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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126750, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339988

RESUMO

The biological mechanisms underlying the associations between atmospheric ozone exposure and adverse cardiometabolic outcomes are yet to be identified. Imbalanced autonomic nervous system (ANS) as well as activations of the sympatho-adrenomedullary (SAM) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes are among possible early biological responses triggered by ozone, and may eventually lead to cardiometabolic abnormalities. To determine whether acute ozone exposure causes ANS imbalance and increases the secretion of neuroendocrine stress hormones, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial, under controlled 2-hour exposure to either ozone (200 ppb) or clean air with intermittent exercise among 22 healthy young adults. Here we found that, compared to clean air exposure, acute ozone exposure significantly decreased the high-frequency band of heart rate variability, even after adjusting for heart rate and pre-exposure to ambient air pollutants and meteorological factors. Ozone exposure also significantly increased the serum levels of stress hormones, including corticotrophin-releasing factor, adrenocorticotropic hormone, adrenaline, and noradrenaline. Metabolomics analysis showed that acute ozone exposure led to alterations in stress hormones, systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, and energy metabolism. Our results suggest that acute ozone exposure may trigger ANS imbalance and activate the HPA and SAM axes, offering potential biological explanations for the adverse cardiometabolic effects following acute ozone exposure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Ozônio , Estudos Cross-Over , Frequência Cardíaca , Hormônios , Humanos , Ozônio/toxicidade , Adulto Jovem
2.
Front Oncol ; 11: 700088, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722247

RESUMO

Objective: To compare the long-term prognosis effects of non-esophagectomy and esophagectomy on patients with T1 stage esophageal cancer. Methods: All esophageal cancer patients in the study were included from the National Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database between 2005-2015. These patients were classified into non-esophagectomy group and esophagectomy group according to therapy methods and were compared in terms of esophagus cancer specific survival (ECSS) and overall survival (OS) rates. Results: A total of 591 patients with T1 stage esophageal cancer were enrolled in this study, including 212 non-esophagectomy patients and 111 esophagectomy patients in the T1a subgroup and 37 non-esophagectomy patients and 140 esophagectomy patients in the T1b subgroup. In all T1 stage esophageal cancer patients, there was no difference in the effect of non-esophagectomy and esophagectomy on postoperative OS, but postoperative ECSS in patients treated with non-esophagectomy was significantly better than those treated with esophagectomy. Cox proportional hazards regression model analysis showed that the risk factors affecting ECSS included race, primary site, tumor size, grade, and AJCC stage but factors affecting OS only include tumor size, grade, and AJCC stage in T1 stage patients. In the subgroup analysis, there was no difference in either ECSS or OS between the non-esophagectomy group and the esophagectomy group in T1a patients. However, in T1b patients, the OS after esophagectomy was considerably better than that of non-esophagectomy. Conclusions: Non-esophagectomy, including a variety of non-invasive procedures, is a safe and available option for patients with T1a stage esophageal cancer. For some T1b esophageal cancer patients, esophagectomy cannot be replaced at present due to its diagnostic and therapeutic effect on lymph node metastasis.

3.
Microsyst Nanoeng ; 7: 92, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804586

RESUMO

Monitoring biophysical signals such as body or organ movements and other physical phenomena is necessary for patient rehabilitation. However, stretchable flexible pressure sensors with high sensitivity and a broad range that can meet these requirements are still lacking. Herein, we successfully monitored various vital biophysical features and implemented in-sensor dynamic deep learning for knee rehabilitation using an ultrabroad linear range and high-sensitivity stretchable iontronic pressure sensor (SIPS). We optimized the topological structure and material composition of the electrode to build a fully stretching on-skin sensor. The high sensitivity (12.43 kPa-1), ultrabroad linear sensing range (1 MPa), high pressure resolution (6.4 Pa), long-term durability (no decay after 12000 cycles), and excellent stretchability (up to 20%) allow the sensor to maintain operating stability, even in emergency cases with a high sudden impact force (near 1 MPa) applied to the sensor. As a practical demonstration, the SIPS can positively track biophysical signals such as pulse waves, muscle movements, and plantar pressure. Importantly, with the help of a neuro-inspired fully convolutional network algorithm, the SIPS can accurately predict knee joint postures for better rehabilitation after orthopedic surgery. Our SIPS has potential as a promising candidate for wearable electronics and artificial intelligent medical engineering owing to its unique high signal-to-noise ratio and ultrabroad linear range. An ultrabroad-linear range (1 MPa) iontronic pressure sensor with superior sensitivity (12.43 kPa-1) and stretchability (up to 20%) was proposed for biophysical monitoring and deep learning-based knee-rehabilitation training.

4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6263, 2021 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741017

RESUMO

Phytophthora root and stem rot caused by P. sojae is a destructive soybean soil-borne disease found worldwide. Discovery of genes conferring broad-spectrum resistance to the pathogen is a need to prevent the outbreak of the disease. Here, we show that soybean Rps11 is a 27.7-kb nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR or NLR) gene conferring broad-spectrum resistance to the pathogen. Rps11 is located in a genomic region harboring a cluster of large NLR genes of a single origin in soybean, and is derived from rounds of unequal recombination. Such events result in promoter fusion and LRR expansion that may contribute to the broad resistance spectrum. The NLR gene cluster exhibits drastic structural diversification among phylogenetically representative varieties, including gene copy number variation ranging from five to 23 copies, and absence of allelic copies of Rps11 in any of the non-Rps11-donor varieties examined, exemplifying innovative evolution of NLR genes and NLR gene clusters.

5.
Bioresour Technol ; 344(Pt B): 126168, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737050

RESUMO

To improve the lignin degradation efficiency, we established a co-culture consortium (LDFC) consisting of Trametes hirsuta BYL-3, Trametes versicolor BYL-7 and Trametes hirsuta BYL-8. The testing results showed that the constructed consortium showed improved the lignin degradation rate by fungi. The optimal cultivation conditions were mixture at 1:1:1 vol ratio of each fungus, 7% (w/v) of inoculum amount, culture temperature at 26 °C, pH was 6.9 and 10 days of culturing time. Under these conditions, the degradation rate of lignin was 39.7%, which was 9.3% higher than those before optimization (30.4%). Using rice straw for treatment by LDFC to papermaking, the paper tensile strength was 8 N, and the ring pressure index was 2.46 N·m/g, which meets the standards for the production of corrugated paper for packaging. These results indicate that LDFC has potential application value to convert rice straw resources for bio-pulping to make papers.

6.
PeerJ ; 9: e12364, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34760379

RESUMO

In composting, the degradation of lignocellulose in straw is problematic due to its complex structures such as lignin. A common solution to this problem is the addition of exogenous inoculants. AC-1, a stable thermophilic microbial composite, was isolated from high temperature compost samples that can decompose lignocellulose at 50-70 °C. AC-1 had a best degradation efficiency of rice straw at 60 °C (78.92%), of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin were 82.49%, 97.20% and 20.12%, respectively. It showed degrad-ability on both simple (filter paper, absorbent cotton) and complex (rice straw) cellulose materials. It produced acetic and formic acid during decomposition process and the pH had a trend of first downward then upward. High throughput sequencing revealed the main bacterial components of AC-1 were Tepidimicrobium, Haloplasma, norank-f-Limnochordaceae, Ruminiclostridium and Rhodothermus which provides major theoretical basis for further application of AC-1.

7.
Front Nutr ; 8: 736270, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34760909

RESUMO

Hindgut microorganisms in newborn calves play an important role in the development of immunity and metabolism, and optimization of performance. However, knowledge of the extent to which microbiome colonization of the calf intestine is dependent on maternal characteristics is limited. In this study, placenta, umbilical cord, amniotic fluid, colostrum, cow feces, and calf meconium samples were collected from 6 Holstein cow-calf pairs. Microbial composition was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing, and maternal transfer characteristics assessed using SourceTracker based on Gibbs sampling to fit the joint distribution using the mean proportions of each sample with meconium as the "sink" and other sample types as different "sources." Alpha and beta diversity analyses revealed sample type-specific microbiome features: microbial composition of the placenta, umbilical cord, amniotic fluid, colostrum, and calf feces were similar, but differed from cow feces (p < 0.05). Compared with profiles of meconium vs. placenta, meconium vs. umbilical cord, and meconium vs. colostrum, differences between the meconium and amniotic fluid were most obvious. SourceTracker analysis revealed that 23.8 ± 2.21% of the meconium OTUs matched those of umbilical cord samples, followed by the meconium-placenta pair (15.57 ± 2.2%), meconium-colostrum pair (14.4 ± 1.9%), and meconium-amniotic fluid pair (11.2 ± 1.7%). The matching ratio between meconium and cow feces was the smallest (10.5 ± 1%). Overall, our data indicated that the composition of the meconium microflora was similar compared with multiple maternal sites including umbilical cord, placenta, colostrum, and amniotic fluid. The umbilical cord microflora seemed to contribute the most to colonization of the fecal microflora of calves. Bacteria with digestive functions such as cellulose decomposition and rumen fermentation were mainly transmitted during the maternal transfer process.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34792427

RESUMO

Stent retriever thrombectomy has become an effective method for treating acute ischemic stroke. Successful recanalization cannot be achieved for all patients. The outcome of mechanical thrombectomy may be associated with some mechanical factors, requiring efficient tools that are able to assess the interaction between stent retrievers and clots. In this study, a simulation by finite element analysis was developed to evaluate the outcome of stent retriever thrombectomy for clots of different sizes and frictional properties. The deployment and retrieval of the stent retriever were conducted in a middle cerebral artery model. The recanalization, deformation of the clot and stent retriever and the stress induced in the clot were assessed. The results showed that higher friction could lead to failed recanalization and increased stress in the clot. The simulation method can be used to characterize the mechanical behaviour of stent retrievers and clots, offering a potential tool for the optimization of device design and the selection of surgical strategies.

9.
Theor Appl Genet ; 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779894

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: A major quantitative trait locus (QTL) modulating soybean (Glycine max) branch angle was identified by linkage analysis using two bi-parental mapping populations with and without pedigree from wild soybean (Glycine soja). Soybean branch angle is a critical architectural trait that affects many other traits of agronomic importance associated with the plant's productivity and grain yield and is thus a vital consideration in soybean breeding. However, the genetic basis for modulating this important trait in soybean and many other crops remain unknown. Previously, we developed a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between a domesticated soybean (Glycine max) variety, Williams 82, and a wild soybean (Glycine soja) accession, PI 479,752, and observed drastic variation in plant architecture including branch angle among individual RILs. In this study, one of the RILs possessing extremely wide branch angle (WBA) was crossed with an elite soybean cultivar (LD00-3309) possessing narrow branch angle (NBA) to produce an F2 population composed of 147 plants and F2-derived F3 families for inheritance analysis and QTL mapping. We found that branch angle is controlled by a major QTL located on chromosome 19, designated qGmBa1 and that WBA-derived from the wild soybean accession-is dominant over NBA. This locus was also detected as a major one underlying branch angle by QTL mapping using a subset of the soybean nested association mapping (SoyNAM) population composed of 140 RILs, which were derived from a cross between a landrace, PI 437169B, possessing WBA and an elite variety, IA3023, possessing NBA. Molecular markers located in the QTL region defined by both mapping populations can be used for marker-assisted selection of branch angle in soybean breeding.

10.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 110: 55-72, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593195

RESUMO

Jiaxing created a precedent using bypass riparian marshes to purify micro-polluted water sources in China. Pond-wetland complex with constructed root channel technology becomes a paradigm which can be analogized as "human-body wetland model" based on bionics or biomimetics. Heterogeneous plant-bed/ditch system with highly active land/water ecotone interfaces, especially meandering boundaries, breeds many biochemical reactions "living areas". Optimization of hydraulic regulation promotes redox environment alternations and wetland treatment efficiency. Here we reported a series of upgrades and performances in Guanjinggang wetland after the Shijiuyang prototype. Morphological reform of plant-bed/ditch system played a vital role. Spatially root channel zone was main force of wetland purification, and temporally the treatment effect was higher in low-temperature seasons indicating non-temperature dependent mechanisms worked. Water pollution comprehensive index improved steadily from IV to III, and comprehensive pollution load was reduced by ca. 40%-60%. Comprehensive evaluation function value further showed the gradients purification effect of the upgraded wetland. Ecological wetlands ameliorated source water quality, and reduced drinking water treatment reagents, thereby bringing about economic benefits. Through wetlands operation, people can see how the micro-polluted surface water becomes clear and clean, so promoting a significant social benefit. As a viable component of urban green space, wetlands could beautify regional eco-environment, freshen the air, increase urban ecological taste, and enhance the eco-environmental protection publicity. Thus, the multifunctional service values and indirect benefits are substantial. Jiaxing ecological wetlands provide a typical paradigm for water pollution remediation in developing countries and plays a leading role in technology engineering radiation effect.


Assuntos
Purificação da Água , Áreas Alagadas , Humanos , Rios , Água , Poluição da Água
11.
Sci Prog ; 104(4): 368504211036330, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644204

RESUMO

Low-Vibration Tracks (LVTs) are widely used in subway tunnels for their excellent performance, but the application in heavy-duty railways still requires a lot of feasibility studies. In this study, the statics performance of LVT under different axle loads, load direction, and load position is explored using the finite element software Abaqus. The Timoshenk beam element and nonlinear spring element 3D solid element are used to represent rails, fasteners, and the other track structure respectively. The paper established the finite element model of LVT to study the mechanical characteristics of low vibration track structure under varying loading condition. The applied loads are determined according to the Heavy-Haul Railway Track Structure Design Code. The results shows: (1) The deformation and stress of the LVT structure show a linear relationship with the increase of the axle load. (2) Slab end loading and lateral load are more unfavorable to the stress and deformation of the track structure. When slab end is loaded with vertical load, the vertical load is distributed on four supporting blocks along the longitudinal direction with a ratio of 1:4:4:1, and the lateral direction is mainly borne by two adjacent fastener nodes with the total load proportion of 47% and 47% respectively. (3) The LVT structure can guarantee the safety of static performance under 30 t axle load and the maximum axle load should not exceed 36 t. The paper provides a guideline for the construction and maintenance of LVT structure in heavy haul railway.

12.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 749879, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675883

RESUMO

ß-cell ER stress plays an important role in ß-cell dysfunction and death during the pathogenesis of diabetes. Proinsulin misfolding is regarded as one of the primary initiating factors of ER stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) activation in ß-cells. Here, we found that the ER stress sensor inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α) was activated in the Akita mice, a mouse model of mutant insulin gene-induced diabetes of youth (MIDY), a monogenic diabetes. Normalization of IRE1α RNase hyperactivity by pharmacological inhibitors significantly ameliorated the hyperglycemic conditions and increased serum insulin levels in Akita mice. These benefits were accompanied by a concomitant protection of functional ß-cell mass, as shown by the suppression of ß-cell apoptosis, increase in mature insulin production and reduction of proinsulin level. At the molecular level, we observed that the expression of genes associated with ß-cell identity and function was significantly up-regulated and ER stress and its associated inflammation and oxidative stress were suppressed in islets from Akita mice treated with IRE1α RNase inhibitors. This study provides the evidence of the in vivo efficacy of IRE1α RNase inhibitors in Akita mice, pointing to the possibility of targeting IRE1α RNase as a therapeutic direction for the treatment of diabetes.

13.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 741342, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34691119

RESUMO

To successfully colonize the plants, the pathogenic microbes secrete a mass of effector proteins which manipulate host immunity. Apple valsa canker is a destructive disease caused by the weakly parasitic fungus Valsa mali. A previous study indicated that the V. mali effector protein 1 (VmEP1) is an essential virulence factor. However, the pathogenic mechanism of VmEP1 in V. mali remains poorly understood. In this study, we found that the apple (Malus domestica) pathogenesis-related 10 proteins (MdPR10) are the virulence target of VmEP1 using a yeast two-hybrid screening. By bimolecular fluorescence (BiFC) and coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP), we confirmed that the VmEP1 interacts with MdPR10 in vivo. Silencing of MdPR10 notably enhanced the V. mali infection, and overexpression of MdPR10 markedly reduced its infection, which corroborates its positive role in plant immunity against V. mali. Furthermore, we showed that the co-expression of VmEP1 with MdPR10 compromised the MdPR10-mediated resistance to V. mali. Taken together, our results revealed a mechanism by which a V. mali effector protein suppresses the host immune responses by interfering with the MdPR10-mediated resistance to V. mali during the infection.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634740

RESUMO

Pterocephalus hookeri, a classical Tibetan herb, is mainly used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and contains various constituents potentially with cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) selective inhibition. A novel strategy for screening and target separating COX-2 inhibitors from the extracts of P. hookeri based on affinity solid-phase extraction (ASPE) column combined with preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (pre-HPLC) was successfully developed. The potential COX-2 inhibitors of P. hookeri were screened and recognized by the ASPE-HPLC system, which strategy is to analyze the compounds isolated by the ASPE column. Then, the active compounds were targeted separated by pre-HPLC according to real-time chromatograms. The control drugs celecoxib and glipizide were analyzed to verify the specificity and accuracy of the developed method. As a result, two pure compounds with COX-2 binding affinities were successfully separated from P. hookeri. They were characterized as swertisin and scopoletin using 1H- and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and the in vitro COX-2 inhibitory activities were verified. Compounds with COX-2 inhibitory activities could be screened and targeted separated from crude extracts by this strategy, which indicated that the proposed method was feasible, robust and effective for rapid separation of COX-2 inhibitors from natural products.

15.
Mol Ther ; 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678513

RESUMO

Renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF) is an incurable pathological lesion in chronic kidney diseases. Pericyte activation is the major pathological characteristic of RIF. Fibroblast and macrophage activation are also involved in RIF. Studies have revealed that core fucosylation (CF), an important post-translational modification of proteins, plays a key role in pericyte activation and RIF by regulating multiple profibrotic signaling pathways as a hub-like target. Here, we reveal that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived exosomes reside specifically in the injured kidney and deliver microRNA (miR)-34c-5p to reduce cellular activation and RIF by inhibiting CF. Furthermore, we showed that the CD81-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligand-receptor complex aids the entry of exosomal miR-34c-5p into pericytes, fibroblasts, and macrophages. Altogether, our findings reveal a novel role of MSC-derived exosomes in inhibiting multicellular activation via CF and provide a potential intervention strategy for renal fibrosis.

16.
Opt Express ; 29(19): 29651-29660, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614706

RESUMO

In this report, we investigate the impact of a thin p-GaN layer on the efficiency for AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (DUV LEDs). According to our results, the light extraction efficiency (LEE) becomes higher with the decrease of the p-GaN layer thickness, which can be ascribed to the decreased absorption of DUV emission by the thin p-GaN layer. Moreover, we also find that the variation trend of external quantum efficiency (EQE) is consistent with that of LEE. Therefore, we can speculate that high-efficiency DUV LEDs can be achieved by using thin p-GaN layer to increase the LEE. However, a thin p-GaN layer can also cause severe current crowding effect and the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) will be correspondingly reduced, which will restrict the improvement of EQE. In this work, we find that the adoption of a current spreading layer for such DUV LED with very thin p-GaN layer can facilitate the current spreading effect. For the purpose of demonstration, we then utilize a well-known p-AlGaN/n-AlGaN/p-AlGaN (PNP-AlGaN) structured current spreading layer. Our experimental and numerical results show that, as long as the current crowding effect can be suppressed, the DUV LED with thin p-GaN layer can significantly increase the EQE and the optical power thanks to the enhanced LEE.

17.
Mol Metab ; : 101363, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710641

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Nuclear receptor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ (PPARγ) is a promising target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The antidiabetic drug thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are potent insulin sensitizers as full agonists of PPARγ, but cause unwanted side effects. Recent discoveries have shown that TZDs improve insulin sensitivity by blocking PPARγ phosphorylation at S273, which decouples the full agonism-associated side effects. PPARγ ligands that act through the blockage of PPARγ phosphorylation but lack the full agonist activity would be expected to improve insulin sensitivity without TZD-associated side effects, however, chemicals that carry such traits and bind to PPARγ with high-affinity are lacking. Moreover, TZDs are known to promote white-to-brown adipocyte conversion and energy expenditure and appear to require their full agonism on PPARγ for this activity. It is unknown whether a partial or non-TZD agonist of PPARγ is capable of promoting browning effect. In this study, we developed a novel non-TZD partial agonist of PPARγ and investigated its function on insulin sensitivity and white-to-brown conversion and energy expenditure in diet-induced obese mice. METHODS: A novel indole-based chemical WO95E was designed via medicinal chemistry and tested for PPARγ binding and activity and for the effect on PPARγ phosphorylation. Diet-induced obese mice were administered with WO95E for 4 weeks. Insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, body weight, fat tissue weight, adipocyte size, morphology, energy expenditure, and expression levels of genes involved in PPARγ activity, thermogenesis/browning, and TZD-related side effects were evaluated. RESULTS: WO95E binds to PPARγ with high affinity and acts as a PPARγ partial agonist. WO95E inhibits PPARγ phosphorylation and regulates PPARγ phosphorylation-dependent genes. WO95E ameliorates insulin resistance and glucose tolerance in mice of diet-induced obesity, with minimal TZD use-associated side effects. We found that WO95E promotes white-to-brown adipocyte conversion and energy expenditure and hence protects against diet-induced obesity. WO95E decreases the size of adipocytes and suppresses adipose tissue inflammation. WO95E also suppresses obesity-associated liver steatosis. CONCLUSIONS: WO95E improves insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis and promotes browning and energy expenditure by acting as a novel PPARγ phosphorylation inhibitor/partial agonist. Our findings suggest the potential of this compound or its derivative for the therapeutic treatment of insulin resistance and obesity.

18.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 546, 2021 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689151

RESUMO

Mindfulness-based interventions such as meditation have increasingly been utilized for the treatment of psychological disorders and have been shown to be effective in the treatment of depression and relapse prevention. However, it remains largely unclear the neural mechanism of the therapeutic effects of meditation among depressed individuals. In this study, we investigated how body-mind relaxation meditation (BMRM) can modulate the thalamocortical functional connectivity (FC) in major depressive disorder patients and healthy controls. In the present study, we recruited 21 medication-naive adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDDs) and 24 matched healthy controls (HCs). We designed an audio recording to induce body-mind relaxation meditation. Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) scans were collected before and after the BMRM intervention in both groups. The thalamus subregions were defined according to the Human Brainnetome Atlas, and functional connectivity (FC) was measured and compared to find brain regions that were affected by the BMRM intervention. Before the BMRM intervention, MDDs showed reduced FC of the bilateral precuneus/post cingulate cortex with the left posterior parietal thalamus and left caudal temporal thalamus, as well as an increased FC of the left occipital thalamus with the left medial frontal cortex. Moreover, aberrant FCs in MDDs at baseline were normalized following the BMRM intervention. After the BMRM intervention, both MDDs and HCs showed decreased FC between the left rostral temporal thalamus and the left inferior occipital. Given the small sample used in this study, future studies are warranted to evaluate the generalizability of these findings. Our findings suggest that BMRM is associated with changes in thalamocortical functional connectivity in MDDs. BMRM may act by strengthening connections between the thalamus and the default mode network, which are involved in a variety of high-level functioning, such as attention and self-related processes.

19.
Environ Int ; 158: 106942, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689038

RESUMO

The short-term associations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and coarse particulate matter (PM2.5-10) with pulmonary function were inconsistent and rarely evaluated by dynamic measurements. Our study aimed to investigate the associations of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 with real-time pulmonary function. We conducted a longitudinal study based on dynamic pulmonary function measurements among adult asthmatic patients in 25 cities of 19 provincial regions of China from 2017 to 2020. Linear mixed-effects models combined with polynomial distributed lag models were used for statistical analysis. A total of 298,396 records among 4,992 asthmatic patients were evaluated. We found generally inverse associations of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 with 16 pulmonary function indicators that were independent of gaseous pollutants. The associations occurred at lag 1 d, became the strongest at lag 4 d, and vanished a week later. PM2.5-10 had stronger associations than PM2.5, especially in southern China. Nationally, an interquartile increase in PM2.5-10 (28.0 µg/m3) was significantly associated with decreases in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1, 41.6 mL), the ratio of FEV1 in forced vital capacity (1.1%), peak expiratory flow (136.9 mL/s), and forced expiratory flow at 25-75% of forced vital capacity (54.3 mL/s). We observed stronger associations in patients of male, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, age ≥ 45 years old, and during warm seasons. In conclusion, this study provided robust evidence for impaired pulmonary function by short-term exposure to PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 in asthmatic patients using the largest dataset of dynamic monitoring. The associations can last for one week and PM2.5-10 may be more hazardous.

20.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 284: 114785, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718104

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Saussurea obvallata (DC.) Edgew. is a traditional Tibetan medicine used for the treatment of inflammation-related diseases, but the scientific validation was very limited. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to rapid screen and targeted isolate cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors from S. obvallata extract. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An efficient ligand-fishing method based on affinity solid phase extraction (A-SPE) combining with HPLC was developed. The identified COX-2 inhibitors were separated using preparative liquid chromatography. In vitro COX-2 inhibition assays were employed to confirm the inhibitory activities of the isolated compounds. In addition, the effect of the isolated compounds on the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the expression of COX-2 in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of four phenylpropanoids, isolariciresinol, syringaresinol, pinoresinol and balanophonin were targeted isolated as COX-2 inhibitors with IC50 values of 36.4 ± 2.6 µM, 23.1 ± 1.8 µM, 3.6 ± 0.3 µM and 12.1 ± 0.9 µM, respectively. The isolated compounds significantly inhibited LPS-induced NO production in a dose-dependent manner. And, the results of the inhibitory effect on the release of PGE2 and the expression of COX-2 in LPS-induced macrophages were consistent with A-SPE analysis. CONCLUSION: The present work demonstrated that the developed A-SPE-HPLC method could successfully targeted isolated COX-2 inhibitors from S. obvallata extract. And, the isolation results indicated that the therapeutic effect of S. obvallata on inflammation-related diseases was partly based on the COX-2 active ingredients.

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