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1.
Am Heart J ; 216: 53-61, 2019 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401443

RESUMO

Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) may be performed in the same procedure as diagnostic coronary angiography (ad hoc PCI). This study aimed to evaluate current rates of ad hoc PCI use and associated risks of adverse outcomes in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: We identified 550,742 patients with stable CAD who underwent PCI in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry CathPCI Registry from 2009 to 2017. We compared in-hospital bleeding, acute kidney injury (AKI), and mortality between patients receiving ad hoc versus non-ad hoc PCI using logistic regression with inverse probability weighted propensity adjustment. RESULTS: Between 2009 and 2017, 82.9% of patients underwent ad hoc PCI. Patients who did not undergo ad hoc PCI had higher prevalence of peripheral vascular disease, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and coronary artery bypass graft. Ad hoc PCI was associated with lower bleeding risk (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.83, 95% CI 0.79-0.87) but no differences in risks of AKI (aOR 0.95, 95% CI 0.90-1.00) or mortality (aOR 1.09, 95% CI 0.97-1.23) compared with non-ad hoc PCI. Ad hoc PCI was associated with AKI risk in patients with glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min (interaction P < .001), mortality risk in multivessel PCI (interaction P = .031), and risks of AKI and mortality in PCI of chronic total occlusions (interaction P = .045 and .002, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Ad hoc PCI is extremely common among US patients with stable CAD and is associated with lower bleeding risk but no differences in risks of AKI or mortality compared with non-ad hoc PCI.

2.
Health Serv Res ; 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429471

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare predictive analytic approaches to characterize medication nonadherence and determine under which circumstances each method may be best applied. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Medicare Parts A, B, and D claims from 2007 to 2013. STUDY DESIGN: We evaluated three statistical techniques to predict statin adherence (proportion of days covered [PDC ≥ 80 percent]) in the year following discharge: standard logistic regression with backward selection of covariates, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), and random forest. We used the C-index to assess model discrimination and decile plots comparing predicted values to observed event rates to evaluate model performance. DATA EXTRACTION: We identified 11 969 beneficiaries with an acute myocardial infarction (MI)-related admission from 2007 to 2012, who filled a statin prescription at, or shortly after, discharge. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In all models, prior statin use was the most important predictor of future adherence (OR = 3.65, 95% CI: 3.34-3.98; OR = 3.55). Although the LASSO regression model selected nearly 90 percent of all candidate predictors, all three analytic approaches had moderate discrimination (C-index ranging from 0.664 to 0.673). CONCLUSIONS: Although none of the models emerged as clearly superior, predictive analytics could proactively determine which patients are at risk of nonadherence, thus allowing for timely engagement in adherence-improving interventions.

3.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 12(8): e005562, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Female patients have historically received less aggressive lipid management than male patients. Contemporary care patterns and the potential causes for these differences are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Examining the Patient and Provider Assessment of Lipid Management Registry-a nationwide registry of outpatients with or at risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease-we compared the use of statin therapy, guideline-recommended statin dosing, and reasons for undertreatment. We specifically analyzed sex differences in statin treatment and guideline-recommended statin dosing using multivariable logistic regression. Among 5693 participants (43% women) eligible for 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Cholesterol Guideline-recommended statin treatment, women were less likely than men to be prescribed any statin therapy (67.0% versus 78.4%; P<0.001) or to receive a statin at the guideline-recommended intensity (36.7% versus 45.2%; P<0.001). Women were more likely to report having previously never been offered statin therapy (18.6% versus 13.5%; P<0.001), declined statin therapy (3.6% versus 2.0%; P<0.001), or discontinued their statin (10.9% versus 6.1%; P<0.001). Women were also less likely than men to believe statins were safe (47.9% versus 55.2%; P<0.001) or effective (68.0% versus 73.2%; P<0.001) and more likely to report discontinuing their statin because of a side effect (7.9% versus 3.6%; P<0.001). Sex differences in both overall and guideline-recommended intensity statin use persisted after adjustment for demographics, socioeconomic factors, clinical characteristics, patient beliefs, and provider characteristics (adjusted odds ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.61-0.81; P<0.001; and odds ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.73-0.92; P<0.01, respectively). Sex differences were consistent across primary and secondary prevention indications for statin treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Women eligible for statin therapy were less likely than men to be treated with any statin or guideline-recommended statin intensity. A combination of women being offered statin therapy less frequently, while declining and discontinuing treatment more frequently, accounted for these sex differences in statin use.

4.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 12(7): e005103, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The benefit of ß-blocker use beyond 3 years after a myocardial infarction (MI) has not been clearly determined. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using data from the CRUSADE Registry (Can Rapid Risk Stratification of Unstable Angina Patients Suppress Adverse Outcomes With Early Implementation of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guidelines) linked with Medicare claims, we studied patients ≥65 years of age with MI, discharged on ß-blocker therapy and alive 3 years later without a recurrent MI to evaluate ß-blocker use and dose (none, <50%, and ≥50% of the recommended target) at 3 years. Using inverse probability of treatment weighting, we then examined the adjusted association between ß-blocker use (and dose) at 3 years and the cardiovascular composite of all-cause mortality, hospitalization for recurrent MI, ischemic stroke, or heart failure over the subsequent 5 years. Of the 6893 patients ≥65 years age, ß-blocker use at 3 years was 72.2% (n=4980); 43% (n=2162) of these were treated with ≥50% of the target ß-blocker dose. ß-blocker use was not associated with a significant difference on the composite outcome (52.4% versus 55.4%, adjusted hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.88-1.03; P=0.23). Neither low dose (<50% target dose) nor high dose (≥50% target dose) ß-blocker use was associated with a significant difference in risk when compared with no ß-blocker use. Results were also consistent in patients with and without heart failure or systolic dysfunction ( P interaction =0.30). CONCLUSIONS: In this observational analysis, ß-blocker use beyond 3 years post-MI, regardless of the dose achieved, was not associated with improved outcomes. The role of prolonged ß-blocker use, particularly in older adults, needs further investigation.

5.
Am Heart J ; 215: 167-177, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hybrid revascularization, combining percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), may be used differently across hospitals. How outcomes compare with multivessel PCI is unknown. METHODS: We studied hybrid revascularization use in patients in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry from 2009 to 2017 who underwent PCI for multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD) at 711 hospitals, excluding patients with prior CABG, acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction, emergency/salvage CABG, or PCI without stent placement. In-hospital mortality associated with hybrid revascularization versus multivessel PCI was compared using a multivariable logistic model. RESULTS: Among 775,000 patients with multivessel CAD, 1,126 (0.2%) underwent hybrid revascularization and 256,865 (33%) were treated with multivessel PCI. Although 358 (50.4%) hospitals performed hybrid revascularizations, most (97.3%) performed <1 per year. Most patients (68.7%) treated with hybrid revascularization underwent CABG after PCI; only 79.4% of these patients were discharged on P2Y12 inhibitors. Patients who underwent hybrid revascularization were younger and more likely to have significant left main or proximal left anterior descending disease. Unadjusted in-hospital mortality rates were higher among patients treated with hybrid revascularization than multivessel PCI (1.5% vs 0.9%, P = .02), a difference that was not significant after multivariable adjustment (odds ratio = 1.54, 95% CI = 0.92-2.59). CONCLUSIONS: Hybrid revascularization remains an infrequently used treatment modality for multivessel CAD. Risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality was no different between hybrid revascularization and multivessel PCI; however, patients who underwent hybrid revascularization were less likely to be discharged on P2Y12 inhibitor therapy despite stent implantation.

8.
Am Heart J ; 214: 184-193, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the proportion of hospitals in the United States that offer clinical trial enrollment opportunities and how patient outcomes differ between hospitals that do and do not participate in clinical trials. METHODS: In the nationwide Chest Pain-MI registry, we described the proportion of hospitals that enrolled patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) in clinical trials from 2009 to 2014. Hospital-level adherence to every eligible MI performance measure was compared between hospitals that did and did not enroll patients in clinical trials. Using linked Medicare data, we also compared 1-year major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE: death, MI, heart failure, or stroke) among patients ≥65 years old treated at trial versus nontrial hospitals. RESULTS: Among 766 hospitals, 430 (56.1%) enrolled ≥1 MI patient in a clinical trial during the study period, but the proportion of hospitals enrolling patients in clinical trials declined from 36.8% in 2009 to 26.6% in 2014. Complete adherence to performance measures was delivered to a greater proportion of patients at trial hospitals than nontrial hospitals (72.6% vs 64.9%, P < .001; adjusted OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.03-1.12). One-year MACE rates were also lower for trial hospitals (adjusted HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.93-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Hospitals are becoming less likely to engage in clinical trials for patients with MI. Patients admitted to hospitals that participated in clinical trials more often received guideline-adherent care and had better long-term outcomes.

9.
Am Heart J ; 214: 113-124, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adherence to guideline-recommended statin recommendations in the United States is suboptimal. Patients' likelihood to be treated according to guidelines may vary by the practice in which they are treated. METHODS: Variation in the use of statin therapy in 5445 patients, with known or at high risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and meeting a statin treatment indication, was examined across 74 US Patient and Provider Assessment of Lipid Management (PALM) Registry clinics. Multivariable generalized linear mixed modeling was used to determine the median odds ratio (MOR) for statin use and 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline-recommended statin intensity by practice. MOR quantifies between-practice variation by comparing the odds of receiving guideline-recommended statin treatment in a patient from a randomly selected practice with a similar patient from another random practice. Risk-adjusted low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) control (<100 and <70 mg/dL) was compared among practice tertiles based on percentage of eligible patients receiving recommended statin intensity. RESULTS: Among 74 practices (43.2% cardiology) comprised of 300 healthcare providers enrolling 5445 patients (56.2% with ASCVD), statin use at the guideline-recommended intensity at practices varied widely (12.7-71.4%; adjusted MOR 1.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.35-1.64). Results were consistent when evaluated for any statin use overall (adjusted MOR 1.75, 95% CI 1.48-1.99) and when stratified by primary versus secondary prevention patients. Relative to practices with lowest or mid-tertile statin use of statins, highest tertile clinics were more frequently cardiology practices (68.0% vs 48.0% vs 12.5%, P < .001). Compared with lowest tertile clinics, patients at highest tertile clinics were more likely to achieve LDL-C <70 mg/dL (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.49, 95% CI 1.08-2.04) and <100 mg/dL (adjusted OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.41-2.25). CONCLUSIONS: US clinics varied widely in their adherence to guideline recommendations for statin therapy, which contributed to significant differences in LDL-C levels.

11.
Am Heart J ; 214: 46-53, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some studies suggest that black patients may have worse outcomes after drug-eluting stent (DES) placement. There are limited data characterizing long-term outcomes by race. The objective was to compare long-term outcomes between black and white patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with DES implantation. METHODS: We analyzed 915 black and 3,559 white (n = 4,474) consecutive patients who underwent DES placement at Duke University Medical Center from 2005 through 2013. Over 6-year follow up, we compared rates of myocardial infarction (MI), all-cause mortality, revascularization, and major bleeding between black and white patients. A multivariable Cox regression model was fit to adjust for potentially confounding variables. Dual-antiplatelet therapy use over time was determined by patient follow-up surveys and compared by race. RESULTS: Black patients were younger; were more often female; had higher body mass indexes; had more diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and renal disease; and had lower median household incomes than white patients (P < .001). At 6 years after DES placement, black relative to white patients had higher unadjusted rates of MI (12.1% vs 10.1%, hazard ratio 1.25, 95% CI 1.00-1.57, P = .05) and major bleeding (17.8% vs 14.3%, hazard ratio 1.28, 95% CI 1.07-1.54, P = .01), but there were no significant differences in other outcomes. After multivariable adjustment, there were no statistically significant racial differences in any of these outcomes at 6 years. Similarly, dual-antiplatelet therapy use was comparable between racial groups. CONCLUSIONS: Unadjusted rates of MI and major bleeding over long-term follow up were higher among black patients compared to white patients, but these differences may be explained by racial differences in comorbid disease.

12.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(5): e007451, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical event committees are commonly employed for event validation in clinical studies, but little is known about the comparative performance of administrative claims data versus clinician-triggered event adjudication for ascertainment of adverse events in structural heart disease studies. METHODS AND RESULTS: Medicare claims were linked to 418 patients >65 years of age who underwent transcatheter mitral valve repair (MitraClip) for severe mitral regurgitation from 2007 to 2013 as part of the EVEREST II (Endovascular Valve Edge-to-Edge Repair Study II) High-Risk Registry or the REALISM (Real World Expanded Multicenter Study of the MitraClip System) Continued-Access Registry. Each registry adjudicated mortality, heart failure hospitalization, renal failure, ventilation, and bleeding/transfusion within 1 year. Concordance of claims-based outcomes with events was assessed in 3 ways: 1-year occurrence, cumulative incidence, and synchrony of first events. For event occurrence, positive predictive value (PPV) of claims versus adjudication was the highest for mortality (PPV=97%) and heart failure hospitalization (PPV=69%) but lower for bleeding (PPV=40%) and renal failure (PPV=19%). Whereas claims-based cumulative incidence for mortality, heart failure hospitalization, and renal failure were consistent with clinician-triggered adjudication, incidence curves for bleeding events and ventilation diverged, with claims identifying a greater number of events. When events were detected by both methods, however, over 75% of event dates matched exactly. Mitral valve reinterventions were identified through claims with perfect sensitivity and specificity relative to physician adjudication. CONCLUSIONS: Ascertainment of mortality, heart failure hospitalization, and renal failure was highly concordant between physician adjudication and administrative claims. Further work is necessary to determine the role of administrative claims in event ascertainment in both prospective and retrospective studies of structural heart disease.

13.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(10): e012236, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070112

RESUMO

Background Although recommended in the guidelines, the safety of chronic P2Y12 inhibitor therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease ( CKD ) after an acute myocardial infarction ( MI ) is not well studied. Methods and Results The TRANSLATE -ACS (Treatment with ADP Inhibitors: Longitudinal Assessment of Treatment Patterns and Events After Acute Coronary Syndrome) study included 11 108 MI patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention and discharged alive on a P2Y12 inhibitor from 233 US hospitals. We compared rates of GUSTO (Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Arteries) severe/moderate bleeding and premature discontinuation of P2Y12 inhibitor by 1 year after MI among patients with varying CKD severity. The majority of MI patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention had CKD : 42% had stage 2 (mild), 27% had stage 3 (moderate), and 4% had stage ≥4 (severe/end stage). Higher potency P2Y12 inhibitors (prasugrel or ticagrelor) were prescribed at discharge in 39%, 35%, 23%, and 15% ( P<0.01) of patients with stages 1, 2, 3, and ≥4, respectively. One-year GUSTO severe/moderate bleeding rates were higher with each stage of CKD : 1% in patients with CKD stage 1 or no CKD , 2% with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.61 (95% CI, 1.05-2.35) for CKD stage 2, 4% with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.92 (95% CI, 1.21-3.02) for CKD stage 3, and 10% with an adjusted hazard ratio of 2.44 (95% CI, 1.40-4.23) for patients with CKD stage ≥4. By 1 year after MI , 16% of patients overall had prematurely discontinued P2Y12 inhibitor therapy; however, this rate was not largely affected by CKD stage. Premature P2Y12 inhibitor-discontinuation rates were higher for patients discharged on higher potency P2Y12 inhibitors in patients with CKD stage ≥2 ( P<0.01). Conclusions CKD severity was associated with a higher bleeding risk among those with acute MI treated with a P2Y12 inhibitor. Patients with more advanced CKD were not significantly more likely than those with less advance CKD to prematurely discontinue P2Y12 inhibitor therapy.

14.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(8): e011606, 2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955406

RESUMO

Background We sought to examine patient characteristics, peri-infarction invasive and pharmacologic management, and in-hospital major bleeding in myocardial infarction patients with atrial fibrillation or flutter, based on home anticoagulant use. Methods and Results We stratified patients by home anticoagulant: (1) no anticoagulant, (2) warfarin, and (3) direct oral anticoagulants ( DOAC s) among ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction ( STEMI ) and non-STEMI (NSTEMI) patients with atrial fibrillation or flutter treated at 761 US hospitals in the ACTION (Acute Coronary Treatment and Intervention Outcomes Network) Registry from January 2015 to December 2016. The primary outcome of our study was in-hospital major bleeding. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the independent association between home anticoagulant and in-hospital major bleeding. Among 6471 STEMI patients with atrial fibrillation or flutter, 15.7% were on warfarin and 13.0% on DOAC s; among 19 954 NSTEMI patients, 22.8% were on warfarin and 15.4% on DOAC s. In STEMI , door-to-balloon times were slightly higher in those on anticoagulant, with similar rates of angiography within 24 hours in the 3 groups. NSTEMI patients on anticoagulant were less likely to undergo angiography (49.3% no anticoagulant, 33.4% on warfarin, 36.4% on DOAC s; P<0.01) or percutaneous coronary intervention within 24 hours (21.1% no anticoagulant, 14.3% on warfarin, 15.9% on DOAC s; P<0.01). After multivariate adjustment, use of home warfarin (odds ratio: 1.00 [95% CI , 0.79-1.27] in STEMI and 1.13 [95% CI , 0.97-1.30] in NSTEMI ) or DOAC (odds ratio: 0.93 [95% CI , 0.73-1.20] in STEMI and 0.97 [95% CI , 0.81-1.16] in NSTEMI ) was not associated with increased in-hospital major bleeding compared with no anticoagulant. Conclusions In routine clinical practice, home warfarin or DOAC therapy is not associated with an increased risk of in-hospital bleeding compared with no anticoagulant.

15.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(8): 709-717, 2019 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to describe variability in intensive care unit (ICU) utilization for patients with uncomplicated ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), evaluate the proportion of these patients who developed in-hospital complications requiring ICU care, and assess whether ICU use patterns and complication rates vary across categories of first medical contact to device times. BACKGROUND: In the era of rapid primary percutaneous coronary intervention, ICUs may be overutilized as patients presenting with STEMI are less likely to develop complications requiring ICU care. METHODS: Using data from the Chest Pain-MI Registry linked to Medicare claims, the authors examined patterns of ICU utilization among hemodynamically stable patients with STEMI ≥65 years of age treated with uncomplicated primary percutaneous coronary intervention, stratified by timing of reperfusion: early (first medical contact-to-device time ≤60 min), intermediate (61 to 90 min), or late (>90 min). RESULTS: Of 19,507 patients with STEMI treated at 707 hospitals, 82.3% were treated in ICUs, with a median ICU stay of 1 day (interquartile range [IQR]: 1 to 2 days). The median FMC-to-device time was 79 min (IQR: 63 to 99 min); 22.0% of patients had early, 44.8% intermediate, and 33.2% late reperfusion. ICU utilization rates did not differ between patients with early, intermediate, and late reperfusion times (82%, 83%, and 82%; p for trend = 0.44). Overall, 3,159 patients (16.2%) developed complications requiring ICU care while hospitalized: 3.7% died, 3.7% had cardiac arrest, 8.7% shock, 0.9% stroke, 4.1% high-grade atrioventricular block requiring treatment, and 5.7% respiratory failure. Patients with longer FMC-to-device times were more likely to develop at least 1 of these complications (early 13.4%, intermediate 15.7%, and late 18.7%; p for trend <0.001; adjusted odds ratio [early as reference] for intermediate: 1.13 [95% confidence interval: 1.01 to 1.25]; adjusted odds ratio for late: 1.22 [95% confidence interval: 1.08 to 1.37]). CONCLUSIONS: Although >80% of stable patients with STEMI are treated in the ICU after primary percutaneous coronary intervention, the risk for developing a complication requiring ICU care is 16%. Implementing a risk-based triage strategy, inclusive of factors such as degree of reperfusion delay, could optimize ICU utilization for patients with STEMI.

16.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(8): e011322, 2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975005

RESUMO

Background Hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction (MI) in the United States is both common and expensive, but those features alone provide little insight into cost-saving opportunities. Methods and Results To understand the cost drivers during hospitalization for acute MI and in the following year, we prospectively studied 11 969 patients with acute MI undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention at 233 US hospitals (2010-2013) from the TRANSLATE-ACS (Treatment With ADP Receptor Inhibitors: Longitudinal Assessment of Treatment Patterns and Events After Acute Coronary Syndrome) registry. Baseline costs were collected in a random subset (n=4619 patients, 54% ST-segment-elevation MI [STEMI]), while follow-up costs out to 1 year were collected for all patients. The mean index length of stay was 3.1 days (for both STEMI and non-STEMI) and mean intensive care unit length of stay was 1.2 days (1.4 days for STEMI and 1.0 days for non-STEMI). Index hospital costs averaged $18 931 ($19 327 for STEMI, $18 465 for non-STEMI), with 45% catheterization laboratory-related and 20% attributable to postprocedure hospital stay. Patient factors, including severity of illness and extent of coronary disease, and hospital characteristics, including for profit status and geographic region, identified significant variations in cost. Intensive care was used for 53% of non-STEMI and increased costs by $3282. Postdischarge 1-year costs averaged $8037, and 48% of patients were rehospitalized (half within 2 months and 57% with a cardiovascular diagnosis). Conclusions While much of the cost of patients with acute MI treated with percutaneous coronary intervention is probably not modifiable by the care team, cost reductions are still possible through quality-preserving practice efficiencies, such as need-based use rather than routine use of intensive care unit for patients with stable non-STEMI. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00097591.

17.
Circulation ; 139(15): 1763-1765, 2019 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958715
18.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(7): e011765, 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30913959

RESUMO

Background Many adults eligible for statin therapy for cardiovascular disease prevention are untreated. Our objective was to investigate patient-reported reasons for statin underutilization, including noninitiation, refusal, and discontinuation. Methods and Results This study included the 5693 adults recommended for statin therapy in the PALM (Patient and Provider Assessment of Lipid Management) registry. Patient surveys evaluated statin experience, reasons for declining or discontinuing statins, and beliefs about statins and cardiovascular disease risk. Overall, 1511 of 5693 adults (26.5%) were not on treatment. Of those not on a statin, 894 (59.2%) reported never being offered a statin, 153 (10.1%) declined a statin, and 464 (30.7%) had discontinued therapy. Women (relative risk: 1.22), black adults (relative risk: 1.48), and those without insurance (relative risk: 1.38) were most likely to report never being offered a statin. Fear of side effects and perceived side effects were the most common reasons cited for declining or discontinuing a statin. Compared with statin users, those who declined or discontinued statins were less likely to believe statins are safe (70.4% of current users vs. 36.9% of those who declined and 37.4% of those who discontinued) or effective (86.3%, 67.4%, and 69.1%, respectively). Willingness to take a statin was high; 67.7% of those never offered and 59.7% of patients who discontinued a statin would consider initiating or retrying a statin. Conclusions More than half of patients eligible for statin therapy but not on treatment reported never being offered one by their doctor. Concern about side effects was the leading reason for statin refusal or discontinuation. Many patients were willing to reconsider statin therapy if offered.

19.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(4): e011968, 2019 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773969

RESUMO

See Article by Gu et al.

20.
JAMA Cardiol ; 4(2): 120-127, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30649146

RESUMO

Importance: Lack of insurance is associated with worse care and outcomes among adults hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). It is unclear whether states' decision to expand Medicaid eligibility under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in 2014 were associated with improved quality of care and outcomes among low-income patients hospitalized with AMI. Objective: To investigate whether rates of uninsurance, quality of care, and outcomes changed among patients hospitalized for AMI 3 years after states elected to expand Medicaid compared with nonexpansion states. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study completed at hospitals participating in National Cardiovascular Data Registry Acute Coronary Treatment and Intervention Outcomes Network Registry. Participants were patients younger than 65 years hospitalized for AMI from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2016. Exposures: State Medicaid expansion in 2014. Main Outcomes and Measures: Rates of uninsured and Medicaid-insured hospitalizations for AMI in states that expanded Medicaid vs those that did not. Comparison of in-hospital care quality, procedure use, and mortality between expansion and nonexpansion states for the years prior to and after Medicaid expansion. Hierarchical logistic regressions models were used to assess the association between Medicaid expansion and outcomes. Results: The initial cohort included 325 343 patients. Uninsured AMI hospitalizations declined in expansion states (18.0% [4395 of 24 358 hospitalizations] to 8.4% [2638 of 31 382 hospitalizations]) and more modestly in nonexpansion states (25.6% [7963 of 31 137 hospitalizations] to 21.1% [8668 of 41 120 hospitalizations]) from 2012 to 2016 (P < .001 difference in trend expansion vs nonexpansion). Medicaid coverage increased from 7.5% (1818 of 24 358 hospitalizations) to 14.4% (4502 of 31 382 hospitalizations) in expansion states and 6.2% (1924 of 31 137 hospitalizations) to 6.6% (2717 of 41 120 hospitalizations) in nonexpansion states (P < .001). The low-income cohort included 55 737 patients across 765 sites. In expansion states, low-income adults' odds of receipt of defect-free care increased (76.3% to 75.9%, adjusted odds ratio 1.11; 95% CI, 1.02-1.21) but to a lesser degree than in nonexpansion states (72.8% to 74.5%, adjusted odds ratio, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.30-1.47; P for interaction < .001). There was no change in use of most procedures (ie, percutaneous coronary intervention for non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction) in expansion compared with nonexpansion states. Improvement in in-hospital mortality was similar between expansion and nonexpansion states (3.2% to 2.8%, adjusted odds ratio, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.77-1.12 vs 3.3% to 3.0%, adjusted odds ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.73-0.99; P for interaction = .48). Conclusions and Relevance: Medicaid expansion was associated with a significant reduction in rates of uninsurance among patients hospitalized with AMI. Quality of care and outcomes did not improve among low-income adults in expansion compared with nonexpansion states. Hospital care for AMI may be less sensitive to insurance than has been recognized in the past.

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