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1.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(1): 447-451, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383192

RESUMO

The electrical and optical properties of micro-light emitting diodes (µ-LEDs), including current-voltage (I-V), capacitance-voltage (C-V) curves, photoluminescence (PL) as well as electroluminescence (EL) spectra have been measured and analyzed. It is found that the unit area emitting intensity of small size µ-LED is stronger that of big size µ-LED at the same conditions, due to the enhancement of both the internal quantum efficiency ηint and extraction efficiency Cex. The present method of utilizing the µ-LED for improving the unit area brightness of LEDs is applicable to high efficiency surface emitting device on GaN-on-silicon platform.

2.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(4): 2622-2627, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492286

RESUMO

Black TiO2-graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites are synthesized via the pulsed laser ablating TiO2 powders and GO in deionized water. The simple process enables the preparation of black TiO2 nanoparticles and anchors them onto the GO sheet in one step. The TiO2-GO nanocomposites exhibit greatly enhancement for photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B (RB) dye in comparison with the pristine and the ablated black TiO2. The heterojunction structure plays an important role in efficient charge separation, which reduces the recombination of photogenerated electrons and holes. The unique two-dimensional structure of GO enables the composite to have a large specific surface area, and prevents the agglomeration of TiO2 nanoparticles, which are beneficial to the photocatalytic performance of the composite.

3.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 25: 593-605, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585906

RESUMO

Fibrosis, or the excess deposition of fibrous tissue, is a critical feature of chronic kidney disease. Here, using renal fibrotic rat as a model, which was established via 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx), the role of TMEM45A transmembrane protein in renal fibrosis was investigated. The results indicated that 5/6 Nx gradually led to histopathological abnormalities and loss of kidney function in rats, which correlated with upregulation of TMEM45A and Notch1. Interestingly, in NRK-49F renal cells, overexpression of TMEM45A resulted in up-regulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components as well as induction of Notch-1 and Jagged-1. These effects were weakened by DAPT, an inhibitor of the Notch pathway, suggesting an important role of Notch signaling in mediating the functions of TMEM45A in NRK-49F cells Moreover, TMEM45A knockdown by TMEM45A siRNA in NRK-49F cells diminished TGF-b1-induced upregulation of ECM components, inflammatory cytokines, Notch-1 and Jagged-1. Correspondingly, TGF-beta 1 exhibited pro-fibrogenic like effect in NRK-49F cells and induced TMEM45A and Jagged1/Notch expression. Collectively, these results demonstrate that TMEM45A plays an important role in renal fibrosis by regulating ECM components and Jagged1/Notch pathway.

4.
Carbohydr Polym ; 227: 115280, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590855

RESUMO

A water-soluble polysaccharide from Monostroma nitidum, designated MWS, was isolated using water extraction, anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. MWS was a sulfated glucuronorhamnan consisting of →3)-α-l-Rhap-(1→, →4)-ß-d-GlcpA-(1→ and →2)-α-l-Rhap-(1→ units. Sulfate ester groups located at C-4/C-2 of →3)-α-l-Rhap-(1→ and C-4/C-3 of →2)-α-l-Rhap-(1→ units. In in vitro tests, it was proved that MWS possessed broad spectrum against different viruses, especially for enterovirus 71 (EV71) with nearly no toxicity in relation to cell lines used. MWS may largely inhibit EV71 infection before or during viral adsorption through binding to virus particles and block some early steps of virus life cycle by down-regulating host phosphoinositide 3-kinase /protein kinase B signaling pathway. Intramuscular injection of MWS markedly reduced viral titers in EV71-infected mice. The data demonstrated that MWS could have great promising to become an antiviral drug for prevention and therapy of EV71 infection.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Large-scale studies showed that the SNP rs1764391 of Cx37 gene plays a pivotal role in the occurrence and development of AMI. Published results, however, were highly controversial. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the association between SNP rs1764391 of Cx37 and disease-susceptibility, several risk factors, gene-environment interactions of AMI in Guangxi Han Chinese. METHODS: In this study, 344 healthy controls and 344 AMI patients of Han Chinese were enrolled. The TaqMan assay was implemented to confirm the genotypes. Differences in genotype and allele frequencies of SNP rs1764391 were compared in both the AMI and control groups. RESULTS: Significant differences in TT genotype frequencies of SNP rs1764391 between the AMI and control groups were detected (P < 0.05). In the context of gender stratification, the result was also statistically different in women (P < 0.05). Age, BMI, diabetes, high blood pressure, smoking and TC were closely correlated to the risk of AMI (P < 0.05 for each). HDL-C was negatively correlated to the risk of AMI (P < 0.001). Significant interactions were observed between presence of the SNP rs1764391 CC genotype and BMI, smoking or alcohol consumed (P < 0.017 for each). CONCLUSIONS: The TT genotype of Cx37 SNP rs1764391 was identified as a predisposing factor for AMI, especially in women. This genetic variant may prove to be an important tool for AMI risk stratification, and thus might be a useful target for therapeutic intervention to further improve prognosis in high-risk patients.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567083

RESUMO

In this paper, we develop a concise but efficient network architecture called linear compressing based skipconnecting network (LCSCNet) for image super-resolution. Compared with two representative network architectures with skip connections, ResNet and DenseNet, a linear compressing layer is designed in LCSCNet for skip connection, which connects former feature maps and distinguishes them from newly-explored feature maps. In this way, the proposed LCSCNet enjoys the merits of the distinguish feature treatment of DenseNet and the parametereconomic form of ResNet. Moreover, to better exploit hierarchical information from both low and high levels of various receptive fields in deep models, inspired by gate units in LSTM, we also propose an adaptive element-wise fusion strategy with multisupervised training. Experimental results in comparison with state-of-the-art algorithms validate the effectiveness of LCSCNet.

7.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567202

RESUMO

The pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation (PPTIDs) are extremely rare tumor entities. They exhibit low-risk (grade II) and high-risk (grade III) malignancies, which may lead to different therapies and prognosis. However, the histological grading criteria remains elusive, and novel biomarkers may be helpful to differentiate the grade of PPTIDs. Immunohistochemical staining for CD24, PRAME, POU4F2, and HOXD13, and their clinicopathologic analyses were performed in pineal parenchymal tumors and other tumors in the pineal region. CD24 and PRAME were expressed in 9/11 (81.8%) and 8/11(72.7%) cases of PPTIDs grade III, compared with 6/18 (33.3%) and 5/18(27.8%) cases of PPTIDs grade II. The levels of CD24 and PRAME were significantly higher in PPTIDs grade III than grade II. However, there were no differences of HOXD13 and POU4F2 expression levels in PPTIDs grade II and grade III. Interestingly, high expression of CD24 and PRAME were prevalently found in high-grade tumors of the central nervous system. In addition, PPTIDs patients with high expression levels of CD24 and PRAME exhibited a significant shorter survival time. The results of PPTIDs grading by CD24 and PRAME were mostly consistent with WHO criteria, except for two cases. According to the prognostic information of patients, we found that the combination of CD24 and PRAME expression for grading PPTIDs might be more valuable than WHO criteria only. CD24 and PRAME are novel markers for grading and prognostic evaluation of PPTIDs that may be helpful to determine the therapeutic decision for PPTIDs patients.

8.
Phys Rev E ; 100(2-1): 022316, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574694

RESUMO

Real-world systems, ranging from social and biological to infrastructural, can be modeled by multilayer networks. Promoting spreading dynamics in multilayer networks may significantly facilitate electronic advertising and predicting popular scientific publications. In this study, we propose a strategy for promoting the spreading dynamics of the susceptible-infected-susceptible model by adding one interconnecting edge between two isolated networks. By applying a perturbation method to the discrete Markovian chain approach, we derive an index that estimates the spreading prevalence in the interconnected network. The index can be interpreted as a variant of Katz centrality, where the adjacency matrix is replaced by a weighted matrix with weights depending on the dynamical information of the spreading process. Edges that are less infected at one end and its neighborhood but highly infected at the other will have larger weights. We verify the effectiveness of the proposed strategy on small networks by exhaustively examining all latent edges and demonstrate that performance is optimal or near-optimal. For large synthetic and real-world networks, the proposed method always outperforms other static strategies such as connecting nodes with the highest degree or eigenvector centrality.

9.
J Transl Med ; 17(1): 335, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway plays an essential role in CVB3-induced diseases. We previously demonstrated microRNA-21 has potential inhibitory effect on the MAP2K3 which locates upstream of P38 MAPK and was upregulated in mouse hearts upon CVB3 infection. However, the effect and underlying mechanism of miRNA-21 on CVB3 infection remain unclear. METHODS: We detected continuous changes of cellular miRNA-21 and P38 MAPK proteins expression profiling post CVB3 infection in vitro within 12 h. P38 MAPK signaling was inhibited by the specific inhibitor, small interfering RNA and miRNA-21 mimic in vitro, CVB3 replication, cell apoptosis rate and proliferation were detected. Viral load in the mice heart, cardiomyocyte apoptosis rate and histological of the heart were also detected in the mice model of viral myocarditis pretreated with miRNA-21-lentivirus. RESULTS: We observed significant upregulation of miRNA-21 expression followed by suppression of the MAP2K3/P38 MAPK signaling in CVB3-infected Hela cells. The inactivation of the MAP2K3/P38 MAPK signaling by P38 MAPK specific inhibitor, small interfering RNA against MAP2K3, or miRNA-21 overexpression significantly inhibited viral progeny release from CVB3-infected cells. Mechanistically, when compared with control miRNA, miRNA-21 showed no effect on capsid protein VP1 expression and viral load within host cells, while significantly reversing CVB3-induced caspase-3 activation and cell apoptosis rate, further promoting proliferation of infected cells, which indicates the inhibitory effect of miRNA-21 on CVB3 progeny release. In the in vivo study, when compared with control miRNA, miRNA-21 pretreatment remarkably inactivated the MAP2K3/P38 MAPK signaling in mice and protected them against CVB3 infection as evidenced by significantly alleviated cell apoptosis rate, reduced viral titers, necrosis in the heart as well as by remarkably prolonged survival time. CONCLUSIONS: miRNA-21 were reverse correlated with P38 MAPK activation post CVB3 infection, miRNA-21 overexpression significantly inhibited viral progeny release and decreased myocytes apoptosis rate in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that miRNA-21 may serve as a potential therapeutic agent against CVB3 infection through targeting the MAP2K3/P38 MAPK signaling.

10.
Molecules ; 24(19)2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597295

RESUMO

Quality assessment of Cortex Periplocae remains a challenge, due to its complex chemical profile. This study aims to investigate the chemical components of Cortex Periplocae, including its non-volatile and volatile constituents, via liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) assays. The established strategy manifested that Cortex Periplocae from different producing areas was determined by identifying 27 chemical markers with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography, coupled with quadrupole tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS), including four main groups of cardiac glycosides, organic acids, aldehydes, and oligosaccharides. These groups' variable importance in the projection (VIP) were greater than 1. Simultaneously, the samples were divided into four categories, combined with multivariate statistical analysis. In addition, in order to further understand the difference in the content of samples from different producing areas, nine chemical markers of Cortex Periplocae from 14 different producing areas were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), and results indicated that the main effective constituents of Cortex Periplocae varied with places of origin. Furthermore, in GC-MS analysis, samples were divided into three groups with multivariate statistical analysis; in addition, 22 differential components whose VIP were greater than 1 were identified, which were principally volatile oils and fatty acids. Finally, the relative contents of seven main volatile constituents were obtained, which varied extremely with the producing areas. The results showed that the LC-MS/MS and GC-MS assays, combined with multivariate statistical analysis for Cortex Periplocae, provided a comprehensive and effective means for its quality evaluation.

11.
J Neurosci ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597725

RESUMO

Although several genes have been identified to promote axon regeneration in the central nervous system, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which mammalian axon regeneration is regulated is still limited and fragmented. Here by using female mouse sensory axon and optic nerve regeneration as model systems, we reveal an unexpected role of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) in regulation of axon regeneration. We also provide evidence that TERT and p53 act downstream of c-Myc to control sensory axon regeneration. More importantly, overexpression of p53 in sensory neurons and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is sufficient to promote sensory axon and optic never regeneration, respectively. The study reveals a novel c-Myc-TERT-p53 signaling pathway, expanding horizons for novel approaches promoting CNS axon regeneration.Significance StatementDespite significant progress during the past decade, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which mammalian CNS axon regeneration is regulated is still fragmented. By using sensory axon and optic nerve regeneration as model systems, the study revealed an unexpected role of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) in regulation of axon regeneration. The results also delineated a c-Myc-TERT-p53 pathway in controlling axon growth. Lastly, our results demonstrated that p53 alone was sufficient to promote sensory axon and optic nerve regeneration in vivo Collectively, the study not only revealed a new mechanisms underlying mammalian axon regeneration, but also expanded the pool of potential targets that can be manipulated to enhance CNS axon regeneration.

12.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 36(10): 1022-1024, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598951

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the genetic basis for a fetus suspected for congenital nephrotic syndrome of Finland (CNF). METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral and umbilical cord blood samples derived from both parents and the fetus. Potential variants were detected by using next-generation sequencing. Suspected variants were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: The fetus was found to carry compound heterozygous variants c.1440+1G>A and c.925G>T of the NPHS1 gene, which were respectively inherited from its mother and father. CONCLUSION: Identification of the compound heterozygous NPHS1 variants has enabled diagnosis of CNF in the fetus and genetic counseling for the affected family.

13.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 7605-7616, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to explore the impact of Ras homolog C/Rho-associated coiled-protein kinase (Rho/ROCK) signaling pathways intervention on biological characteristics of the human multiple myeloma cell lines RPMI-8226 and U266 cells, and to investigate the expression of RhoC, ROCK1, and ROCK2 in RPMI-8226 and U266 cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS RPMI8226 and U266 cell lines were treated by 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-Dc), trichostatin A (TSA), RhoA inhibitor CCG-1423, Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766, and ROCK inhibitor fasudil. Cell proliferation was examined by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and clone formation. Cell apoptosis was examined by flow cytometry and TUNEL assay. The mRNA and protein expressions of RhoC, ROCK1, and ROCK2 were detected by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot, respectively. RESULTS CCG-1423, NSC23766, and fasudil could significantly inhibit the proliferation of RPMI8226 and U266 cells. The inhibitory effect was dose- and time-dependent within a certain concentration range (P<0.05). After treatment with CCG-1423, NSC23766, and fasudil for 24 hours, the apoptosis rates of RPMI8226 and U266 cells were significantly higher than those of the control group, which were dose-dependent (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the mRNA and protein expressions of RhoC, ROCK1, and ROCK2 in RPMI8226 and U266 cells were significantly decreased with single 5-Aza-Dc or TSA treatment. However, the effects were obviously stronger after combined treatment of 5-Aza-CdR and TSA (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS We found that 5-Aza-Dc and TSA can effectively decrease the mRNA and protein expressions of RhoC, ROCK1, and ROCK2. Furthermore, Rho and ROCK inhibitors significantly inhibit cell growth and induce cell apoptosis in the human multiple myeloma cell lines RPMI-8226 and U266.

14.
Arch Dermatol Res ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599341

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the association of autoimmune bullous diseases [bullous pemphigoid (BP) and pemphigus vulgaris (PV)] with radiotherapy (RT) among patients with breast cancer from a population-based Taiwanese database. The case-control study included 365 women with BP or PV and 1460 randomly selected propensity score-matched controls without BP or PV. We compared the prevalences of prior RT and breast cancer between the cases and controls. In addition, we performed multivariable logistic regression analysis to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for developing BP or PV according to previous RT and/or breast cancer status. Among the 1825 subjects, 680 patients (37.16%) had previously undergone RT, including 196 cases (53.41%) and 484 controls (33.08%) (P < 0.001). 288 of the 1825 subjects (15.78%) had breast cancer, including 90 cases (24.66%) and 198 controls (13.56%) (P < 0.001). The multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated that, after adjusting for comorbidities, urbanization level, level of care, and monthly income, elevated risks of developing BP or PV were associated with prior RT (adjusted OR: 1.744, 95% CI 1.343-2.511) and having breast cancer (adjusted OR: 1.574, 95% CI 1.025-1.889). An even greater risk of BP or PV was associated with the combination of previous RT plus having breast cancer (adjusted OR: 2.896, 95% CI 1.882-7.013). The present study's findings suggest that a significantly elevated risk of developing BP or PV is associated with previous RT and/or breast cancer.

15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(41): e17549, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study aimed to evaluate and compare the dosimetric parameters of incidental irradiation to internal mammary node (IMN) from inverse intensity-modulated radiotherapy (I-IMRT) and field-in-field IMRT (F-IMRT), and 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) in patients after breast-conservation surgery (BCS). METHODS: Eighty-four patients with BCS were selected. The breast, tumor bed, and IMN, including intercostal spaces (ICS) 1 to 3, were contoured. Three plans were generated. The prescription doses for the breast and tumor bed were 50.4 Gy/28 F and 60.2 Gy/28 F, respectively. If there was no tumor bed boost, patient was treated with 50 Gy/25 F for the whole breast only. The IMN was not included in planning target volume. RESULTS: The median mean dose (Dmean) of the IMNtotal (ICS 1-3) was 2740.2 cGy, 2973.9 cGy, and 2951.4 cGy for I-IMRT, F-IMRT, and 3D-CRT, respectively. Differences were not detected between any of the plans. After separating ICS 1 to 3 for further analysis, neither of the Dmean of ICS 1 to 2 was significantly different between the plans. However, for ICS 3, the median Dmean was highest for I-IMRT, and those for 3D-CRT and F-IMRT were not significantly different. After separating the 3 techniques for further analysis, the median Dmean was highest in ICS 3 and lowest in ICS 1 for all the 3 techniques. CONCLUSION: All 3 techniques failed to attain an adequate dose to cure subclinical disease, and there were no significant differences among the 3 techniques. It is risky to avoid IMN irradiation (IMNI) using any of the 3 techniques during whole-breast radiotherapy in women with indications for elective IMNI. However, in era of systematic therapy, whether the incidental dose could meet clinical acquirements needs further follow-up.

16.
Nonlinear Dynamics Psychol Life Sci ; 23(4): 491-515, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586499

RESUMO

The number of people living with HIV (PLWH) increases rapidly with advancement in antiretroviral therapy. Suicide prevention is challenging, particularly for PLWH because of the negative impact of HIV-related stigma and social capital reduction. However, only a small proportion of the variance in suicide risk can be explained by these variables if a linear paradigm is used as guidance. In this study, we tested a nonlinear cusp catastrophe modeling. Participants (N = 523) were PLWH selected through a risk venue-based method in Wuhan, a provincial capital city in China. Suicidal ideation post HIV+ diagnosis and in the past 30 days and suicide plan and attempt were assessed. Data were collected using self-report questionnaire and were analyzed using both the direct and multivariate stochastic cusp catastrophe modeling methods with social capital as asymmetry variable and HIV-related stigma as bifurcation variable. The analysis was executed using R, including nls() function for the direct method and 'cusp' package for the stochastic modeling. Results from stochastic cusp modeling analysis indicated that social capital was significantly associated with risk of suicide after controlling for key covariates; the association was significantly bifurcated by HIV-related stigma. The data fit the cusp model better than the alternative linear model (R2 =.483 vs. .127). Findings of this study indicate suicide behaviors among Chinese PLWH follow a nonlinear dynamic system. In addition to enhancing our understanding of suicide risk, findings of this study underscore the significance in social capital enhancement and stigma reduction for suicide prevention among PLWH in China.

17.
J Exp Bot ; 2019 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587072

RESUMO

Zea nicaraguensis is a wild relative of Zea mays subsp. mays (maize) that has high waterlogging tolerance. One of its traits is constitutive aerenchyma formation (CAF) in roots and this may be one of the reasons for the tolerance, but it has not yet been proven by comparing plants that differ only in CAF in the same genetic background. We therefore produced an introgression line AE24-50-44-91 (IL-AE91) possessing four quantitative trait loci for CAF from Z. nicaraguensis in the background of maize (inbred line Mi29). The degree of root CAF in IL-AE91 was intermediate between that of Mi29 and Z. nicaraguensis. Seedlings of IL-AE91 grown aerobically were more tolerant to transfer to oxygen-deficient conditions than were Mi29 seedlings. On day 2 of oxygen deficiency, the root extension rate and viability of root-tip cells in IL-AE91 were ~2.7 and ~1.3 times greater, respectively, than they were in Mi29. On day 4, the area of aerenchyma at 80 mm from the root tips was ~1.5 times greater in IL-AE91 and radial oxygen loss from the apical parts of roots was ~3.4 times higher than in Mi29. These results demonstrate that CAF reduces the stress from low external oxygen levels caused by soil waterlogging.

18.
Med Res Rev ; 2019 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587329

RESUMO

The murine double minute 2 (MDM2) oncogene exerts major oncogenic activities in human cancers; it is not only the best-documented negative regulator of the p53 tumor suppressor, but also exerts p53-independent activities. There is an increasing interest in developing MDM2-based targeted therapies. Several classes of MDM2 inhibitors have been evaluated in preclinical models, with a few entering clinical trials, mainly for cancer therapy. However, noncarcinogenic roles for MDM2 have also been identified, demonstrating that MDM2 is involved in many chronic diseases and conditions such as inflammation and autoimmune diseases, dementia and neurodegenerative diseases, heart failure and cardiovascular diseases, nephropathy, diabetes, obesity, and sterility. MDM2 inhibitors have been shown to have promising therapeutic efficacy for treating inflammation and other nonmalignant diseases in preclinical evaluations. Therefore, targeting MDM2 may represent a promising approach for treating and preventing these nonmalignant diseases. In addition, a better understanding of how MDM2 works in nonmalignant diseases may provide new biomarkers for their diagnosis, prognostic prediction, and monitoring of therapeutic outcome. In this review article, we pay special attention to the recent findings related to the roles of MDM2 in the pathogenesis of several nonmalignant diseases, the therapeutic potential of its downregulation or inhibition, and its use as a biomarker.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587466

RESUMO

Electroplating technique has been studied for centuries not only in laboratory but also in industry, satisfying requirements for machinery, electronics, automobile, aviation and other fields. Lithium metal anode is the Holy Grail electrode for its high energy density. But the recyclability of lithium metal batteries still remains quite challenging to be addressed. Considering the essence for both conventional electroplating and lithium plating is the metal cations reduction, we believe some mature industrial knowledge for electroplating technique can be applied to revisit the electroplating process for lithium metal anodes due to the same electrochemical principles. In conventional electroplating, some strategies like using additives, modifying substrates, applying pulse current and agitating electrolyte have been explored to suppress dendrite growth. These methods are also demonstrated effectively in lithium metal anode. Inspired by that, we revisit the fundamental electroplating theory for lithium metal anodes in this Minireview, mainly drawing attention to the theory of electroplating thermodynamics and kinetics. Analysis of essential difference between traditional electroplating and plating/stripping of lithium metal anodes is also presented. We hope the basic electroplating theory can help to expedite the lithium metal batteries implemented into market and the study of lithium plating/stripping can further enrich the knowledge of electroplating technique.

20.
J Toxicol Sci ; 44(10): 657-666, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588057

RESUMO

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a kind of organic pollutant widely found in the environment and biota, could alter normal brain development and produce cognitive dysfunction. For the past years, the neurotoxic effects of PFOS have been shown. Recent studies have proven that PFOS can induce neuronal apoptosis and cause neurotoxicity, but the regulatory proteins referred to the process have not been clarified. In this study, PC12 cells were used to investigate the changes of the expression of apoptosis-related proteins, forkhead box O3 (FoxO3a) and pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. We detected that the levels of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP were up-regulated obviously in PFOS-treated PC12 cells by using Western blotting, and that the apoptotic rate of PC12 cells was increased significantly by using flow cytometry, verifying that PFOS could induce neuronal apoptosis. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence revealed obvious up-regulation of the expression of FoxO3a and proapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. In addition, knockdown of FoxO3a gene inhibited Bim expression and apoptosis. According to the data, we believe that FoxO3a may play a crucial role in PFOS-induced neurotoxicity.

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