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1.
J Anal Methods Chem ; 2022: 2363242, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35028165

RESUMO

Alismatis Rhizoma decoction (ARD), comprised of Alisma plantago-aquatica subsp. orientale (Sam.) Sam and Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz. at a ratio of 5 : 2, is a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula with successful clinical hypolipidemic effect. This paper aimed to explore the major bioactive compounds and potential mechanism of ARD in the treatment of hyperlipidemia on the basis of spectrum-effect analysis and molecular docking. Nine ARD samples with varying ratios of the constituent herbs were prepared and analyzed by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS to obtain the chemical spectra. Then, the lipid-lowering ability of the nine samples was tested in an oleic acid-induced lipid accumulation model in human hepatoma cells (HepG2). Grey relational analysis and partial least squares regression analysis were then performed to determine the correlation between the chemical spectrums and lipid-lowering efficacies of ARD. The potential mechanisms of the effective compounds were investigated by docking with the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) protein. The results indicated that alisol B 23-acetate, alisol C 23-acetate, and alisol B appeared to be the core effective components on hyperlipidemia in ARD. Molecular docking further demonstrated that all three compounds could bind to FXR and were potential FXR agonists for the treatment of hyperlipidemia. This study elucidated the effective components and potential molecular mechanism of action of ARD for treating hyperlipidemia from a perspective of different compatibility, providing a new and feasible reference for the research of TCM formulas such as ARD.

2.
ACS Nano ; 2022 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35041376

RESUMO

In the pursuit of manipulating the properties of single atoms, the surface-supported metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) provide us opportunities to individually address the electronic and magnetic properties of coordinated metal atoms by scanning tunneling microscopy. Recently, we have synthesized Ni-TPyP (TPyP = 5,10,15,20-tetra-(4-pyridyl) porphyrin) networks with dinuclear Ni centers on a Au(111) surface, in which the top-Ni atoms are sitting above the molecular plane. Here, we investigate the top-Ni atoms and their hydrogenated derivatives by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, and show that the electronic and magnetic states of top-Ni atoms can be manipulated by hydrogen adsorption. Specifically, by fitting the spin-flip spectra in vertical magnetic field, we find the spin state of top-Ni atoms is tuned from S = 1/2 to S = 1 by attaching one H atom and S = 3/2 by attaching two H atoms. Our work demonstrates atomic-scale control over the electronic and magnetic properties of coordinated metal atoms in a surface-supported MOF.

3.
Chemotherapy ; : 1-12, 2022 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35042223

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Changes in microRNAs (miRs) contribute to the alternative chemo-resistance of cancers. Bortezomib (BTZ) is a well-characterized anticancer agent that inhibits proteasome, and its effect is associated with the function of miRs. Based on the data of microarray assay and comprehensive bioinformatics analyses, in the current study, we explored the role of miR-466 and its downstream effector CCND1 in the BTZ-resistance of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. METHODS: miR expression profiles in NSCLC tissues and paratumor tissues were determined with microarray assay. The potential miR involved in the chemo-resistance of NSCLC cells was explored via a series of bioinformatics analyses, and miR-466 was selected. Afterward, levels of miR-466 and CCND1 were investigated in NSCLC samples and analyzed by clinicopathologic parameters, including age, sex, stage of NSCLC, tumor size, tumor differentiation status, and lymphocytic infiltration status. The expression of CCND1 and miR-466 was then modulated in vitro to explore the influence on cell phenotypes, which was then verified with mouse models. RESULTS: Based on microarray detection, 287 miRs were dysexpressed between NSCLC tissues and paratumor tissues, including 90 upregulated members and 197 downregulated members. After bioinformatics analyses and reverse transcription quantitative PCR validation, miR-466 and CCND1 were selected. Following clinical investigations, miR-466 was downregulated, while CCND1 was upregulated in NSCLC samples, contributing to the advanced cancer progression. The overexpression of CCND1 increased cell viability, suppressed cell apoptosis, decreased p21 and induced N-cadherin, CCND2, and CDK4 under BTZ treatment. The induced expression of miR-466 re-sensitized NSCLC cells to BTZ treatment. In the animal model, the overexpression of CCND1 impaired the inhibitory effect of BTZ on the growth and metastasis of solid tumor, which was restored by miR-466 induction. CONCLUSION: The findings showed that the interaction between BTZ, miR-466, and CCND1 determined the antitumor effect of BTZ on NSCLC.

4.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 754-762, 2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35029410

RESUMO

The G-phase, a new metastable phase with its potential energy sitting right in the middle of the glass and crystal, was recently discovered in some simulations when the molten metallic liquid was quenched down to room temperature. In comparison with ordinary glass, the G-phase has a more ordered short-range structure but a similarly disordered long-range structure. The question is whether the G-phase can be termed a new type of glass. In this work, G-phase Cu is made in a molecular dynamics simulation using rapid quenching or isothermal annealing. Weak oscillations are found in the long-range atomic structure. The pseudo-fictive temperature is significantly lower than the Kauzmann temperature; fivefold twinning structures are distinguished in the G-phase whose constituent atoms are face-center-cubic or hexagonal-cubic-packed. This evidence suggests that G-phase Cu is not a glass. However, the G-phase is also metastable against crystallization. Therefore, G-phase Cu is neither a glass nor a crystal but belongs to a new mesophase.

5.
Neuroscience ; 482: 87-99, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34902495

RESUMO

Parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) interneurons in the sensory cortex form powerful inhibitory synapses on the perisomatic compartments and axon initial segments of excitatory principal neurons (PNs), and perform diverse computational functions. Impaired PV+ interneuron functions have been reported in neural developmental and degenerative disorders. Expression of the unique marker parvalbumin (PV) is often used as a proxy of PV+ interneuron functions. However, it is not entirely clear how PV expression is correlated with PV+ interneuron properties such as spike firing and synaptic transmission. To address this question, we characterized electrophysiological properties of PV+ interneurons in the primary auditory cortex (AI) using whole-cell patch clamp recording, and analyzed the expression of several genes in samples collected from single neurons using the patch pipettes. We found that, after noise induced hearing loss (NIHL), the spike frequency adaptation increased, and the expression of PV, glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) and Shaw-like potassium channel (KV3.1) decreased in PV+ neurons. In samples prepared from the auditory cortical tissue, the mRNA levels of the target genes were all pairwise correlated. At the single neuron level, however, the expression of PV was significantly correlated with the expression of GAD67, but not KV3.1, maximal spike frequency, or spike frequency adaptation. The expression of KV3.1 was correlated with spike frequency adaptation, but not with the expression of GAD67. These results suggest separate transcriptional regulations of PV/GAD67 vs. KV3.1, both of which are modulated by NIHL.

7.
Genomics ; 114(1): 171-184, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34933069

RESUMO

Auxin response factors (ARFs) are transcription factors that regulate the transcription of auxin-responsive genes during plant growth and development. In this study, 29 and 30 ARF members were identified from the two wild peanut species, A. duranensis and A. ipaensis, respectively. The ARFs, including their classifications, conserved domains and evolutionary relationships were characterized. RNA-seq analyses revealed that some of the ARF genes were responsive to abiotic stress, particularly high salinity. In addition to abiotic stress, the expression of 2 ARF members was also regulated by biotic stress, specifically Bradyrhizobium infection in A. duranensis. The ARF gene Arahy.7DXUOK was predicted to be a potential target of miR160. Overexpression of miR160 could cause degradation of the Arahy.7DXUOK target gene transcript and increased salt tolerance in miR160OX transgenic plants. Therefore, these molecular characterization and expression profile analyses provide comprehensive information on ARF family members and will help to elucidate their functions to facilitate further research on peanuts.

8.
Phytomedicine ; 95: 153837, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34883416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Moluodan (MLD) is a traditional Chinese patent medicine for the treatment of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG). However, the mechanism of action (MoA) of MLD for treating CAG still remain unclear. PURPOSE: Elucidate the MoA of MLD for treating CAG based on network pharmacology. STUDY DESIGN: Integrate computational prediction and experimental validation based on network pharmacology. METHODS: Computationally, compounds of MLD were scanned by LC-MS/MS and the target profiles of compounds were identified based on network-based target prediction method. Compounds in MLD were compared with western drugs used for gastritis by hierarchical clustering of target profile. Key biological functional modules of MLD were analyzed, and herb-biological functional module network was constructed to elucidate combinatorial rules of MLD herbs for CAG. Experimentally, MLD's effect on different biological functional modules were validated from both phenotypic level and molecular level in 1- Methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced GES-1 cells. RESULTS: Computational results show that the target profiles of compounds in MLD can cover most of the biomolecules reported in literature. The MoA of MLD can cover most types of MoA of western drugs for CAG. The treatment of CAG by MLD involved the regulation of various biological functional modules, e.g., inflammation/immune, cell proliferation, cell apoptosis, cell differentiation, digestion and metabolism. Experimental results show that MLD can inhibit cell proliferation, promote cell apoptosis and differentiation, reduce the inflammation level and promote lipid droplet accumulation in MNNG-induced GES-1 cells. CONCLUSION: The network pharmacology framework integrating computational prediction and experimental validation provides a novel way for exploring the MoA of MLD.

9.
Neurotox Res ; 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34851489

RESUMO

Background Emerging studies illustrate that long non-coding RNA TUG1 (TUG1) participates in neuron death after ischemia. However, the role of TUG1 in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (CI/R) injury through cerebrovascular pathology was undetermined yet. Methods Expression of TUG1, miRNA-410-3p (miR-410), and forkhead box O3 (FOXO3) was detected by RT-qPCR and western blot. Neural function, apoptosis, and inflammatory damage were assessed by triphenyltetrazolium chloride straining, modified neurological severity score, fluorescence-activated cell sorting method, and western blot. The relationship among TUG1, miR-410, and FOXO3 was identified by dual-luciferase reporter assay, RNA pull-down, and RNA immunoprecipitation. Results TUG1 was upregulated in middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R) mice and oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R)-induced mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) in a certain of time-dependent manner. Blockage of TUG1 decreased infarct volume and increased neurological score in MCAO/R mice, accompanied with elevated Bcl-2 expression and declined expression of IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, Bax, and cleaved caspase 3. Abovementioned proteins were similarly expressed in OGD/R-induced BMECs with TUG1 knockdown, paralleled with diminished apoptosis rate. Either, miR-410 overexpression and FOXO3 interference could suppress OGD/R-induced inflammatory and apoptotic responses. Of note, TUG1 and FOXO3 are competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) for miR-410 via target binding. Depleting miR-410 counteracted the role of TUG1 exhaustion, and reinforcing FOXO3 abated the effect of miR-410 overexpression. Conclusion Exhausting TUG1 could alleviate CI/R-induced inflammatory injury and apoptosis in brain tissues and BMECs via targeting miR-410/FOXO3 axis, suggesting an innovative perspective from cerebrovascular endothelial cells in the pathogenesis and treatment of CI/R.

10.
Chemistry ; 2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34859914

RESUMO

The Z-scheme overall solar water splitting is a mimic of natural photosynthesis to convert solar energy into chemical energy. Since the energy levels of most organic semiconductors match well with the hydrogen evolution potential, they have great application prospects as photocathodes in Z-scheme photoelectrochemical systems. However, due to the weak light absorption and difficult carriers separation, the photocurrent density and onset potential of organic photocathodes are still low. To solve these problems, we introduced copper nanosheets array (Cu NSA) framework under the organic layers to increase the surface reaction sites, improve the light absorption and enhance the distribution range of built-in electric field simultaneously. As a result, the photocurrent density and onset potential of poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid (P3HT:PCBM) photocathode were enhanced significantly. The onset potential increased by 50 mV to 0.65 V vs. RHE, and the photocurrent density reached -1 mA cm-2 at 0 V vs. RHE, which was 18 times that of the sample without Cu NSA. The optimized photocathode was connected with titanium dioxide nanorods array photoanode in a tandem manner to realize the spontaneous overall water splitting. Without bias and cocatalyst, the photocurrent density was maintained at 110 µA cm-2 and the solar-to-fuel conversion efficiency was 0.14% in neutral solution. These results provide a feasible method for optimizing the performance of organic photocathode.

11.
Int J Hypertens ; 2021: 1607475, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34925914

RESUMO

The prevalence of general and central obesity has increased rapidly in China for decades, while little is known on obesity-normal weight-central obesity (NWCO) in China. In this study, we aim to depict the trend of the three kinds of obesity and to explore their associations with hypertension in a cohort study in China. We used data from eight waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) in 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, 2009, 2011, and 2015 for analysis. The Cochran-Armitage test was used for trend of the three kinds of obesity or hypertension. Mixed logistic regression was used to explore their relationship. In this study, we found the prevalence of general obesity increased from 20.81% in 1993 to 50.57% in 2015 in China, which was from 19.23% to 56.15% for central obesity and from 27.20% to 49.07% for NWCO, respectively. Males had the highest increase among all the subgroups. The RR for hypertension and general obesity was 3.71 (95%CI: 3.26-4.22), 3.62 (95%CI 3.19-4.12) for central obesity, and 1.60 (95%CI 1.23-2.06) for NWCO after adjusted for age, sex, education, smoking, alcohol drinking, marriage status, urbanicity and income. Both prevalence of obesity and hypertension have increased significantly in China for the two decades. The general obesity was most likely to develop hypertension compared to central or NOCWO in this study.

12.
J Biol Chem ; : 101543, 2021 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34971708

RESUMO

Cholestasis is a common condition in which the flow of bile from the liver to the intestines is inhibited. It has been shown that organic anion-transporting polypeptide 3A1 (OATP3A1) is upregulated in cholestasis to promote bile acid efflux transport. We have previously shown that the growth factor FGF19 and inflammatory mediator TNFα increased OATP3A1 mRNA levels in hepatoma PLC/PRF/5 cell lines. However, the mechanism underlying TNFα-stimulated OATP3A1 expression in cholestasis is unknown. To address this, we collected plasma samples from control and obstructive cholestasis patients, and used ELISA assays to detect TNFα levels. We found that the TNFα levels of plasma and hepatic mRNA transcripts were significantly increased in obstructive cholestatic patients relative to control patients. A significant positive correlation was also observed between plasma TNFα and liver OATP3A1 mRNA transcripts in patients with obstructive cholestasis. Further mechanism analysis revealed that recombinant TNFα induced OATP3A1 expression and activated NF-κB and ERK signaling pathways, as well as expression of related transcription factors p65 and SP1. Dual-luciferase reporter and ChIP assays showed that recombinant TNFα upregulated the binding activities of NF-κB p65 and SP1 to the OATP3A1 promoter in PLC/PRF/5 cells. These effects were diminished following the application of NF-κB and ERK inhibitors BAY11-7082 and PD98059. We conclude that TNFα stimulates hepatic OATP3A1 expression in human obstructive cholestasis by activating NF-κB p65 and ERK-SP1 signaling. These results suggest that TNFα-activated NF-κB p65 and ERK-SP1 signaling may be a potential target to ameliorate cholestasis-associated liver injury.

13.
Nat Mater ; 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737454

RESUMO

Despite the importance of glass forming ability as a major alloy characteristic, it is poorly understood and its quantification has been experimentally laborious and computationally challenging. Here, we uncover that the glass forming ability of an alloy is represented in its amorphous structure far away from equilibrium, which can be exposed by conventional X-ray diffraction. Specifically, we fabricated roughly 5,700 alloys from 12 alloy systems and characterized the full-width at half-maximum, Δq, of the first diffraction peak in the X-ray diffraction pattern. A strong correlation between high glass forming ability and a large Δq was found. This correlation indicates that a large dispersion of structural units comprising the amorphous structure is the universal indicator for high metallic glass formation. When paired with combinatorial synthesis, the correlation enhances throughput by up to 100 times compared to today's state-of-the-art combinatorial methods and will facilitate the discovery of bulk metallic glasses.

14.
Nature ; 599(7886): 599-604, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819685

RESUMO

Amorphous materials inherit short- and medium-range order from the corresponding crystal and thus preserve some of its properties while still exhibiting novel properties1,2. Due to its important applications in technology, amorphous carbon with sp2 or mixed sp2-sp3 hybridization has been explored and prepared3,4, but synthesis of bulk amorphous carbon with sp3 concentration close to 100% remains a challenge. Such materials inherit the short-/medium-range order of diamond and should also inherit its superior properties5. Here, we successfully synthesized millimetre-sized samples-with volumes 103-104 times as large as produced in earlier studies-of transparent, nearly pure sp3 amorphous carbon by heating fullerenes at pressures close to the cage collapse boundary. The material synthesized consists of many randomly oriented clusters with diamond-like short-/medium-range order and possesses the highest hardness (101.9 ± 2.3 GPa), elastic modulus (1,182 ± 40 GPa) and thermal conductivity (26.0 ± 1.3 W m-1 K-1) observed in any known amorphous material. It also exhibits optical bandgaps tunable from 1.85 eV to 2.79 eV. These discoveries contribute to our knowledge about advanced amorphous materials and the synthesis of bulk amorphous materials by high-pressure and high-temperature techniques and may enable new applications for amorphous solids.

15.
Biomed Chromatogr ; : e5283, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816469

RESUMO

A sensitive and specific ultra-performance liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed and validated to simultaneously determine periplocin, periplocymarin (PM), periplogenin (PG), periplocoside M (PSM) and periplocoside N (PSN) in rat plasma. Acetonitrile was employed to precipitate plasma with appropriate sensitivity and acceptable matrix effects. Chromatographic separation was performed using a Waters HSS T3 column with a gradient elution using water and acetonitrile both containing 0.1% formic acid and 0.1 mm ammonium formate within 8 min. Detection was performed in positive ionization mode using multiple reaction monitoring. The method was fully validated in terms of selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, matrix effects and stability. Using this method, the concentrations of periplocin, PM, PG, PSM and PSN were established after oral administration of Cortex Periplocae extract to rats, and the pharmacokinetic characteristics of periplocin, PM, PG, PSM and PSN were assessed. Generally, PM, PG, PSM and PSN were eliminated slowly and their half-lives were all >8 h. In addition, the systemic exposure of PSM showed significant differences between genders with more than 10 times higher area under the concentration-time curve in female rats than in male rats. The findings of this study provide useful information for further research on Cortex Periplocae.

16.
Opt Express ; 29(16): 24804-24815, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614828

RESUMO

In this work, we propose broadband and switchable terahertz (THz) polarization converters based on either graphene patch metasurface (GPMS) or its complementary structure (graphene hole metasurface, GHMS). The patch and hole are simply cross-shaped, composed of two orthogonal arms, along which plasmonic resonances mediated by Fabry-Perot cavity play a key role in polarization conversion (PC). An incidence of linear polarization will be converted to its cross-polarization (LTL) or circular polarization (LTC), as the reflected wave in the direction of two arms owning the same amplitude and π phase difference (LTL), or ±π/2 phase difference (LTC). Such requirements can be met by optimizing the width and length of two arms, thickness of dielectric layer, and Fermi level EF of graphene. By using GPMS, LTL PC of polarization conversion ratio (PCR) over 90% is achieved in the frequency range of 2.92 THz to 6.26 THz, and by using GHMS, LTC PC of ellipticity χ ≤ -0.9 at the frequencies from 4.45 THz to 6.47 THz. By varying the Fermi level, the operating frequency can be actively tuned, and the functionality can be switched without structural modulation; for instance, GPMS supports LTL PC as EF = 0.6 eV and LTC PC of χ ≥ 0.9 as EF = 1.0 eV, in the frequency range of 2.69 THz to 4.19 THz. Moreover, GHMS can be optimized to sustain LTL PC and LTC PC of |χ| ≥ 0.9, in the frequency range of 4.96 THz to 6.52 THz, which indicates that the handedness of circular polarization can be further specified. The proposed polarization converters of broad bandwidth, active tunability, and switchable functionality will essentially make a significant progress in THz technology and device applications, and can be widely utilized in THz communications, sensing and spectroscopy.

17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5755, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599172

RESUMO

Strain glass is a glassy state with frozen ferroelastic/martensitic nanodomains in shape memory alloys, yet its nature remains unclear. Here, we report a glassy feature in strain glass that was thought to be only present in structural glasses. An abnormal hump is observed in strain glass around 10 K upon normalizing the specific heat by cubed temperature, similar to the boson peak in metallic glass. The simulation studies show that this boson-peak-like anomaly is caused by the phonon softening of the non-transforming matrix surrounding martensitic domains, which occurs in a transverse acoustic branch not associated with the martensitic transformation displacements. Therefore, this anomaly neither is a relic of van Hove singularity nor can be explained by other theories relying on structural disorder, while it verifies a recent theoretical model without any assumptions of disorder. This work might provide fresh insights in understanding the nature of glassy states and associated vibrational properties.

18.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(42): 17517-17525, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647722

RESUMO

Controlling oxygen deficiencies is essential for the development of novel chemical and physical properties such as high-Tc superconductivity and low-dimensional magnetic phenomena. Among reduction methods, topochemical reactions using metal hydrides (e.g., CaH2) are known as the most powerful method to obtain highly reduced oxides including Nd0.8Sr0.2NiO2 superconductor, though there are some limitations such as competition with oxyhydrides. Here we demonstrate that electrochemical protonation combined with thermal dehydration can yield highly reduced oxides: SrCoO2.5 thin films are converted to SrCoO2 by dehydration of HSrCoO2.5 at 350 °C. SrCoO2 forms square (or four-legged) spin tubes composed of tetrahedra, in contrast to the conventional infinite-layer structure. Detailed analyses suggest the importance of the destabilization of the SrCoO2.5 precursor by electrochemical protonation that can greatly alter reaction energy landscape and its gradual dehydration (H1-xSrCoO2.5-x/2) for the SrCoO2 formation. Given the applicability of electrochemical protonation to a variety of transition metal oxides, this simple process widens possibilities to explore novel functional oxides.

19.
Opt Express ; 29(16): 25365-25376, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614869

RESUMO

A practical direct-view scheme for generating arbitrary high-order cylindrical vector (HCV) beams by cascading vortex half-wave plates (VHPs) is presented. The combination of odd number 2n-1 VHPs for n≥1 can realize (m2n-1-m2n-2+…+m1)-order CV beams, in which m is the order number of VHP and the corresponding subscript 2n-1 represents the arrangement number of VHPs, and the cascading of even number 2n ones can obtain (m2n-m2n-1+…+m2-m1)-order CV beams. All 1-12 order CV beams, including the high-order anti-vortex CV (ACV) beams, are generated only by selectively cascading the VHPs with m=1, 3 and 8. The polarization properties of the generated HCV beams are investigated by measuring the corresponding Stokes parameters. It is experimentally demonstrated that arbitrary HCV beams are effectively achieved by the proposed method. The order numbers of CV beams can be greatly expanded by cascading limited types of VHPs.

20.
Ear Nose Throat J ; : 1455613211036770, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490795

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Accidental pharyngeal fishbone ingestion is a common complaint in ear, nose, and throat clinics. Approximately two-thirds of the accidentally ingested fishbones can be removed using tongue depressors and indirect laryngoscopy. However, the remaining third is challenging to identify and remove using these methods. These difficult fishbones require identification and removal via more advanced approaches. Video-guided laryngoscope is used to deal with difficult fishbones in our center. This study aimed to explore the risk factors for difficult fishbones. METHODS: A prospective study was performed at a teaching hospital on 2080 patients. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the risk factors. RESULTS: The common fishbone locations were the tonsils (39.8%; defined as STEP-I), tongue base (37.1%), vallecula (13.3%; STEP-II), and hypopharynx (9.8%; STEP-III). With increasing STEP level, the ratio of difficult fishbones correspondingly increased (Z = 13.919, P < .001), and the proportions were 21.1%, 41.9%, and 70% in STEP-I, II, and III, respectively. In particular, fishbones in STEP-III (vs STEP-I) had a higher risk of difficult fishbones (odds ratio [OR]: 11.573, 95% CI: 7.987-16.769). Complaints of neck pain (yes vs no), foreign body sensation (yes vs no), and shorter length of fishbones always had a lower risk of difficult fishbones (OR: 0.455, 95% CI: 0.367-0.564; OR: 0.284, 95% CI: 0.191-0.422; OR: 0.727, 95% CI: 0.622-0.85). Missing teeth (yes vs no), swallowing behavior after fishbone ingestion (yes vs no), and male patients (vs female) had a higher risk of difficult fishbones (OR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.47-2.456; OR: 1.631, 95% CI: 1.293-2.059; OR: 1.278, 95% CI: 1.047-1.56). CONCLUSIONS: Neck pain, foreign body sensation, fishbone length, patient age and sex, tooth status, and swallowing behavior after fishbone ingestion are independent risk factors for difficult fishbones.

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