. However, the consensus sequence from MARs and its functional analysis remains to be examined. Here, we assessed a possible consensus sequence from MARs and assessed its activity in stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. First, we analyzed the effects of 10 MARs on transfected CHO cells and then analyzed the consensus motifs from these MARs using a bioinformatics method. The consensus sequence was synthesized and cloned upstream or downstream of the eukaryotic vector. The constructs were transfected into CHO cells and the expression levels and stability of enhanced green fluorescent protein were detected by flow cytometry. The results indicated that eight of the ten MARs increased transgene expression in transfected CHO cells. Three consensus motifs were found after bioinformatics analyses. The consensus sequence tandemly enhanced transgene expression when it was inserted into the eukaryotic expression vector; the effect of the addition upstream was stronger than that downstream. Thus, we found a MAR consensus sequence that may regulate the MAR-mediated increase in transgene expression.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927571

RESUMO

Designing an exceptional probe to detect minute quantities of melamine is of huge importance for the safety and health of the human race. In this study, an aquamarine blue and rapid fluorescent sensor was devised by chemical reduction synthesis method for highly selective and sensitive detection of melamine in milk using polyethyleneimine protected silver nanoparticles (PEI-AgNPs). The optical properties of PEI-AgNPs were studied as a function of reactive material concentration, incubation time, temperature and pH. The formation of PEI-AgNPs was verified by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and found that the PEI-AgNPs were spherical in shape with an average diameter of 15 nm. The prepared PEI-AgNPs were aquamarine blue luminescent under UV light and show a maximum emission at 470 nm, when excited at 348 nm. The fluorescence of the PEI-AgNPs can be effectively quenched by the addition of melamine due to its ability to interact with citric acid (CA) through hydrogen bonding and form silver-melamine complexes with Ag+ via coordination bonds, while the addition of other nitro compounds induced feeble quenching of PEI-AgNPs, suggesting the high selectivity of PEI-AgNPs. The present sensor system exhibits a good linear response to melamine ranging from 0.16 to 56 µM, and the limit of detection was found to be 132 nM (Sb/K = 3). Significantly, the fluorescence sensor exhibited good selectivity and acted as a potential probe for detection of melamine in milk samples.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Leite/química , Prata/química , Triazinas/análise , Animais , Corantes/química , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
15.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 40(4): 470-472, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30821230

RESUMO

Among 300 advanced cancer patients with potential urinary tract infection (UTI), 19 had symptomatic UTI. Among remaining patients (n = 281), 21% had asymptomatic bacteriuria or candiduria, and 14% received inappropriate therapy for 279 antimicrobial days. Bacteriuria or candiduria predicted antimicrobial therapy. At 10,000 to <100,000 CFU/mL, the incidence rate ratio [IRR] was 16.9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.0-47.2), and at ≥100,000 CFU/mL, the IRR was 27.9 (95% CI, 10.9-71.2).

16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 234: 189-196, 2019 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703494

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Clopidogrel is the recommended treatment by current clinical practice guidelines to prevent adverse cardiovascular events in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), but this treatment regimen still fails and 5-40% patients display inadequate antiplatelet responses. Fufang Danshen Dripping Pill (FDDP), a Chinese patient drug, was used as the combination with clopidogrel to improve the therapeutic effect. However, the mechanism of the interaction between clopidogrel and FDDP has not been elucidated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have used non-targeted metabolism method based on GC-MS and LC-MS for the investigation of drug interactions between clopidogrel and FDDP. 63 patients were divided into four groups with different dosage regimen and the serum samples were collected for the analysis. RESULTS: We have found 5 and 55 differential metabolites between health volunteer group and CHD patients group, respectively. The contents of these differential metabolites had diverse changes in clopidogrel group, FDDP group, and drug combination group, indicating that the clopidogrel and FDDP combination can adjust the glycometabolism, lipid metabolism, and phospholipid metabolism, sequentially made the content of downstream related metabolites towards to the health volunteer group. CONCLUSION: This work has explained the mechanism of the interaction between clopidogrel and FDDP from the point of view of metabolic product change, and revealed the potential metabolic pathways it affects, which provided the new ideas for clinical medication.


Assuntos
Clopidogrel/administração & dosagem , Doença das Coronárias/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromatografia Líquida , Clopidogrel/farmacologia , Doença das Coronárias/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Interações Ervas-Drogas , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolômica/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30690396

RESUMO

Ginkgo biloba leaves extract (GBE), one of the most widely used traditional Chinese medicines worldwide, can be used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM). However, its biotransformation in liver is not fully known under the state of DM. In this study, an off-line hydrophilic interaction × reversed-phase two-dimensional liquid chromatography (HILIC × RP 2D-LC) system coupled with diode array detection (DAD) and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (q/TOF-MS) was established for the qualification and quantification of the biotransformation of GBE in normal and diabetic rat liver microsomes (RLMs). 6 metabolites were tentatively identified according to the exact molecular weights and the characteristic fragment ions provided by q/TOF-MS data. The results of metabolic stability showed that the metabolic ratio of four target compounds including quercetin, genistein, kaempferol and isorhamnetin in diabetic RLMs were significantly enhanced when comparing with normal RLMs. The results of enzyme kinetics showed that compared with normal RLMs, the Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) value of genistein was obvious increased while its maximal velocity (Vmax) and intrinsic clearance (CLint) values were significantly decreased by diabetic RLMs, and the Vmax and CLint values of kaempferol and isorhamnetin were notably enhanced while their Km values were markedly reduced. For the half-time (t1/2) values of four target compounds and the Km, Vmax and CLint values of quercetin, there were not statistically significant changes between normal and diabetic RLMs. The results suggest that the developed off-line 2D LC-DAD-q/TOF-MS method is an easy and accurate approach for the study of GBE biotransformation in RLMs and may provide the essential data for further pharmacological and clinical studies of GBE.


Assuntos
Cromatografia de Fase Reversa/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Animais , Biotransformação , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
Mol Autism ; 9: 64, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30564305

RESUMO

Background: We previously performed targeted sequencing of autism risk genes in probands from the Autism Clinical and Genetic Resources in China (ACGC) (phase I). Here, we expand this analysis to a larger cohort of patients (ACGC phase II) to better understand the prevalence, inheritance, and genotype-phenotype correlations of likely gene-disrupting (LGD) mutations for autism candidate genes originally identified in cohorts of European descent. Methods: We sequenced 187 autism candidate genes in an additional 784 probands and 85 genes in 599 probands using single-molecule molecular inversion probes. We tested the inheritance of potentially pathogenic mutations, performed a meta-analysis of phase I and phase II data and combined our results with existing exome sequence data to investigate the phenotypes of carrier parents and patients with multiple hits in different autism risk genes. Results: We validated recurrent, LGD, de novo mutations (DNMs) in 13 genes. We identified a potential novel risk gene (ZNF292), one novel gene with recurrent LGD DNMs (RALGAPB), as well as genes associated with macrocephaly (GIGYF2 and WDFY3). We identified the transmission of private LGD mutations in genes predominantly associated with DNMs and showed that parental carriers tended to share milder autism-related phenotypes. Patients that carried DNMs in two or more candidate genes show more severe phenotypes. Conclusions: We identify new risk genes and transmission of deleterious mutations in genes primarily associated with DNMs. The fact that parental carriers show milder phenotypes and patients with multiple hits are more severe supports a multifactorial model of risk.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Herança Multifatorial , Mutação , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Locos de Características Quantitativas
19.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 16159, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30385799

RESUMO

A series of chemsensors (1-4) containing fluorobenzene group based on coumarin derivatives have been developed for the selective and sensitive detection of H2S. The advantages of the synthesized fluorescent probe (compound 1) were the low detection limit (4 × 10-6 mol·L-1), good selectivity and high sensitivity which had been demonstrated through UV-vis, fluorescent titration experiments. Besides cytotoxicity test of compounds (1 and 2) was studied and the results indicated that compounds (1 and 2) showed almost no cytotoxicityat at a concentration of 150 µg·mL-1. The interacted mechanism was the thiolysis reaction of dinitrophenyl ether which had been confirmed by fluorescence and HRMS titration experiment. In addition, probe 1 can also detect HS- selectively by naked eye in pure DMSO solvent.

20.
Front Pharmacol ; 9: 1167, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30386241

RESUMO

Sangju Ganmao tablet (SGT), a well-known Chinese patent medicine used to treat cold symptoms, is made from eight herbal medicines. In this study, an off-line hydrophilic interaction × reversed-phase two-dimensional liquid chromatography (HILIC × RP 2D-LC) method was developed to comprehensively separate the chemical constituents of SGT. Through optimization of the experimental conditions, a total of 465 peaks were finally detected in SGT, and the structures of 54 selected compounds were fully identified or tentatively characterized by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS) analysis. The established 2D-LC analysis showed high orthogonality (63.62%) and approximate 11-fold improvement in peak capacity (2399 and 1099, obtained by two calculation methods), in contrast to conventional one-dimensional RPLC separation. The eight component herbs of SGT were also respectively separated by using the 2D-LC system, and we found that a total of 12 peaks detected in SGT were not discovered in any component herbs. These newly generated chemical constituents would benefit better understanding of the compatibility mechanism of the component herbs. The strategy established in this study could be used for systematic chemical comparison of SGT and its component herbs, which contributes to exploration of herbal compatibility mechanism.

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