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1.
Front Plant Sci ; 11: 572193, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33101338

RESUMO

Tillering is an important biomass yield component trait in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.). Teosinte branched 1 (tb1)/Branched 1 (BRC1) gene is a known regulator for tillering/branching in several plant species; however, its role on tillering in switchgrass remains unknown. Here, we report physiological and molecular characterization of mutants created by CRISPR/Cas9. We successfully obtained nonchimeric Pvtb1a and Pvtb1b mutants from chimeric T0 mutants using nodal culture. The biallelic Pvtb1a-Pvtb1b mutant plants produced significantly more tillers and higher fresh weight biomass than the wild-type plants. The increased tiller number in the mutant plants resulted primarily from hastened outgrowth of lower axillary buds. Increased tillers were also observed in transgene-free BC1 monoallelic mutants for either Pvtb1a-Pvtb1b or Pvtb1b gene alone, suggesting Pvtb1 genes act in a dosage-dependent manner. Transcriptome analysis showed 831 genes were differentially expressed in the Pvtb1a-Pvtb1b double knockdown mutant. Gene Ontology analysis revealed downregulation of Pvtb1 genes affected multiple biological processes, including transcription, flower development, cell differentiation, and stress/defense responses in edited plants. This study demonstrates that Pvtb1 genes play a pivotal role in tiller production as a negative regulator in switchgrass and provides opportunities for further research aiming to elucidate the molecular pathway regulating tillering in switchgrass.

3.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 319(4): F592-F602, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799672

RESUMO

Aquaporin-2 (AQP2) is a vasopressin-regulated water channel protein responsible for water reabsorption by the kidney collecting ducts. Under control conditions, most AQP2 resides in the recycling endosomes of principal cells, where it answers to vasopressin with trafficking to the apical plasma membrane to increase water reabsorption. Upon vasopressin withdrawal, apical AQP2 retreats to the early endosomes before joining the recycling endosomes for the next vasopressin stimulation. Prior studies have demonstrated a role of AQP2 S269 phosphorylation in reducing AQP2 endocytosis, thereby prolonging apical AQP2 retention. Here, we studied where in the cells S269 was phosphorylated and dephosphorylated in response to vasopressin versus withdrawal. In mpkCCD collecting cells, vacuolar protein sorting 35 knockdown slowed vasopressin-induced apical AQP2 trafficking, resulting in AQP2 accumulation in the recycling endosomes where S269 was phosphorylated. Rab7 knockdown, which impaired AQP2 trafficking from the early to recycling endosomes, reduced vasopressin-induced S269 phosphorylation. Rab5 knockdown, which impaired AQP2 endocytosis, did not affect vasopressin-induced S269 phosphorylation. Upon vasopressin withdrawal, S269 was not dephosphorylated in Rab5 knockdown cells. In contrast, S269 dephosphorylation upon vasopressin withdrawal was completed in Rab7 or vacuolar protein sorting 35 knockdown cells. We conclude that S269 is dephosphorylated during Rab5-mediated AQP2 endocytosis before AQP2 joins the recycling endosomes upon vasopressin withdrawal. While in the recycling endosomes, AQP2 can be phosphorylated at S269 in response to vasopressin before apical trafficking.


Assuntos
Aquaporina 2/metabolismo , Endocitose , Endossomos/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais Coletores/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Endossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Túbulos Renais Coletores/citologia , Túbulos Renais Coletores/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Fosforilação , Transporte Proteico , Serina , Vasopressinas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Proteínas rab5 de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Proteínas rab5 de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo
4.
Front Psychol ; 11: 1312, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32670160

RESUMO

This study aimed to explore the characteristics and influencing factors of violence exposure in real life among Chinese college students. A sample of 375 college students was randomly selected to complete three questionnaires. The results indicated that participants had higher scores as victims and witnesses on violence exposure in community than they did in family. Male students had higher scores than females in both family and community violence exposure. Subjects with lower father's education level scored significantly higher than others in family violence exposure by victimization and community violence exposure by witnessing and victimization. Participants growing up in rural areas had significantly higher scores than others in family violence exposure by victimization and community violence exposure by witnessing. Finally, those subjects with siblings reported higher scores than those from only child families in family violence exposure by witnessing. Multiple regression analysis showed that deviant behaviors of peers, gender, and single-child status were significant influencing factors of respondent violence exposure. More efforts should be taken to effectively cope with existing violence exposure in college students and minimize the potential of future exposure.

5.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 546, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32477106

RESUMO

Backgrounds: Diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) contributes significantly to female infertility. Bushen Cuyun Recipe (BCR, Tradename Yueliang Yin), a product marketed in China, has shown effects in the treatment of female infertility in clinical practices of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In this study, we aimed to investigate the chemical compositions of BCR and its efficacy based on scientific evidence and pharmacological mechanisms in DOR treatments. Methods: The chemical compositions of BCR were determined by the UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS method. DOR was induced in a rat model by intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (CTX) 90 mg/kg once. After the CTX treatment for 14 days, rats were intragastrically administrated deionized water, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), or BCR in low, middle, and high doses for 30 days. Ovarian index, ovarian morphology, follicle number, and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in serum were determined to assess the effects of BCR. To investigate possible action mechanisms, network pharmacological analysis was used to predict possible pathways in the effects of BCR on female infertility. In experimental studies, the contents of hormones in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis (HPOA, including estradiol (E2), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)) and pyroptosis-related proteins, including gasdermin D (GSDMD), caspase-1, and interleukin-18 (IL-18), in ovarian were detected by ELISA, immunofluorescence and Western blot. Results: Chemical studies revealed a total 84 components in BCR, which included 43 flavonoids, 13 triterpenoids, 11 phenolic acids, 8 alkaloids, 1 coumarin, 1 anthraquinone, and 7 other components. After treatments with BCR, the ovarian morphology, ovarian index, estrous cycle, growing follicles and corpus luteum from last ovulation, and serum AMH in DOR rats were significantly improved. Network pharmacological analysis suggested that the NOD-like receptor signaling pathway ranked No. 1 among the mechanisms by which BCR affects female infertility. Experimental results demonstrated that the content of serum FSH in DOR rats was significantly decreased and the contents of serum GnRH and E2 were significantly elevated after BCR treatment and that the elevated level of GSDMD, caspase-1, and IL-18 was significantly reversed in BCR-treated rats. Conclusions: The chemical compositions of BCR were first identified in the present study. BCR was demonstrated to show protective effects on DOR. The possible mechanisms of BCR on DOR might be mediated by regulating gonadal hormones of the HPOA and protecting granulosa cells in ovary against pyroptosis.

6.
J Food Sci ; 85(6): 1834-1844, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449955

RESUMO

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important pathogenic bacterium in both food safety management and mariculture. Rapid and accurate detection technologies are critical for effective control of its outbreak and spreading. Conventional technologies and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based approaches have limited usage because of the requirement of laboratory instruments and trained personnel. Using the isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) technology, several detection assays have been developed with added convenience. Combining the lateral flow strip (LFS) test with RPA can further simplify the detection. In this study, an improved RPA assay using LFS for visual detection of V. parahaemolyticus was developed. Primers were designed targeting the virulence genes and screened for amplification efficiency, nonspecific amplification, and primer-dimer formation. Probes were designed for the best primer pairs, and the weakness of LFS tests, being easily affected by primer-dependent artifacts, was overcome by sequence modifications on primers and probe. The RPA-LFS assay took 25 min at 35 to 45 °C, and showed excellent specificity. It detected as low as one colony forming unit (CFU) of V. parahaemolyticus per reaction without DNA purification, or 10 CFU/10 g spiked food samples with 2 hr of enrichment. The detection limit was better than the currently available RPA-based detection methods. Application of the RPA-LFS assay for simulated samples or real clinical samples showed accurate and consistent detection results compared to bioassay and quantitative PCR. The RPA-LFS assay provided a rapid, accurate, and convenient V. parahaemolyticus detection method suitable for on-site detection in resource-limited conditions. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This research developed a rapid and visual detection technology for Vibrio parahaemolyticus that is not dependent on complicated equipment. The detection process takes 25 min and the result is read with the naked eye. A detection kit can be developed based on this technology for on-site detection of V. parahaemolyticus in resource-limited regions for food safety management and mariculture.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/isolamento & purificação , Primers do DNA/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Limite de Detecção , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/genética , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 318(4): F956-F970, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088968

RESUMO

Aquaporin-2 (AQP2) is a vasopressin-regulated water channel protein responsible for osmotic water reabsorption by kidney collecting ducts. In response to vasopressin, AQP2 traffics from intracellular vesicles to the apical plasma membrane of collecting duct principal cells, where it increases water permeability and, hence, water reabsorption. Despite continuing efforts, gaps remain in our knowledge of vasopressin-regulated AQP2 trafficking. Here, we studied the functions of two retromer complex proteins, small GTPase Rab7 and vacuolar protein sorting 35 (Vps35), in vasopressin-induced AQP2 trafficking in a collecting duct cell model (mpkCCD cells). We showed that upon vasopressin removal, apical AQP2 returned to Rab5-positive early endosomes before joining Rab11-positive recycling endosomes. In response to vasopressin, Rab11-associated AQP2 trafficked to the apical plasma membrane before Rab5-associated AQP2 did so. Rab7 knockdown resulted in AQP2 accumulation in early endosomes and impaired vasopressin-induced apical AQP2 trafficking. In response to vasopressin, Rab7 transiently colocalized with Rab5, indicative of a role of Rab7 in AQP2 sorting in early endosomes before trafficking to the apical membrane. Rab7-mediated apical AQP2 trafficking in response to vasopressin required GTPase activity. When Vps35 was knocked down, AQP2 accumulated in recycling endosomes under vehicle conditions and did not traffic to the apical plasma membrane in response to vasopressin. We conclude that Rab7 and Vps35 participate in AQP2 sorting in early endosomes under vehicle conditions and apical membrane trafficking in response to vasopressin.


Assuntos
Aquaporina 2/metabolismo , Endossomos/enzimologia , Túbulos Renais Coletores/enzimologia , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Animais , Aquaporina 2/genética , Endossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Túbulos Renais Coletores/citologia , Túbulos Renais Coletores/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana Associadas ao Lisossomo/metabolismo , Camundongos , Transporte Proteico , Proteólise , Fatores de Tempo , Vasopressinas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/genética
8.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 84(4): 815-823, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791197

RESUMO

We investigated whether low-dose phloretin served as daily dietary supplements could ameliorate diabetic atherosclerosis and the role of kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2). HUVECs cultured in high glucose medium were treated with different concentrations of phloretin and KLF2 mRNA, and protein level was detected. Diabetes was induced using streptozotocin in Apoe-/- mice after which they were fed a high-cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. Diabetic mice injected with KLF2 shRNA-lentivirus or control virus were treated with 20 mg/kg phloretin. Glucose, lipid profile, aortic atheroma, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression were detected. Phloretin retained endothelial function by KLF2-eNOS activation under hyperglycemia. Low-dose phloretin helped with lipid metabolism, and blocked the acceleration of atherosclerosis in STZ-induced diabetic mice since the early stage, which was diminished by KLF2 knockdown. Low-dose phloretin exhibited athero-protective effect in diabetic Apoe-/- mice dependent on KLF2 activation. This finding makes phloretin for diabetic atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/metabolismo , Floretina/farmacologia , Animais , Aterosclerose/complicações , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ativação Enzimática , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Floretina/administração & dosagem , Transdução Genética
9.
Front Physiol ; 10: 1308, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681015

RESUMO

Aquaporin-2 (AQP2) is a molecular water channel protein responsible for water reabsorption by the kidney collecting ducts. Many water balance disorders are associated with defects in AQP2 gene expression regulated by the peptide hormone vasopressin. Here, we studied roles of Elf3 (E26 transformation-specific (Ets)-related transcription factor 3) in AQP2 gene expression in the collecting duct cells (mpkCCD). Vasopressin increased AQP2 mRNA and protein levels without affecting AQP2 mRNA degradation, indicative of transcriptional regulation. Elf3 knockdown and overexpression, respectively, reduced and increased AQP2 gene expression under basal and vasopressin-stimulated conditions. However, the vasopressin-to-basal ratios of AQP2 gene expression levels remained constant, indicating that Elf3 does not directly mediate vasopressin response but modulates the level of AQP2 gene expression inducible by vasopressin. The Elf3-modulated AQP2 gene expression was associated with AQP2 promoter activity, in line with Elf3's ability to bind an Ets element in the AQP2 promoter. Mutation in the Ets element reduced both basal and vasopressin-stimulated AQP2 promoter activity, again without affecting vasopressin-to-basal ratios of the AQP2 promoter activity. Lithium chloride reduced both Elf3 and AQP2 mRNA in the mpkCCD cells as well as in mouse kidney inner medulla. We conclude that Elf3 modulates AQP2 promoter activity thereby gauging vasopressin-inducible AQP2 gene expression levels. Our data provide a potential explanation to lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus where lithium reduces Elf3 and hence AQP2 abundance.

10.
Carbohydr Polym ; 226: 115242, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582065

RESUMO

Polysaccharide-based aerogels have high application value as one kind of unique functional materials. Not only has it high porosity and low-density, but also the non-toxicity and biodegradability. In recent decades, a variety of natural raw materials and their combinations along with various preparation technologies have been investigated to develop polysaccharide-based aerogels with different functions for diverse applications. This review aims to clarify a general approach in the development of polysaccharide-based aerogels regarding pore structure design, polysaccharide selection and drying methods. The relevant researches and reports of polysaccharide-based aerogels have been also classified according to the applications in environmental engineering, buildings, medical practice, packaging and electrochemistry. Furthermore, some statistical graphs have been produced to summarize those publications during the past ten years, with an aim to indicate the distribution and research trend. Finally, the approaches to improve the quality of the aerogels are discussed and some perspectives are put forward to provide a reference for the future development of polysaccharide-based aerogels.

11.
EBioMedicine ; 48: 478-490, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urea, the end product of protein metabolism, has been considered to have negligible toxicity for a long time. Our previous study showed a depression phenotype in urea transporter (UT) B knockout mice, which suggests that abnormal urea metabolism may cause depression. The purpose of this study was to determine if urea accumulation in brain is a key factor causing depression using clinical data and animal models. METHODS: A meta-analysis was used to identify the relationship between depression and chronic diseases. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) brain scans and common biochemical indexes were compared between the patients and healthy controls. We used behavioural tests, electrophysiology, and molecular profiling techniques to investigate the functional role and molecular basis in mouse models. FINDINGS: After performing a meta-analysis, we targeted the relevance between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and depression. In a CKD mouse model and a patient cohort, depression was induced by impairing the medial prefrontal cortex. The enlarged cohort suggested that urea was responsible for depression. In mice, urea was sufficient to induce depression, interrupt long-term potentiation (LTP) and cause loss of synapses in several models. The mTORC1-S6K pathway inhibition was necessary for the effect of urea. Lastly, we identified that the hydrolysate of urea, cyanate, was also involved in this pathophysiology. INTERPRETATION: These data indicate that urea accumulation in brain is an independent factor causing depression, bypassing the psychosocial stress. Urea or cyanate carbamylates mTOR to inhibit the mTORC1-S6K dependent dendritic protein synthesis, inducing impairment of synaptic plasticity in mPFC and depression-like behaviour. CKD patients may be able to attenuate depression only by strict management of blood urea.


Assuntos
Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/metabolismo , Potenciação de Longa Duração , Carbamilação de Proteínas , Transdução de Sinais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Ureia/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 70-kDa/metabolismo
12.
Carbohydr Polym ; 224: 115129, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472876

RESUMO

The konjac glucomannan (KGM)-based aerogel as an air filtration material was fabricated through sol-gel and freeze-drying methods. Results showed that gelatin and starch addition could increase the filtration efficiency and compressive strength of aerogel significantly, due to the appearance of more microporous structure and the formation of dense structure in aerogel. The addition of wheat straw could decrease the filtration resistance and increase the breathability of KGM-based aerogel, which was attributed to the multi-cavities of wheat straw. The aerogel with wheat straw had a filtration efficiency of 93.54% for particle matters ≥ 0.3 µm, a filtration resistance 29 Pa, and an air permeability 271.42 L/s·m2. Okara addition could increase the hydrophobicity of KGM-based aerogel by increasing the water contact angle and decreasing the equilibrium water content. The water contact angle of the aerogel containing okara reached 105.4°, and the equilibrium water content was decreased by 17.03%-81.10% compared with that without okara, with relative humidity 0%-80%. The results demonstrated that the KGM-based aerogel had good performance on filtration, mechanical and hydrophobic properties, indicating high potential application as an air filtration material.


Assuntos
Abelmoschus/química , Filtros de Ar , Mananas/química , Triticum/química , Gelatina/química , Géis , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Porosidade , Amido/química
13.
Mol Med Rep ; 19(5): 3923-3932, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864721

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are endogenous non­coding RNAs implicated in atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to explore the function of circRNA­0044073 in atherosclerosis. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays were used to measure the expression levels of circRNA­0044073, microRNA (miRNA/miR)­107, janus kinase 1 (JAK1), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), B­cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl­2) and v­myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (c­myc) in in blood cells from patients with atherosclerosis. RNA pull­down and luciferase reporter assays were then used to determine the association between circRNA and miR expression, and miR and gene expression, respectively. Matrigel invasion assay and flow cytometry were used to analyze cell invasion and cell cycle. Western blot analysis and ELISA were used to evaluate the expression levels of proteins. It was identified that the expression of circRNA­0044073 was upregulated and the expression of miR­107 was downregulated in atherosclerotic blood cells. Overexpression of circRNA­0044073 promoted the proliferation of human vascular smooth muscle cells (HUVSMCs) and human vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs), while overexpression of miR­107 inhibited their proliferation. In addition, circRNA­0044073 suppressed the levels of miR­107 via a sponge mechanism. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) affected the proliferation of HUVSMCs and HUVECs, and also resulted in changes in circRNA­0044073 expression levels. CircRNA­0044073 promoted the proliferation and invasion of HUVSMCs and HUVECs in spite of the opposite effect observed with LPS treatment. The JAK/STAT signaling pathway was activated in patients with atherosclerosis. CircRNA­0044073 favored the activation of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway and inflammation in HUVSMCs and HUVECs. These data indicate that circRNA­0044073 is upregulated in atherosclerosis and promotes the proliferation and invasion of cells by targeting miR­107 and activating the JAK/STAT signaling pathway, potentially offering a target for novel treatment strategies against atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/patologia , Proliferação de Células , DNA Circular/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Idoso , Antagomirs/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA Circular/antagonistas & inibidores , DNA Circular/genética , Feminino , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Janus Quinase 1/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Masculino , MicroRNAs/antagonistas & inibidores , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Liso Vascular/citologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Hemodial Int ; 23(1): 93-100, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30762294

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hemodialysis (HD) patients are hospitalized nearly twice yearly, and 35% of these patients are rehospitalized within 30-days postdischarge. We hypothesized that monitored oral nutritional supplementation (ONS) during HD treatment may decrease readmissions. METHODS: A cohort of maintenance HD patients, treated at a large dialysis organization, who were hospitalized with a postdischarge albumin of ≤3.5 g/dL, without documented ONS use 90 days prior to the index hospitalization were identified. Individuals who received monitored intradialytic ONS postdischarge were compared to those without receipt of ONS. The outcome of interest was 30-day hospital readmissions. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between ONS receipt and 30-day readmission events, with adjustment for case-mix and laboratory variables. FINDINGS: Of 5479 eligible patients, ONS was prescribed to 1420 individuals. Mean age was 64.6 ± 14.1 (SD) years; median dialysis vintage was 3.9 years. There were 274 (19%) readmissions among ONS recipients vs. 1571 (38.7%) among controls during the 30-day follow-up period. Individuals who did not receive ONS had increased odds of readmission [OR 2.26 (95% CI 1.02, 2.53)] in 30 days, as compared to those who did receive ONS postdischarge. In sensitivity analyses using a propensity score matched cohort, the odds ratio of readmissions within 30 days postdischarge was 1.71 (95% CI: 1.42, 2.07) for individuals who did not receive ONS as compared to those who received ONS. DISCUSSION: Consumption of ONS during HD sessions is associated with reduced hospital readmission rates among in-center maintenance HD with severe hypoalbuminemia at 30 days post-hospital discharge.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Hospitalização/tendências , Readmissão do Paciente/tendências , Diálise Renal/métodos , Administração Oral , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
FASEB J ; 33(5): 6185-6196, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30768374

RESUMO

Human autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by bilateral renal cysts that lead to a decline in kidney function. Previous studies reported aquaporin (AQP)-3 expression in cysts derived from collecting ducts in ADPKD. To study the role of AQP3 in cyst development, we generated 2 polycystic kidney disease (PKD) mouse models: kidney-specific Pkd1 knockout mice and inducible Pkd1 knockout mice, each without and with AQP3 deletion. In both models, kidney sizes and cyst indexes were significantly reduced in AQP3-null PKD mice compared with AQP3-expressing PKD mice, with the difference seen mainly in collecting duct cysts. AQP3-deficient kidneys showed significantly reduced ATP content, increased phosphorylated (p)-AMPK, and decreased p-ERK and p-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). In a matrix-grown Madin-Darby canine kidney cyst model, AQP3 expression promoted cyst enlargement and was associated with increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α and glucose transporter 1 and increased glucose uptake. Our data suggest that the slowed renal cyst enlargement in AQP3 deficiency involves impaired energy metabolism in the kidney through AMPK and mTOR signaling and impaired cellular glucose uptake. These findings implicate AQP3 as a novel determinant of renal cyst enlargement and hence a potential drug target in ADPKD.-Wang, W., Geng, X., Lei, L., Jia, Y., Li, Y., Zhou, H., Verkman, A. S., Yang, B. Aquaporin-3 deficiency slows cyst enlargement in experimental mouse models of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.


Assuntos
Aquaporina 3/genética , Doenças Renais Policísticas/genética , Canais de Cátion TRPP/genética , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Aquaporina 3/deficiência , Cães , Feminino , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais Coletores/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais Coletores/patologia , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Doenças Renais Policísticas/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
16.
Food Chem ; 277: 135-144, 2019 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30502129

RESUMO

Nitrogen fertilization regimes significantly affect both grain quality and yield. Wheat plants were subjected to different application timing of topdressed nitrogen at the emergence of the top fifth (TL5), top third (TL3) and top first leaf (TL1), respectively. The iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation) technology was adopted to obtain the complete proteome of wheat flour and to identify the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) as regulated by nitrogen topdressing timing. Collectively, 591 proteins into 17 functional categories in flour of mature grains were identified. In comparison to TL3, 50 and 63 DEPs were identified in TL5 and TL1, respectively. Nine of the DEPs commonly dependent on nitrogen topdressing timing are the γ-gliadins or high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits. Additionally, delaying nitrogen topdressing modified the grain hardness and allergic protein content. The results suggested that altering nitrogen topdressing timing is a potential strategy for pursuing targeted processing quality of wheat flour.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/efeitos dos fármacos , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Glutens/metabolismo , Dureza/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Farinha/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteômica , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 17925, 2018 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30560883

RESUMO

The hybrid sturgeon (Huso dauricus × Acipenser schrenckii) is an economically important species in China. With the increasing aquaculture of hybrid sturgeon, the bacterial diseases are a great concern of the industry. In this study, de novo sequencing was used to compare the difference in transcriptome in spleen of the infected and mock infected sturgeon with Aeromonas hydrophila. Among 187,244 unigenes obtained, 87,887 unigenes were annotated and 1,147 unigenes were associated with immune responses genes. Comparative expression analysis indicated that 2,723 differently expressed genes between the infected and mock-infected group were identified, including 1,420 up-regulated and 1,303 down-regulated genes. 283 differently expressed anti-bacterial immune related genes were scrutinized, including 168 up-regulated and 115 down-regulated genes. Ten of the differently expressed genes were further validated by qRT-PCR. In this study, toll like receptors (TLRs) pathway, NF-kappa B pathway, class A scavenger receptor pathway, phagocytosis pathway, mannose receptor pathway and complement pathway were shown to be up-regulated in Aeromonas hydrophila infected hybrid sturgeon. Additionally, 65,040 potential SSRs and 2,133,505 candidate SNPs were identified from the hybrid sturgeon spleen transcriptome. This study could provide an insight of host immune genes associated with bacterial infection in hybrid sturgeon.


Assuntos
Aeromonas hydrophila/patogenicidade , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Peixes/microbiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Aeromonas hydrophila/imunologia , Animais , Aquicultura , Feminino , Peixes/genética , Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Masculino , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de RNA/veterinária , Baço/química , Baço/imunologia , Baço/microbiologia
18.
Int J Mol Med ; 42(6): 3017-3026, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30221681

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the nucleotide­binding oligomerization domain (NOD) 2 in high glucose (HG)­induced myocardial apoptosis and fibrosis in mice. Mouse models of diabetes were induced by streptozotocin (STZ). NOD2 expression was knocked down by injection of lentivirus­mediated short­hairpin RNA. Alternatively, small interfering RNA­NOD2 was transfected into cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts (CFs). A hemodynamic assay was used to assess the cardiac function in the mouse model. Hematoxylin and eosin, Masson and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling staining was performed to observe pathological changes and injury of myocardial tissue. The expression levels of NOD2, collagen I and III, and transforming growth factor­ß (TGF­ß) and apoptotic proteins were quantified by reverse transcription­quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. NOD2 silencing ameliorated diabetes­induced myocardial apoptosis and fibrosis in mice. NOD2, collagen I, collagen III, TGF­ß and pro­apoptotic proteins were upregulated in the diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) model group, but interference of NOD2 suppressed these alterations in protein expression levels. NOD2 is upregulated in HG­induced primary cardiomyocytes and CFs. Suppression of NOD2 attenuated HG­induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and proliferation of CFs. Overall, NOD2 silencing alleviated myocardial apoptosis and fibrosis in diabetic mice. The results of the present study demonstrated an understanding of the role of NOD2 in diabetes­induced cardiomyopathy, which provides a novel target and therapies for the prevention and treatment of DCM.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/genética , Inativação Gênica , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/genética , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Biomarcadores , Glicemia , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/sangue , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Fibrose , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/metabolismo , Gravidez
19.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 1137, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30123235

RESUMO

Salicylic acid (SA) can induce plant resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses through cross talk with other signaling molecules, whereas the interaction between hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and abscisic acid (ABA) in response to SA signal is far from clear. Here, we focused on the roles and interactions of H2O2 and ABA in SA-induced freezing tolerance in wheat plants. Exogenous SA pretreatment significantly induced freezing tolerance of wheat via maintaining relatively higher dark-adapted maximum photosystem II quantum yield, electron transport rates, less cell membrane damage. Exogenous SA induced the accumulation of endogenous H2O2 and ABA. Endogenous H2O2 accumulation in the apoplast was triggered by both cell wall peroxidase and membrane-linked NADPH oxidase. The pharmacological study indicated that pretreatment with dimethylthiourea (H2O2 scavenger) completely abolished SA-induced freezing tolerance and ABA synthesis, while pretreatment with fluridone (ABA biosynthesis inhibitor) reduced H2O2 accumulation by inhibiting NADPH oxidase encoding genes expression and partially counteracted SA-induced freezing tolerance. These findings demonstrate that endogenous H2O2 and ABA signaling may form a positive feedback loop to mediate SA-induced freezing tolerance in wheat.

20.
Eur J Med Chem ; 157: 610-621, 2018 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30125722

RESUMO

Even though many GyrB and ParE inhibitors have been reported in the literature, few possess activity against Gram-negative bacteria. This is primarily due to limited permeability across Gram-negative bacterial membrane as well as bacterial efflux mechanisms. Permeability of compounds across Gram-negative bacterial membranes depends on many factors including physicochemical properties of the inhibitors. Herein, we show the optimization of pyridylureas leading to compounds with potent activity against Gram-negative bacterial species such as P.aeruginosa, E.coli and A.baumannii.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , DNA Girase/metabolismo , DNA Topoisomerase IV/antagonistas & inibidores , Descoberta de Drogas , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Topoisomerase/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/química , DNA Topoisomerase IV/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Streptococcus pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus pneumoniae/enzimologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Inibidores da Topoisomerase/síntese química , Inibidores da Topoisomerase/química
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