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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(14)2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708737

RESUMO

Grain filling is an importantly developmental process which is associated with the yield and quality of foxtail millet (Setaria italic L.). However, the molecular mechanisms of grain filling are rarely reported in foxtail millet. In our study, RNA-seq was performed to investigate the transcriptional dynamics and identify the key genes involved in grain filling in foxtail millet at five different developmental stages. A total of 11,399 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including 902 transcription factors (TFs), were identified. Certain important genes involved in grain filling were discovered through a function annotation and temporal expression patterns analysis. These genes included genes associated with starch biosynthesis, cell-wall invertases, hormone signal transduction, and polyamine metabolism pathways. The expression levels of seven randomly selected DEGs were validated by a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). This study provides the first insight into the changes in the gene expression of grain filling at different developmental stages in foxtail millet. These results could help understand the complex molecular mechanisms of the panicle formation in foxtail millet and other cereal crops.

2.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue ; 29(2): 133-137, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32626874

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze the effect of porcelain layer thicknesses and substrates on color properties and translucency of IPS e.max LT porcelain laminate veneers used to restore tetracycline stained teeth. METHODS: Porcelain specimens with different core and veneer thickness (veneer/core thickness: 0.25 mm/0.25 mm, 0.50 mm/0.25 mm, 0.25 mm/0.50 mm, 0.50 mm/0.50 mm, and 0.25 mm/0.75 mm) were fabricated by heat-press layering technique. CIE L*a*b* parameters were measured under simulated tetracycline backgrounds and black and white backgrounds by a spectrophotometer, color differences ΔE001 between specimens on simulated tetracycline backgrounds and backgrounds themselves and ΔE002 between specimens on simulated tetracycline backgrounds and white background were calculated. The translucent parameter(TP) was also calculated. The data were submitted to statistical analysis with SPSS 17.0 software package. RESULTS: ΔE001 increased with increase of thickness of the core and veneer layer, but there was no significant difference between 0.25 mm and 0.50 mm core thickness groups with 0.50 mm veneer in thickness (P>0.01). Except for light grey, ΔE002 decreased over other substrates with increase of thickness of the core and veneer layer, but there was no significant difference between 0.50 mm and 0.75 mm core thickness groups with 0.25 mm veneer in thickness (P>0.01). Both ΔE001 and ΔE002 were significantly different over different substrates(P<0.01). TP decreased as the increase of core and veneer thickness and TP was significantly different with different core and veneer thickness(P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Both the core/veneer thickness and the substrate have significant influence on color matching and masking ability of IPS e.max LT porcelain laminate veneers used to restore tetracycline stained teeth. As for IPS e.max LT porcelain veneers, the color property was the best when yellowish tetracycline stained teeth were restored, while the light grey was worst. The thickness of core and veneer has significant influence on the translucency of porcelain laminate veneers.


Assuntos
Porcelana Dentária , Facetas Dentárias , Cerâmica , Cor , Teste de Materiais , Tetraciclina
3.
Neurosci Lett ; : 135228, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622928

RESUMO

This article has been withdrawn at the request of the Editor-in-Chief. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493683

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to document the results of using fibrin glue (FG) combined with pingyangmycin (PYM) for the embolism and sclerotherapy of maxillofacial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). STUDY DESIGN: We reviewed the associated clinical data from December 2012 to June 2017 for 25 patients with maxillofacial AVMs. The major treatment method was direct percutaneous puncture and injection of FG combined with PYM. Treatment outcomes were assessed through physical examination, Doppler ultrasonography, computed tomography, and 3-dimensional computed tomography angiography scans. Follow-up time ranged from 12 months to 3 years after the last treatment (mean 21 months). RESULTS: Of the 25 lesions, 80% showed greater than 90% reduction, 12% showed greater than 75% reduction, and 8% showed greater than 50% reduction. Superficial skin necrosis or mucous ulcer occurred in 3 patients and healed without intervention. Regrowth was observed in 3 patients with extensive lesions involving multiple anatomic regions. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that embolization and sclerotherapy with the use of FG combined with PYM are safe and effective for the treatment of small- to medium-sized, locally dilated maxillofacial AVMs. For AVMs involving multiple anatomic regions, combined application of this approach with other options should be considered.

5.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 15(7): 973-982, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: IgA nephropathy is the most common primary glomerular disease in the world. Marked by mesangial inflammation and proliferation, it generally leads to progressive kidney fibrosis. As the Janus kinase signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway has been implicated as an important mediator of diabetic kidney disease and FSGS, detailed investigation of this pathway in IgA nephropathy was undertaken to establish the basis for targeting this pathway across glomerular diseases. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Well characterized patients with IgA nephropathy and controls were studied, allowing us to compare 77 patients with biopsy-proven IgA nephropathy with 45 healthy subjects. STAT phosphorylation was assessed in peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs) by phosphoflow before and after cytokine stimulation. Kidney Janus kinase signal transducer and activator of transcription activity was studied by immunofluorescence and by transcriptomic studies. An STAT1 activity score was established using downstream transcriptional targets of pSTAT1 and associated with disease and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: We found PBMCs to have upregulated pSTAT production at baseline in patients with IgA nephropathy with a limited reserve to respond to cytokine stimulation compared with controls. Increased staining in glomerular mesangium and endothelium was seen for Jak-2 and pSTAT1 and in the tubulointerstitial for JAK2, pSTAT1, and pSTAT3. Activation of the Janus kinase signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway was further supported by increased pSTAT1 and pSTAT3 scores in glomerular and tubulointerstitial sections of the kidney (glomerular activation Z scores: 7.1 and 4.5, respectively; P values: <0.001 and <0.001, respectively). Clinically, phosphoflow results associated with proteinuria and kidney function, and STAT1 activation associated with proteinuria but was not associated with progression. CONCLUSIONS: Janus kinase signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling was activated in patients with IgA nephropathy compared with controls. There were altered responses in peripheral immune cells and increased message and activated proteins in the kidney. These changes variably related to proteinuria and kidney function.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 730: 139124, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388112

RESUMO

Invasion of plants in wetland ecosystems is often associated with changes in litter decomposition and in nutrient use, uptake and cycling between invasive and native plants. We studied litter decomposition rates, N and P release and elemental composition and stoichiometry during the invasion of Phragmites australis and Spartina alterniflora into native Cyperus malaccensis wetlands in the Minjiang River estuary (China). Aboveground litter in mono-specific stands decomposed faster for Cyperus malaccensis than for Spartina alterniflora and for Phragmites australis. Cyperus malaccensis litter decomposed slower under the stands of both invasive species. In contrast, the litter of both invasive species decomposed faster under Cyperus malaccesis stands. We observed that the invasion of these species was associated with an increased rate of aboveground litter decomposition and large absolute amounts of C, N and P released from the litter when litter from invasive species was mixed with that of native species. Our results suggest that the large nutrient release from litter during early stages of the invasion favored invasive species with larger size and higher nutrient-uptake capacity than the native species.


Assuntos
Solo , Áreas Alagadas , Carbono , China , Ecossistema , Espécies Introduzidas , Nitrogênio , Fósforo , Poaceae
7.
Virol Sin ; 2020 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32274680

RESUMO

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and H9N2 subtype Avian influenza virus (AIV) are two notorious avian respiratory pathogens that cause great losses in the poultry industry. Current inactivated commercial vaccines against NDV and AIV have the disadvantages of inadequate mucosal responses, while an attenuated live vaccine bears the risk of mutation. Dendritic cell (DC) targeting strategies are attractive for their potent mucosal and adaptive immune-stimulating ability against respiratory pathogens. In this study, DC-binding peptide (DCpep)-decorated chimeric virus-like particles (cVLPs), containing NDV haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and AIV haemagglutinin (HA), were developed as a DC-targeting mucosal vaccine candidate. DCpep-decorated cVLPs activated DCs in vitro, and induced potent immune stimulation in chickens, with enhanced secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) secretion and splenic T cell differentiation. 40 µg cVLPs can provide full protection against the challenge with homologous, heterologous NDV strains, and AIV H9N2. In addition, DCpep-decorated cVLPs could induce a better immune response when administered intranasally than intramuscularly, as indicated by robust sIgA secretion and a reduced virus shedding period. Taken together, this chimeric VLPs are a promising vaccine candidate to control NDV and AIV H9N2 and a useful platform bearing multivalent antigens.

8.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 41(7): 986-994, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32317755

RESUMO

Current cancer immunotherapy has limited response rates in a large variety of solid tumors partly due to the low immunogenicity of the tumor cells and the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (ITM). A number of clinical cancer treatment modalities, including radiotherapy, chemotherapy, photothermal and photodynamic therapy, have been shown to elicit immunogenicity by inducing immunogenic cell death (ICD). However, ICD-based immunotherapy is restricted by the ITM limiting its efficacy in eliciting a long-term antitumor immune response, and by severe systemic toxicity. To address these challenges, nanomedicine-based drug delivery strategies have been exploited for improving cancer immunotherapy by boosting ICD of the tumor cells. Nanosized drug delivery systems are promising for increasing drug accumulation at the tumor site and codelivering ICD inducers and immune inhibitors to simultaneously elicit the immune response and relieve the ITM. This review highlights the recent advances in nanomedicine-based immunotherapy utilizing ICD-based approaches. A perspective on the clinical translation of nanomedicine-based cancer immunotherapy is also provided.

9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(5)2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138205

RESUMO

Underground space engineering structures are generally subject to extensive damages and significant deformation. Given that composite rocks are prone to shear failure, which cannot be accurately monitored, the piezoelectric active sensing method and wavelet packet analysis method were employed to conduct a shear failure monitoring test on composite rocks in this study. For the experiment, specimens were prepared for the simulation of the composite rocks using cement. Two pairs of piezoelectric smart aggregates (SAs) were embedded in the composite specimens. When the specimens were tested using the direct shear apparatus, an active sensing-based monitoring test was conducted using the embedded SAs. Moreover, a wavelet packet analysis was conducted to compute the energy of the monitoring signal; thus allowing for the determination of the shear damage index of the composite specimens and the quantitative characterization of the shear failure process. The results indicated that upon the shear failure of the composite specimens, the amplitudes and peak values of the monitoring signals decreased significantly, and the shear failure and damage indices of the composite specimens increased abruptly and approached a value of 1. The feasibility and reliability of the piezoelectric active sensing method, with respect to the monitoring of the shear failure of composite rocks, was therefore experimentally demonstrated in this study.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011108

RESUMO

Chemodynamic therapy (CDT) takes the advantages of Fenton-type reactions triggered by endogenous chemical energy to generate highly cytotoxic hydroxyl radicals. As a novel modality for cancer treatment, CDT shows minimal invasiveness and high tumor specificity by responding to the acidic and the highly concentrated hydrogen peroxide microenvironment of tumor. The CDT approach for spatiotemporal controllable reactive oxygen species generation exhibits preferable therapeutic performance and satisfying biosafety. In this review article, we summarized the recent advances of stimuli-activatable nanomedicines for CDT. We also overviewed the strategies for augmenting CDT performance, including increasing the catalytic efficacy through rational design of the nanomaterials, modulating the reaction condition, inputting external energy field, and regulating the tumor microenvironment. Furthermore, we discussed the potential and challenges of stimuli-activatable nanomedicine for clinical translation and future development of CDT. This article is categorized under: Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Oncologic Disease Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology Diagnostic Tools > In Vivo Nanodiagnostics and Imaging.

12.
Int J Hyperthermia ; 37(1): 37-48, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918588

RESUMO

Purpose: In cardiac radiofrequency (RF) ablation, RF energy is often used to create a series of transmural lesions for blocking accessory conduction pathways. Electrode-tissue contact force (CF) is one of the key determinants of lesion formation during RF ablation. Low electrode-tissue CF is associated with ineffective RF lesion formation, whereas excessive CF may increase the risk of steam pop and perforation. By using finite element analysis, we studied lesion size and features at different values of electrode-tissue CF in cardiac RF ablation.Materials and methods: A computer-model-coupled electrode-tissue CF field, RF electric field, and thermal field were developed to study temperature distribution and lesion dimensions in cardiac tissue subjected to CF of 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 g with identical RF voltage and duration.Results: Increasing CF was associated with an increase in lesion depth, width, and cross-section area. The lesion cross-section area exhibited a linear increase, and the lesion width was significantly greater than lesion depth under the identical ablation condition. The relationship between CF value and lesion size is a power function: Lesion Size = a × CFb (Lesion Depth = 3.17 × CF0.14 and Lesion Width = 5.17 × CF0.14).Conclusions: This study confirmed that CF is a major determinant of RF lesion size and that electrode-tissue CF affects the amount of power dissipated in tissue. At a constant RF voltage and application time, RF lesion size increases as CF increases.

13.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(1): 9-16, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of keto acid (KA) supplements on Chinese patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) are unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of KA supplementation on nutritional status, inflammatory markers, and bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) parameters in a cohort of Chinese patients with MHD without malnutrition. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, controlled, single-center clinical study conducted in 2011 till 2014. Twenty-nine patients with MHD were randomly assigned to a control (n = 14) or a KA (n = 15) group. The control group maintained a dietary protein intake of 0.9 g/kg/day. The KA group received additional KA supplement (0.1 g/kg/day). BIA was used to determine the lean tissue mass, adipose tissue mass, and body cell mass. The patients' nutritional status, dialysis adequacy, and biochemical parameters were assessed at the ends of the third and sixth months with t test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test. RESULTS: The daily total energy intake for both groups was about 28 kcal/kg/day. After 6 months, the Kt/V (where K is the dialyzer clearance of urea, t is the dialysis time, and V is the volume of the distribution of urea) was 1.33 ±â€Š0.25 in KA group, and 1.34 ±â€Š0.25 in the control group. The median triceps skin-fold thickness in KA group was 12.00 and 9.00 mm in the control group. In addition, the median hand-grip strength in KA group was 21.10 and 25.65 kg in the control group. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to the anthropometry parameters, dialysis adequacy, serum calcium and phosphorus levels, inflammatory markers, and amino-acid profiles, or in relation to the parameters determined by BIA. Both groups achieved dialysis adequacy and maintained nutritional status during the study. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of Chinese patients with MHD, the patients in the control group whose dietary protein intake was 0.9 g/kg/day and total energy intake was 28 kcal/kg/day, maintained well nutritional status during study period. The KA supplement (0.1 g/kg/day) did not improve the essential amino acid/non-essential amino acid ratio, nor did it change the patients' mineral metabolism, inflammatory parameters, or body compositions.

14.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(2): 430-436, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675033

RESUMO

Hydrogen energy is a high-efficiency and clean energy, but the problem of storage still prevents its extensive use. Large-surface-area, two-dimensional (2D) layered materials have an advantage in hydrogen storage applications. Monolayer MoS2 is a typical 2D material that has been widely studied recently. And the 1T' phase of MoS2 is a focus especially for studies concerning hydrogen. Here, first-principles calculations are carried out to investigate the adsorption behaviors of hydrogen molecules on 1T' MoS2. Comparing with other MoS2-based materials, such as doped or decorated 2H-MoS2, 1T' MoS2 has even better performance in hydrogen adsorption, and its preparation is easier. In multiple hydrogen molecule adsorption, the material shows good stability and appropriate adsorption energy while adsorbing hydrogen molecules. With the researches in this paper, the connection between the adsorption energy and hydrogen mass fraction was set up. This can provide a reference for further studies on hydrogen storage applications.

15.
Environ Geochem Health ; 42(2): 483-497, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342217

RESUMO

Aerobic methanotrophs in paddies serve as methane (CH4) filters and thereby reduce CH4 emissions. Amending soil with waste products can mitigate CH4 emissions in crops, but little is known about the impacts of amendments with steel slag and biochar on the populations and activities of aerobic methanotrophs in rice cropland. We used real-time quantitative PCR detecting system and high-throughput sequencing to determine the effects of slag and biochar amendments on CH4 emission, abundance, and community structure of methanotrophs, and the relationships between soil properties and the abundance and community composition of methanotrophs during the rice growing season in both early and late paddies. Soil salinity and pH were significantly higher for an amendment with both slag and biochar than the control in both the early and late paddies, and pH was significantly higher for a slag amendment in the late paddy. Cumulative CH4 emission was lower for the slag and slag + biochar amendments than the control in early paddy by-34.1%. Methanotrophic abundance was three- and sixfold higher for the slag + biochar amendment than the control in the early and late paddies (p < 0.05), respectively. The abundance of different groups of methanotrophs varied among the treatments. The relative abundance of Methylosarcina was higher for the slag amendment than the control, and the relative abundance of Methylomonas was lower for biochar, and slag + biochar amendments than the control. The relative abundance of Methylocystis was higher for the slag and slag + biochar amendments than the control in the early paddy, and the relative abundance of Methylocystis was higher for the slag, biochar, and slag + biochar amendments in the late paddy. Univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that the higher abundance of methanotrophic bacteria for the slag and slag + biochar amendments was correlated with soil pH, salinity, soil organic carbon, and C/N ratio, and the relative abundances of Methylocystis, Methylomonas, and Methylosarcina were associated with the effective mitigation of CH4 emission in the paddies. A discriminant general analysis indicated that the total population of methanotrophs was larger for the slag + biochar amendment than the control, and that this effect was only weakly correlated with changes in the soil properties, demonstrating that this effect on the size and species composition of methanotrophic soil populations was mostly associated with a direct effect of the slag + biochar amendment.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Carvão Vegetal/química , Metano/análise , Microbiologia do Solo , Resíduos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/metabolismo , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Metalurgia , Metano/metabolismo , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estações do Ano , Solo/química
16.
J Hazard Mater ; 385: 121561, 2020 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740307

RESUMO

In this study, we demonstrate that a bacterial isolate Paraccocus versutus XT0.6 from the Xikuangshan antimony mine, the world largest antimony deposit, is capable of stibnite dissolution, oxidation of Sb(III), and formation of secondary Sb(V) bearing mineral. The isolate could oxidize dissolved Sb(III) aerobically and anaerobically. It was able to dissolve Sb(III) in solid minerals, which was subsequently oxidized to Sb(V) completely. Part of Sb(V) was scavenged by the formation of secondary Sb(V)-bearing mineral mopungite [NaSb(OH)6] in the biotic experiments. In contrast, Sb(III) released from mineral/rocks was only partially oxidized to Sb(V) and no secondary Sb-bearing mineral was formed in abiotic controls. These results demonstrated that microbial processes involved in the mobilization, oxidation, and transformation of antimony in minerals/rocks under ambient environmental conditions and offer new insights in biogeochemistry of Sb at mining areas.

17.
Clin Chim Acta ; 502: 201-206, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that plasma cancer antigen-125 (CA-125) is closely related to heart failure and new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF), but no study reported the relationship between CA-125 concentrations and advanced recurrence of AF ablation. This research is the first to describe CA-125 as a biomarker for the recurrence of AF after ablation. METHODS: A total of 422 AF patients undergoing catheter ablation were included in this study. RESULTS: During the 1-y follow-up, 326 patients (77.25%) maintained a sinus rhythm, whereas 83 patients (20.44%) presented AF recurrence. The patients with AF recurrence showed higher CA-125 concentrations at baseline than those with maintained sinus rhythm (P = 0.0001). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses revealed that persistent AF (HR 2.212; 95% CI: 1.396-3.504, P = 0.001) and CA-125 concentration (HR, 1.003; 95% (CI): 1.000-1.005, P = 0.019) were independent predictors of AF recurrence. According to the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, CA-125 yielded an optimal cut-off value of 11.05 U/ml, and its sensitivity and specificity reached 65.6% and 85.0%, respectively. In addition, the area under the curve (AUC) value spanned 80.3% (95% CI: 0.750-0.857, P < 0.0001). Moreover, the results of the subgroup analysis indicated that patients with persistent atrial fibrillation have higher concentrations of CA-125 and have an increased risk of the recurrence of AF. CONCLUSIONS: High CA-125 concentration is an independent predictor of AF recurrence after 1 y of AF ablation, especially in patients with persistent AF.

18.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(1): 489-498, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854952

RESUMO

We investigate whether slag and biochar applications have subsequent effects on greenhouse gas emissions from paddy fields by applying biochar (B), slag (S), and a biochar-slag mix (BS) to paddy fields in the Fuzhou Plain, China. Applications of the three treatments along with a control (CK) of no amendment were made in 2015 before early and late rice seedlings were transplanted. Two years later in 2017, the CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions in the different treatments and control were measured in the early and late rice growing seasons. The results showed that, in the rice growing season, the averaged CO2 emission in the control, biochar, slag, and mixed applications were (1723.66±194.56), (1245.52±155.05), (1140.29±79.68), and (1055.83±62.13) mg·(m2·h)-1, respectively. The CO2 emissions from the three treatments were significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05), and the reduction ratios of each treatment to the control were 27.74%, 33.84%, and 38.75%, respectively. The averaged CH4 emissions in the control, biochar, slag, and mixed applications were (0.45±0.03), (0.40±0.05), (0.36±0.10), and (0.25±0.04) mg·(m2·h)-1, respectively, which were lower, but not significantly so (P>0.05), than the control. The ratios of CH4 emissions from each treatment to the control were 11.11%, 20.00%, and 44.44%, respectively. The averaged N2O emissions from the control, biochar, slag, and mixed applications were (62.47±27.00), (115.09±30.94), (79.75±24.98), and (112.68±23.59) µg·(m2·h)-1, respectively. In comparison to the control, the biochar, slag, and mixed treatments increased the N2O emissions by 84.23%, 27.66%, and 80.37%, respectively. The global comprehensive warming potential indicated that the application treatments increased the comprehensive warming potential of the early and late rice paddy ecosystems; after 2 years of applying slag and biochar treatments, their effect on the emission reductions were not obvious.

19.
Transl Stroke Res ; 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833035

RESUMO

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption leads to the vasogenic brain edema and contributes to the early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, the mechanisms underlying the BBB damage following SAH are poorly understood. Here we reported that the neurotransmitter glutamate of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was dramatically increased in SAH patients with symptoms of cerebral edema. Using the rat SAH model, we found that SAH caused the increase of CSF glutamate level and BBB permeability in EBI, intracerebroventricular injection of exogenous glutamate deteriorated BBB damage and cerebral edema, while intraperitoneally injection of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1(mGluR1) negative allosteric modulator JNJ16259685 significantly attenuated SAH-induced BBB damage and cerebral edema. In an in vitro BBB model, we showed that glutamate increased monolayer permeability of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC), whereas JNJ16259685 preserved glutamate-damaged BBB integrity in HBMEC. Mechanically, glutamate downregulated the level and phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), decreased the tight junction protein occludin, and increased AQP4 expression at 72 h after SAH. However, JNJ16259685 significantly increased VASP, p-VASP, and occludin, and reduced AQP level at 72 h after SAH. Altogether, our results suggest an important role of glutamate in disruption of BBB function and inhibition of mGluR1 with JNJ16259685 reduced BBB damage and cerebral edema after SAH.

20.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of keto acid (KA) supplements on Chinese patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) are unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of KA supplementation on nutritional status, inflammatory markers, and bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) parameters in a cohort of Chinese patients with MHD without malnutrition. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, controlled, single-center clinical study conducted in 2011 till 2014. Twenty-nine patients with MHD were randomly assigned to a control (n = 14) or a KA (n = 15) group. The control group maintained a dietary protein intake of 0.9 g/kg/day. The KA group received additional KA supplement (0.1 g/kg/day). BIA was used to determine the lean tissue mass, adipose tissue mass, and body cell mass. The patients' nutritional status, dialysis adequacy, and biochemical parameters were assessed at the ends of the third and sixth months with t test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test. RESULTS: The daily total energy intake for both groups was about 28 kcal/kg/day. After 6 months, the Kt/V (where K is the dialyzer clearance of urea, t is the dialysis time, and V is the volume of the distribution of urea) was 1.33 ±â€Š0.25 in KA group, and 1.34 ±â€Š0.25 in the control group. The median triceps skin-fold thickness in KA group was 12.00 and 9.00 mm in the control group. In addition, the median hand-grip strength in KA group was 21.10 and 25.65 kg in the control group. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to the anthropometry parameters, dialysis adequacy, serum calcium and phosphorus levels, inflammatory markers, and amino-acid profiles, or in relation to the parameters determined by BIA. Both groups achieved dialysis adequacy and maintained nutritional status during the study. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of Chinese patients with MHD, the patients in the control group whose dietary protein intake was 0.9 g/kg/day and total energy intake was 28 kcal/kg/day, maintained well nutritional status during study period. The KA supplement (0.1 g/kg/day) did not improve the essential amino acid/non-essential amino acid ratio, nor did it change the patients' mineral metabolism, inflammatory parameters, or body compositions.

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