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2.
Microb Drug Resist ; 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835874

RESUMO

A clinically isolated pan-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain (ST11), KPN142 was subjected to whole-genome sequencing. Genomic sequence of KPN142 showed that limited antibiotic resistances (ß-lactams [blashv-11], sulfonamides [sul1 and dfrA22], bacitracin [bacA], tetracycline [tet34], aminoglycosides [ksgA, kdpE, aph(3)Ia, aac(3)III, and ant(3)Ia], and chloramphenicol [catA1]) were mediated by enzymes, and efflux pumps contributed most to pan resistance. Five types of multidrug resistance efflux pump families were identified, including the resistance nodulation division superfamily (AcrAB-TolC, AcrD, MdtABC, and KexD), the ATP-binding cascade superfamily (MacAB), the small multidrug resistance family (KpnEF), the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion family (KdeA), and the major facilitator superfamily (EmrAB). There was an AcrAB-TolC efflux pump system, and inhibitory regulatory gene acrR and ramR of system carried deletion mutation, which lead to overexpression of AcrAB-TolC efflux pump, and in turn plays key role in the pan resistance of KPN142. Moreover, we did not find mgrb, a suppressor in the expression of phoPQ, overexpression of which may confer the resistance of KPN142 to colistin B. In addition, K. pneumoniae KPN142 carries IS1, IS3, and IntI1, which means that KPN142 is able to transfer drug-resistance genes. Of note, we detected the overexpression of acrB, ramA, phoP, and phoQ by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and carbonyl cyanide chlorophenylhydrazone was able to reverse the resistance patterns of K. pneumoniae KPN142. In conclusion, we consider that the overexpression of AcrAB-TolC efflux pump mediates the resistance to most common clinical antimicrobial agents, and the overexpression of phoPQ mediates the resistance to colistin B in K. pneumoniae KPN142.

3.
Biomed Mater ; 16(4)2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882463

RESUMO

Phototherapy including photothermal therapy (PTT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT), as non-invasive therapy approaches, have gained accumulated attention for cancer treatment in past years. PTT and PDT can generate local hyperthermia effects and reactive oxygen species (ROS) respectively, for tumor eradication. To improve the therapeutic performance while minimizing the reverse side effects of phototherapy, extensive efforts have been devoted to developing stimuli-activatable (e.g. pH, redox, ROS, enzyme, etc) nanomaterials for tumor-specific delivery/activation of the phototherapeutics. In this review, we first overviewed the recent advances of the engineered stimuli-responsive nanovectors for the phototherapy of cancer. We particularly summarized the progress of stimuli-activatable nanomaterials-based combinatory therapy strategies for augmenting the performance of phototherapy. We further discuss challenges for the clinical translation of nanomaterials-based phototherapy.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844628

RESUMO

There is significant acoustic impedance contrast between the cortical bone and surrounding soft tissue, resulting in difficulty for ultrasound penetration into bone tissue with high frequency. It is challenging for the conventional pulse-echo modalities to give accurate cortical bone images using uniform sound velocity model. To overcome these limitations, an ultrasound imaging method called full-matrix Fourier-domain synthetic aperture based on velocity inversion (FM-FDSA-VI) was developed to provide accurate cortical bone images. The dual linear arrays were located on the upper and lower sides of the imaging region. After full-matrix acquisition with two identical linear array probes facing with each other, travel-time inversion was used to estimate the velocity distribution in advance. Then, full-matrix Fourier-domain synthetic aperture (FM-FDSA) imaging based on the estimated velocity model was applied twice to image the cortical bone, utilizing the data acquired from top and bottom linear array respectively. Finally, to further improve the image quality, the two images were merged to give the ultimate result. The performance of the method was verified by two simulated models and two bone phantoms (i.e., regularly and irregularly hollow bone phantom). The mean relative errors of estimated sound velocity in the region-of-interest (ROI) are all below 12%, and the mean errors of cortical section thickness are all less than 0.3 mm. Compared to the conventional synthetic aperture (SA) imaging, FM-FDSA-VI method is able to accurately image cortical bone with respect to the structure. Moreover, the result of irregular bone phantom was close to the image scanned by micro computed tomography (µCT) in terms of macro geometry and thickness. It is demonstrated that the proposed FM-FDSA-VI method is an efficient way for cortical bone ultrasonic imaging.

5.
Biomaterials ; 270: 120709, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581608

RESUMO

Cancer immunotherapies including cancer vaccines, immune checkpoint blockade or chimeric antigen receptor T cells have been exploited as the attractive treatment modalities in recent years. Among these approaches, cancer vaccines that designed to deliver tumor antigens and adjuvants to activate the antigen presenting cells (APCs) and induce antitumor immune responses, have shown significant efficacy in inhibiting tumor growth, preventing tumor relapse and metastasis. Despite the potential of cancer vaccination strategies, the therapeutic outcomes in preclinical trials are failed to promote their clinical translation, which is in part due to their inefficient vaccination cascade of five critical steps: antigen identification, antigen encapsulation, antigen delivery, antigen release and antigen presentation to T cells. In recent years, it has been demonstrated that various nanobiomaterials hold great potential to enhance cancer vaccination cascade and improve their antitumor performance and reduce the off-target effect. We summarize the cutting-edge advances of nanobiomaterials-based vaccination immunotherapy of cancer in this review. The various cancer nanovaccines including antigen peptide/adjuvant-based nanovaccines, nucleic acid-based nanovaccines as well as biomimetic nanobiomaterials-based nanovaccines are discussed in detail. We also provide some challenges and perspectives associated with the clinical translation of cancer nanovaccines.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer , Neoplasias , Apresentação do Antígeno , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias/terapia , Vacinação
6.
Macromol Biosci ; 21(4): e2000375, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624916

RESUMO

In a continuous effort to develop effective vaccines against hepatitis E (HE), oral vaccine nanoparticles using the truncated capsid protein p146 (aa460-605) are formulated and characterized. To improve the immunogenicity of p146, chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) are used as a mucosal delivery system. Next, the physical-chemical properties, cytotoxic effects in vitro, and immunogenicity in mice of the produced NPs are analyzed. The results show that the produced CS/p146 NPs are stable and well dispersive and display a near-spherical shape with a mean size of 200-300 nm. The findings also demonstrate high encapsulation efficiency (65-73.9%) and loading capacity (27.7-67.5%) of the formulated nanoparticles. Further, the CS/p146 NPs exhibit low cytotoxicity and an obvious sustained-release effect in vitro. Immunogenicity experiments in mice indicate that CS/p146 NPs can induce antigen-specific systemic and mucosal immune responses higher than the purified p146 do. Besides, the expression levels and mRNA transcription of Interleukin (IL)-4 in spleen cells of CS/p146 NPs-immunized mice are higher than those of p146, indicating that a Th2-mediated cellular immune response is activated by the CS/p146 NPs. Overall, the synthesized CS/p146 NPs display promising properties as a potential HE oral vaccine candidate.

7.
Glob Chang Biol ; 27(8): 1627-1644, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432697

RESUMO

Coastal wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems and store large amounts of organic carbon (C)-the so termed "blue carbon." However, wetlands in the tropics and subtropics have been invaded by smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) affecting storage of blue C. To understand how S. alterniflora affects soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, sources, stability, and their spatial distribution, we sampled soils along a 2500 km coastal transect encompassing tropical to subtropical climate zones. This included 216 samplings within three coastal wetland types: a marsh (Phragmites australis) and two mangroves (Kandelia candel and Avicennia marina). Using δ13 C, C:nitrogen (N) ratios, and lignin biomarker composition, we traced changes in the sources, stability, and storage of SOC in response to S. alterniflora invasion. The contribution of S. alterniflora-derived C up to 40 cm accounts for 5.6%, 23%, and 12% in the P. australis, K. candel, and A. marina communities, respectively, with a corresponding change in SOC storage of +3.5, -14, and -3.9 t C ha-1 . SOC storage did not follow the trend in aboveground biomass from the native to invasive species, or with vegetation types and invasion duration (7-15 years). SOC storage decreased with increasing mean annual precipitation (1000-1900 mm) and temperature (15.3-23.4℃). Edaphic variables in P. australis marshes remained stable after S. alterniflora invasion, and hence, their effects on SOC content were absent. In mangrove wetlands, however, electrical conductivity, total N and phosphorus, pH, and active silicon were the main factors controlling SOC stocks. Mangrove wetlands were most strongly impacted by S. alterniflora invasion and efforts are needed to focus on restoring native vegetation. By understanding the mechanisms and consequences of invasion by S. alterniflora, changes in blue C sequestration can be predicted to optimize storage can be developed.


Assuntos
Carbono , Áreas Alagadas , Carbono/análise , China , Ecossistema , Espécies Introduzidas , Poaceae , Solo
8.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(6): 1763-1769, 2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351701

RESUMO

Children have elevated fever risk 1 to 2 weeks after the first dose of a measles-containing vaccine (MCV), which is likely affected by genetic, immunologic, and clinical factors. Fever after MCV is associated with febrile seizures, though may also be associated with higher measles antibody titers. This exploratory study investigated genetic and immunologic associations with a fever after MCV. Concurrent with a randomized Phase 3 clinical trial of 12-15-month-olds who received their first measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine in which parents recorded post-vaccination temperatures daily, we consented a subset to collect additional blood and performed human leukocyte antigens (HLA) typing. Association between fever 5-12 days after MMR ("MMR-associated") and HLA type was assessed using logistic regression. We compared 42-day post-vaccination geometric mean titers (GMT) to measles between children who did and did not have fever using a t-test. We enrolled 86 children and performed HLA typing on 82; 13 (15.1%) had MMR-associated fever. Logistic regressions identified associations between MMR-associated fever and HLA Class I loci A-29:02 (P = .036), B-57:01 (P = .018), C-06:02 (P = .006), C-14:02 (P = .022), and Class II loci DRB1-15 (P = .045). However, Bonferroni's adjustment for multiple comparisons suggests that these associations could have been due to chance. Ninety-eight percent of children had protective antibody titers to measles; however, GMT was higher among those with fever compared with children without fever (P = .006). Fever after the measles vaccine correlated with genetic factors and higher immune response. This study suggests a possible genetic susceptibility to MMR-associated fever.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Dietary intakes play important roles in the prevention and treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD). Coronary plaque vulnerability is the key mechanism leading to CHD progression. We aimed to explore the association between dietary intakes and plaque vulnerability via optical coherence tomography (OCT). METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 314 CHD patients were included in this study. Dietary intake status was assessed by semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and plaque vulnerability was measured by OCT. The results showed that vegetables were negatively associated with macrophage infiltration, thin cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) and thrombus [odds ratio (OR) = 0.48, 0.38, 0.38, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.24-0.93, 0.17-0.84, 0.15-0.94, all P < 0.05]; fruits were negatively associated with lipid plaque, TCFA, rupture and thrombus (OR = 0.17, 0.11, 0.12, 0.20, 95% CI = 0.07-0.39, 0.04-0.29, 0.05-0.28, 0.08-0.55, all P < 0.05); salt was positively associated with lipid plaque and TCFA (OR = 2.59, 2.83, 95% CI = 1.14-5.90, 1.23-6.51, all P < 0.05). Regarding nutrients intakes, dietary fiber was negatively associated with macrophage infiltration (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.14-0.85, P = 0.021); folate was negatively associated with lipid plaque, TCFA and rupture (OR = 0.22, 0.16, 0.20, 95% CI = 0.09-0.58, 0.06-0.41, 0.08-0.51, all P < 0.05); vitamin C was negatively associated with TCFA, rupture and thrombus (OR = 0.26, 0.22, 0.05, 95% CI = 0.07-0.95, 0.07-0.65, 0.01-0.25, all P < 0.05); sodium was positively associated with lipid plaque, TCFA, rupture and thrombus (OR = 3.43, 3.96, 2.73, 4.84, 95% CI = 1.51-7.80, 1.66-9.45, 1.18-6.27, 1.76-9.28, all P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Salt and sodium were dietary risk factors for plaque vulnerability, whereas vegetables, fruits, dietary fiber, folate and vitamin C were dietary protective factors for plaque vulnerability.

10.
J Mater Chem B ; 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319881

RESUMO

Correction for 'BODIPY-containing nanoscale metal-organic frameworks as contrast agents for computed tomography' by Tao Zhang et al., J. Mater. Chem. B, 2017, 5, 2330-2336, DOI: 10.1039/C7TB00392G.

11.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(22)2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187157

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamic viscoelasticity of dental soft polymer material containing citrate ester-based plasticizers. Three kinds of citrate ester-based plasticizer (Citroflex® C-2: TEC, Citroflex® A-2: ATEC, and Citroflex® A-4: ATBC), with the combination of 5 wt% ethyl alcohol, were used as the liquid phase. The dynamic viscoelastic properties of nine ethyl methacrylate polymers: (A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, and I) were immersed in 37 °C distilled water for 0, 1, 3, 7, 14 and 30 days, respectively. The dynamic viscoelastic properties were measured at 37 °C with an automatic dynamic mechanical analyzer. The shear storage modulus (G'), shear loss modulus (G″), and loss tangent (tan δ) were determined at 1 Hz. These parameters were statistically analyzed by two-way and one-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparison test at a predetermined significance level of 0.05. A significant difference was found among the materials in terms of the dynamic viscoelasticity. The materials containing citrate ester-based plasticizer ATBC showed the most stable dynamic viscoelasticity. Considering the limitations of this study, the results suggest that the inclusion of citrate ester-based plasticizer can improve the durability of dental soft polymer materials.

12.
ACS Omega ; 5(44): 28823-28830, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33195935

RESUMO

Two-dimensional transition metal disulfides such as MoS2 and WS2 exhibit multiple phases. Altering their phase makes it possible to change their chemical and physical properties significantly. Although several phase-induced modification mechanisms have been reported, their effects on the gas-sensing performance of these substrates remain unknown. Here, the effects of phase selection on the gas-sensing characteristics of 1T' and 2H monolayer MoS2 and WS2 were explored using a density functional theory-based first-principles approach. The theoretical computations took into account the binding energy, band structure, theoretical recovery time, density of states, electron difference density, and total electron density. The results showed that there is a significant change in the density of states near the Fermi level as well as greater charge transfer between the gas in question and the substrate when the gas is adsorbed onto 1T' MoS2 and WS2. Thus, phase selection is important for improving the gas-sensing performance of monolayer MoS2 and WS2. This study provides theoretical evidence for increasing the sensing performance of polymorph films of these materials.

13.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(21): 21992-22018, 2020 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177246

RESUMO

Semaphorin 4C (SEMA4C), is an important regulator of axonal guidance and aggravates tumor development. However, the roles and prognostic value of SEMA4C in colorectal cancer (CRC) remain unclear. Here, bioinformatics analyses of transcriptome data from multiple CRC patient datasets and immunohistochemical staining of a CRC tissue microarray (TMA) (n=83) showed that SEMA4C mRNA and protein expression were higher in CRC tissues than normal colorectal tissues. SEMA4C mRNA and protein expression correlated with pathologic stage and metastasis in CRC patients. Higher SEMA4C expression was associated with shorter overall survival, consensus molecular subtype 4 (CMS4), and DNA hypomethylation of SEMA4C in CRC patients. Multivariate Cox regression analyses revealed that SEMA4C expression was an independent prognostic predictor in CRC patients. Gene set expression analysis (GSEA) illustrated that SEMA4C expression had remarkable correlations with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as well as hedgehog, Wnt/ß-catenin, TGF-ß, and Notch signaling pathways. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis demonstrated that SEMA4C expression accurately distinguished between the CMS4 and CMS1-3 subtypes of CRC patients. By inhibiting EMT, SEMA4C silencing reduced in vitro proliferation, migration, and invasion by CRC cells. These findings suggest that SEMA4C is a CMS4-associated gene that enhances CRC progression by inducing EMT.

14.
Ear Nose Throat J ; : 145561320962584, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023340

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A case of primary first bite syndrome (FBS), diagnosed in a patient with nonspecific adenocarcinoma of the deep lobe of the parotid gland. DATA SOURCES: A Medline literature search was conducted on PubMed, using the keywords "first bite syndrome." REVIEW METHODS: Using primary FBS and existence of a definite etiology as inclusion criteria. RESULTS: We report on an unusual case of primary FBS, which had no surgical history. After multiple examinations, the pain was localized to a mass in the deep lobe of the parotid gland. After tumorectomy, the FBS pain was significantly relieved. The postoperative pathological examination determined that the excised mass was a nonspecific adenocarcinoma. Reviewing the literature, we found that primary FBS was mostly caused by malignant tumors in the inferior temporal fossa, the deep lobe of the parotid gland, and (or) the parapharyngeal space. Surgery was reported to be an effective treatment. CONCLUSION: The case highlights the critical importance of identifying the etiology of primary FBS. When manifested with a primary FBS, malignant tumors must be high on the differential diagnosis list, especially those in the region of the inferior temporal fossa, the deep lobe of the parotid gland, and the parapharyngeal space.

15.
Radiol Bras ; 53(5): 306-313, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33071374

RESUMO

Objective: To determine whether individuals with proposed gadolinium deposition disease (GDD) have elevated serum levels of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokines, and whether specific cytokines are correlated with certain symptoms. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four participants recruited between May 2016 and June 2017 met GDD diagnostic criteria. The 64 control subjects provided serum samples before prophylactic flu vaccination. Serum cytokine levels were obtained with Luminex serum cytokine assay using eBiosciences/Affymetrix human 62-plex kits. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were performed to assess the difference between the median fluorescence intensity values for the participants and the control group. Generalized linear models were built to evaluate the association between each cytokine of interest and selected participant symptoms. Results: Serum levels of 14 cytokines, including nine pro-inflammatory cytokines, were statistically significantly elevated compared to controls (p ≤ 0.05). Hypotheses regarding pro-fibrotic cytokines and cytokine links to specific symptoms' intensity were not confirmed. Conclusion: The statistically significantly elevated cytokines may be markers of susceptibility to GDD or agents of symptom induction. These findings suggest that individuals developing symptoms characteristic of GDD after a contrast-assisted magnetic resonance imaging should be studied to investigate whether gadolinium retention and elevated cytokines may be related to their symptoms.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050443

RESUMO

Excess phosphorus (P) accumulation in the soil can change the bioavailability of P and increase the leaching risks, but the quantitative evaluation of these responses in acidic red soil is lacking. This study aimed to investigate the composition of soil P fractions under different phosphorus apparent balances (PAB) in acidic red soil and the bioavailability and the leaching change-points of different P fractions. Five phosphorus (P) fertilization rates were applied (0, 16.38, 32.75, 65.50, 131.00 kg P·ha-1) in every sweet corn cultivation from the field experiment, and the treatments were marked as P0, P1, P2, P3, and P4, respectively. The PAB showed negative values in P0 and P1 which were -49.0 and -15.0 kg P·ha-1 in two years, respectively. In contrast, PAB in P2 as well as in P3 and P4 were positive, the content ranging from 40.2 to 424.3 kg P·ha-1 in two years. Per 100 kg ha-1 P accumulate in the soil, the total P increased by 44.36 and 10.41 mg kg-1 in the surface (0-20 cm) and subsurface (20-40 cm) soil, respectively. The content of inorganic P fractions, including solution phosphate (Sol-P), aluminum phosphate (Al-P), iron phosphate (Fe-P), reduction phosphate (Red-P), and calcium phosphate (Ca-P), significantly increased by 0.25, 16.22, 22.08, 2.04, and 5.08 mg kg-1, respectively, in surface soil per 100 kg ha-1 P accumulated in the soil. Path analysis showed that the most important soil P fractions contributing to Olsen-P were Sol-P and Al-P, which can directly affect Olsen-P, and their coefficients were 0.24 and 0.73, respectively. Furthermore, the incubation experiments were conducted in the laboratory to investigate the leaching risk of different P fractions, and they showed Sol-P was a potential source of leaching, and the leaching change-points of Al-P and Fe-P were 74.70 and 78.34 mg·kg-1, respectively. Continuous P that accumulated in soil changed the composition of P fractions, and the bioavailability as well as the leaching risks increased. This is important in optimizing soil P fertilization management in agricultural ecosystems based on the bioavailability and critical levels for leaching of P fractions.

17.
Dent Mater J ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087633

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of amylase activity on the mechanical properties of three dental composite resin (Filtek Z350; Filtek Z250 and Polofil Supra). The specimens were immersed in amylase solution at four different activities (25, 50, 100 and 200 KIU/L) with an artificial saliva solution (AS) as a control. The flexural strength (FS) and elastic modulus (EM) were determined in a three-point bending test after immersion for periods up to 12 months. In addition, surface roughness and surface morphology also determined. The FS of Filtek Z350 reaching the lowest level of 67.86 MPa after AS immersion for one year. There was a general trend for FS to decrease following immersion in AS for all the tested materials. However, the amylase groups did not undergo a significant decrease in FS and EM, and there was a slight increase in FS and EM for Polofil Supra.

18.
Radiol. bras ; 53(5): 306-313, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1136094

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: To determine whether individuals with proposed gadolinium deposition disease (GDD) have elevated serum levels of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokines, and whether specific cytokines are correlated with certain symptoms. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four participants recruited between May 2016 and June 2017 met GDD diagnostic criteria. The 64 control subjects provided serum samples before prophylactic flu vaccination. Serum cytokine levels were obtained with Luminex serum cytokine assay using eBiosciences/Affymetrix human 62-plex kits. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were performed to assess the difference between the median fluorescence intensity values for the participants and the control group. Generalized linear models were built to evaluate the association between each cytokine of interest and selected participant symptoms. Results: Serum levels of 14 cytokines, including nine pro-inflammatory cytokines, were statistically significantly elevated compared to controls (p ≤ 0.05). Hypotheses regarding pro-fibrotic cytokines and cytokine links to specific symptoms' intensity were not confirmed. Conclusion: The statistically significantly elevated cytokines may be markers of susceptibility to GDD or agents of symptom induction. These findings suggest that individuals developing symptoms characteristic of GDD after a contrast-assisted magnetic resonance imaging should be studied to investigate whether gadolinium retention and elevated cytokines may be related to their symptoms.


Resumo Objetivo: Determinar se indivíduos com doença de deposição de gadolínio (DDG) apresentam níveis séricos elevados de citocinas pró-inflamatórias e pró-fibróticas e se citocinas específicas estão correlacionadas com determinados sintomas. Materiais e Métodos: Vinte e quatro participantes recrutados entre maio/2016 e junho/2017 cumpriram os critérios de diagnóstico de DDG. Amostras de soro de 64 indivíduos controles foram obtidas antes de vacinação profilática contra a gripe. Os níveis de citocinas séricas foram mensurados com o ensaio Luminex usando kits 62-plex humanos. Foram realizados testes de Wilcoxon para avaliar a diferença dos valores médios de intensidade de fluorescência entre os participantes e o grupo controle. Foram construídos modelos lineares generalizados para avaliar a associação entre cada citocina de interesse e os sintomas dos participantes selecionados. Resultados: Níveis séricos de 14 citocinas, incluindo 9 citocinas pró-inflamatórias, foram estatisticamente significantes em comparação aos controles (p ≤ 0,05). Hipóteses sobre as citocinas pró-fibróticas e associação das citocinas com a intensidade de sintomas específicos não foram confirmadas. Conclusão: Citocinas estatisticamente elevadas podem ser marcadores de suscetibilidade para DDG ou agentes de indução de sintomas. Esses achados sugerem que indivíduos que desenvolvem sintomas da DDG após ressonância magnética com contraste devem ser estudados para investigar se a retenção de gadolínio e citocinas elevadas podem estar relacionadas aos seus sintomas.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956055

RESUMO

Ultrasonic guided waves (UGW) propagating in long cortical bone can be measured via the axial transmission method. The characterization of long cortical bone using UGW is a multiparameter inverse problem. The optimal solution of the inverse problem often includes a complex solving process. Deep neural networks (DNNs) are essentially powerful multiparameter predictors based on universal approximation theorem, which are suitable for solving parameter predictions in the inverse problem by constructing the mapping relationship between UGW and cortical bone material parameters. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of applying the multichannel crossed convolutional neural network (MCC-CNN) to simultaneously estimate cortical thickness and bulk velocities (longitudinal and transverse). Unlike the multiparameter estimation in most previous studies, the technique mentioned in this work avoids solving a multiparameter optimization problem directly. The finite-difference time-domain method (FDTD) is performed to obtain the simulated UGW array signals for training the MCC-CNN. The network that is exclusively trained on simulated datasets can predict cortical parameters from the experimental UGW data. The proposed method is confirmed by using FDTD simulation signals and experimental data obtained from four bone-mimicking plates and from ten exvivo bovine cortical bones. The estimated root-mean-squared error (RMSE) in the simulated test data for the longitudinal bulk velocity (VL), transverse bulk velocity (VT), and cortical thickness (Th) is 97 m/s, 53 m/s and 0.089 mm, respectively. The predicted RMSE in the bone-mimicking phantom experiments for VL., VT., and Th is 120 m/s, 80 m/s, and 0.14 mm, respectively. The experimental dispersion trajectories are matched with the theoretical dispersion curves calculated by the predicted parameters in ex-vivo bovine cortical bone experiments. Our proposed method demonstrates a feasible approach for the accurate evaluation of long cortical bones based on UGW.

20.
Sci Total Environ ; 740: 140403, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927559

RESUMO

Waste amendments, such as steel slag and biochar, have been reported as a strategy for improving soil fertility, crop productivity, and carbon (C) sequestration in agricultural lands. However, information regarding the subsequent effects of steel slag and biochar on C cycling and the underlying microbial mechanisms in paddy soils remains limited. Hence, this study aimed to examine the effect of these waste amendments (applied in 2015-2017) on total soil CO2 emissions, total and active soil organic C (SOC) contents, and microbial communities in the early and late seasons in a subtropical paddy field. The results showed that despite the exogenous C input from these waste amendments (steel slag, biochar and slag + biochar), they significantly (P < 0.05) decreased total CO2 emissions (e.g., by 41.9-59.6% at the early season), compared to the control soil. These amendments also significantly (P < 0.001) increased soil salinity and pH. The increased soil pH had a negative effect (r = -0.37, P < 0.05) on microbial biomass C (MBC). The biochar and slag + biochar treatments (cf. control) significantly (P < 0.001) increased SOC contents in the both seasons. The amendments altered the soil microbial community structure that associated with soil C cycling: (1) all three amendments increased the relative abundance of Agromyces and Streptomyces, which was associated with higher soil pH (cf. control); and (2) biochar and slag + biochar treatments caused a higher relative abundance of Sphingomonas, which was supported by high SOC contents under those amendments. Overall, this study demonstrated that the steel slag and biochar amendments altered microbial community composition due to changes in key soil properties, such as salinity, pH and SOC contents, with implications for increasing soil C stocks while mitigating CO2 emissions in the paddy field.


Assuntos
Oryza , Solo , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Carvão Vegetal , Microbiologia do Solo , Aço
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