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1.
Diabetologia ; 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034442

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Bile-acid (BA) signalling is crucial in metabolism homeostasis and has recently been found to mediate the therapeutic effects of glucose-lowering treatments, including α-glucosidase inhibitor (AGI). However, the underlying mechanisms are yet to be clarified. We hypothesised that BA signalling may be required for the glucose-lowering effects and metabolic benefits of AGI. METHODS: Leptin receptor (Lepr)-knockout (KO) db/db mice and high-fat high-sucrose (HFHS)-fed Fxr (also known as Nr1h4)-KO mice were treated with AGI. Metabolic phenotypes and BA signalling in different compartments, including the liver, gut and endocrine pancreas, were evaluated. BA pool profiles were analysed by mass spectrometry. The islet transcription profile was assayed by RNA sequencing. The gut microbiome were assayed by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. RESULTS: AGI lowered microbial BA levels in BA pools of different compartments in the body, and increased gut BA reabsorption in both db/db and HFHS-fed mouse models via altering the gut microbiome. The AGI-induced changes in BA signalling (including increased activation of farnesoid X receptor [FXR] in the liver and inhibition of FXR in the ileum) echoed the alterations in BA pool size and composition in different organs. In Fxr-KO mice, the glucose- and lipid-lowering effects of AGI were partially abrogated, possibly due to the Fxr-dependent effects of AGI on decelerating beta cell replication, alleviating insulin hypersecretion and improving hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: By regulating microbial BA metabolism, AGI elicited diverse changes in BA pool composition in different host compartments to orchestrate BA signalling in the whole body. The AGI-induced changes in BA signalling may be partly required for its glucose-lowering effects. Our study, hence, sheds light on the promising potential of regulating microbial BA and host FXR signalling for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. DATA AVAILABILITY: Sequencing data are available from the BioProject Database (accession no. PRJNA600345; www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/600345).

2.
Endocrine ; 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078117

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Mild thyroid peroxidase (TPO) deficiency is rare and can be extremely occult. This study aimed to replenish the phenotypic and genetic spectrum of mild TPO deficiency. METHODS: Four unrelated patients with progressive goiter were described in this study. Genes associated with congenital hypothyroidism were analyzed and in vitro functional experiments were conducted to evaluate the residual TPO enzyme activities of each mutant. RESULTS: The four patients (age: 5-27 years old) were characterized by progressive goiter, discordant alteration in thyroid hormones with free triiodothyronine (FT3) to free thyroxine (FT4) ratio ranging from 0.557 to 1.012, two with slightly elevated TSH level and two with normal TSH level. Six different mutations of TPO gene were identified including three novel mutations (p.Glu337Lys, p.Ala544Val, and p.Glu641Lysfs∗21). Two mutants (p.Asp224del and p.Ala544Val) with residual TPO activity of 41 and 65% may explain the mild TPO-deficient picture in our study. After levothyroxine (L-T4) therapy, three patients showed gradual decline of FT3 to FT4 ratio and two patients showed reduced thyroid size. CONCLUSION: Patients with mild TPO deficiency can present with progressive goiter, normal TSH level, and largely reserved TPO activities.

3.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985003

RESUMO

High serum urate is a prerequisite for gout and associated with metabolic disease. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have reported dozens of loci associated with serum urate control, however there has been little progress in understanding the molecular basis of the associated loci. Here we employed trans-ancestral meta-analysis using data from European and East Asian populations to identify ten new loci for serum urate levels. Genome-wide colocalization with cis-expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) identified a further five new candidate loci. By cis- and trans-eQTL colocalization analysis we identified 34 and 20 genes respectively where the causal eQTL variant has a high likelihood that it is shared with the serum urate-associated locus. One new locus identified was SLC22A9 that encodes organic anion transporter 7 (OAT7). We demonstrate that OAT7 is a very weak urate-butyrate exchanger. Newly implicated genes identified in the eQTL analysis include those encoding proteins that make up the dystrophin complex, a scaffold for signaling proteins and transporters at the cell membrane; MLXIP that, with the previously identified MLXIPL, is a transcription factor that may regulate serum urate via the pentose-phosphate pathway; and MRPS7 and IDH2 that encode proteins necessary for mitochondrial function. Functional fine-mapping identified six loci (RREB1, INHBC, HLF, UBE2Q2, SFMBT1, HNF4G) with colocalized eQTL containing putative causal SNPs. This systematic analysis of serum urate GWAS loci identified candidate causal genes at 24 loci and a network of previously unidentified genes likely involved in control of serum urate levels, further illuminating the molecular mechanisms of urate control.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954081

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with an increased prevalence of dysglycaemia, which includes impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients with PCOS demonstrate abnormal patterns of steroid hormones. Here, we analyse the correlation between glucose metabolism and serum steroid hormones in PCOS. DESIGN: Observational double-centre study. PATIENTS: 914 patients with PCOS. MEASUREMENTS: We assessed the glucose metabolism status of all patients according to the 1999 WHO criteria. Serum steroid hormones were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 26 years (interquartile range: 21-30), and 40.6% (371/914) had abnormal glucose metabolism: 29.3% (268/914) had prediabetes, and 11.3% (103/914) had T2DM. Correlation analysis not adjusting for confounding factors revealed that serum aldosterone, androstenedione, oestrone, pregnenolone and the free androgen index were positively correlated, while progesterone was negatively correlated with the risk of abnormal glucose metabolism. After adjusting for age, body mass index and fasting insulin levels in the logistic regression model, only aldosterone (P = .013), androstenedione (P = .046) and oestrone (P = .014; in quartiles) were correlated with the risk of abnormal glucose metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates a high prevalence of prediabetes and T2DM in patients with PCOS. Furthermore, there were positive correlations of serum aldosterone, androstenedione and oestrone with the risk of abnormal glucose metabolism after adjusting for confounding factors.

5.
Sci Adv ; 6(2): eaax9605, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31934629

RESUMO

Overnutrition results in adiposity and chronic inflammation with expansion of white adipose tissue (WAT). However, genetic factors controlling fat mass and adiposity remain largely undetermined. We applied whole-exome sequencing in young obese subjects and identified rare gain-of-function mutations in CTNNB1/ß-catenin associated with increased obesity risk. Specific ablation of ß-catenin in mature adipocytes attenuated high-fat diet-induced obesity and reduced sWAT mass expansion with less proliferated Pdgfrα+ preadipocytes and less mature adipocytes. Mechanistically, ß-catenin regulated the transcription of serum amyloid A3 (Saa3), an adipocyte-derived chemokine, through ß-catenin-TCF (T-Cell-Specific Transcription Factor) complex in mature adipocytes, and Saa3 activated macrophages to secrete several factors, including Pdgf-aa, which further promoted the proliferation of preadipocytes, suggesting that ß-catenin/Saa3/macrophages may mediate mature adipocyte-preadipocyte cross-talk and fat expansion in sWAT. The identification of ß-catenin as a key regulator in fat expansion and human adiposity provides the basis for developing drugs targeting Wnt/ß-catenin pathway to combat obesity.

6.
Endocrinology ; 161(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761936

RESUMO

Microribonucleic acids (miRNAs) are essential for the regulation of development, proliferation, and functions of pancreatic ß-cells. The conserved miR-221/222 cluster is an important regulator in multiple cellular processes. Here we investigated the functional role of miR-221/222 in the regulation of ß-cell proliferation and functions in transgenic mouse models. We generated 2 pancreatic ß-cell-specific-miR-221/222 transgenic mouse models on a C57BL/6J background. The glucose metabolic phenotypes, ß-cell mass, and ß-cell functions were analyzed in the mouse models. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of miR-221/222 was performed on ß-cells and mouse insulinoma 6 (MIN6) cells to explore the effect and mechanisms of miR-221/222 on ß-cell proliferation and functions. Luciferase reporter assay, histological analysis, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were carried out to study the direct target genes of miR-221/222 in ß-cells. The expression of miR-221/222 was significantly upregulated in ß-cells from the high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice and db/db mice. Overexpression of miR-221/222 impaired the insulin production and secretion of ß-cells and resulted in glucose intolerance in vivo. The ß-cell mass and proliferation were increased by miR-221/222 expression via Cdkn1b and Cdkn1c. MiR-221/222 repressed insulin transcription activity through targeting Nfatc3 and lead to reduction of insulin in ß-cells. Our findings demonstrate that miR-221/222 are important regulators of ß-cell proliferation and insulin production. The expression of miR-221/222 in ß-cells could regulate glucose metabolism in physiological and pathological processes.

7.
Diabetes ; 69(1): 48-59, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649162

RESUMO

Statins are cholesterol-lowering agents that increase the incidence of diabetes and impair glucose tolerance via their detrimental effects on nonhepatic tissues, such as pancreatic islets, but the underlying mechanism has not been determined. In atorvastatin (ator)-treated high-fat diet-fed mice, we found reduced pancreatic ß-cell size and ß-cell mass, fewer mature insulin granules, and reduced insulin secretion and glucose tolerance. Transcriptome profiling of primary pancreatic islets showed that ator inhibited the expression of pancreatic transcription factor, mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, and small G protein (sGP) genes. Supplementation of the mevalonate pathway intermediate geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP), which is produced by 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase, significantly restored the attenuated mTOR activity, v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA) expression, and ß-cell function after ator, lovastatin, rosuvastatin, and fluvastatin treatment; this effect was potentially mediated by sGP prenylation. Rab5a, the sGP in pancreatic islets most affected by ator treatment, was found to positively regulate mTOR signaling and ß-cell function. Rab5a knockdown mimicked the effect of ator treatment on ß-cells. Thus, ator impairs ß-cell function by regulating sGPs, for example, Rab5a, which subsequently attenuates islet mTOR signaling and reduces functional ß-cell mass. GGPP supplementation could constitute a new approach for preventing statin-induced hyperglycemia.

8.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 521(4): 1055-1060, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733831

RESUMO

Hyperplasia of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) is key to the progression of asthma. Isorhynchophylline (IRN) derived from Uncaria rhynchophylla can inhibit the proliferation of AMSCs. The major purpose of the current study was to assess the effect of IRN on the asthma symptoms was assessed both in vitro and in vivo, and the associated mechanism of the effect was also explored by focusing on the function of miR-200a. Asthma model was induced using ovalbumin (OVA) method and AMSC hyperplasia model was induced using TGF-ß1. The effect of IRN on allergic asthma mice and the effect of IRN on the proliferation of ASMCs were investigated as well, and the changes in miR-200a level and FOXC1/NF-κB pathway were detected. The administration of IRN attenuated the eosinophils recruitment in BALF, reduced collagen deposition in lung tissues, and suppressed production of IgE and pro-inflammation cytokines. IRN also inhibited the proliferation and induced the apoptosis of ASMCs. Moreover, the administration of IRN increased the level of miR-200a while inhibited the activation of FOXC1/NF-κB pathway. However, after the inhibition of miR-200a level, the function of IRN on ASMCs was impaired. Collectively, it was demonstrated that the effect of IRN on asthma relied on the up-regulation of miR-200a, which then deactivated FOXC1/NF-κB pathway.

9.
J Diabetes ; 12(1): 10-20, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170331

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the association between birth weight and diabetes in a Chinese population, and the effects of body mass index (BMI) and lifestyle factors in later life on this association. METHODS: Data from 49 118 participants aged ≥40 years with recalled birth weight from the Risk Evaluation of cAncers in Chinese diabeTic Individuals: a lONgitudinal (REACTION) study, a nationwide population-based cohort, were used. Diabetes diagnosis was based on oral glucose tolerance tests and HbA1c measurements. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association of birth weight and risk of diabetes in later life. RESULTS: Increased risk of diabetes was associated with lower or higher birth weight. Compared with individuals with a birth weight of 2500 to 3499 g, the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of diabetes for individuals with a birth weight of <2500, between 3500 and 3999, and ≥4000 g were 1.28 (1.11-1.47), 1.11 (1.04-1.19), and 1.20 (1.07-1.34), respectively. Significant associations were prominent in participants with a current BMI ≥24 kg/m2 , but not detected in those with a normal BMI (OR 1.20 [95% CI 0.96-1.49], 1.11 [95% CI 0.98-1.25], and 1.10 [95% CI 0.89-1.37], respectively). Moreover, there was no increased risk of diabetes in individuals with a low birth weight but with healthy dietary habits (OR 0.94; 95% CI 0.68-1.29) or ideal physical activity (OR 1.41; 95% CI 0.97-2.04). CONCLUSIONS: A U-shaped association was observed between birth weight and the risk of diabetes. Healthy lifestyles (healthy dietary habits or ideal physical activity) may eliminate the negative effects of low birth weight in the development of diabetes, but not the effect of high birth weight.

10.
Pathol Int ; 70(1): 12-20, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872565

RESUMO

This study was to investigate the expression of coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) and miR-16-5p in cervical cancer (CC), and explore their roles in radioresistance. Western blot and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the expression of CARM1 in tissues and cells. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect the expression of miR-16-5p. CC cells received different doses of X-ray exposure, and then cell counting kit-8 method and colony formation assay were used to detect cell proliferation. Apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. Then we used Targetscan database to predict that CARM1 is a potential target of miR-16-5p, and further verified the targeting relationship between them by western blot, RT-PCR and dual luciferase reporter experiments. We demonstrated that CARM1 were highly expressed in CC tissues and radio-resistant CC cells, while miR-16-5p expression was low. Under irradiation, up-regulation of CARM1 can induce radiotherapy resistance of CC cells, while overexpression of miR-16-5p or CARM1 knockdown could inhibit the survival of CC cell and induced apoptosis. CARM1 was verified as a target for miR-16-5p. Besides, up-regulation of CARM1 reversed the increase in radiosensitivity induced by miR-16-5p. Collectively, we concluded that miR-16-5p promoted the radiosensitivity of CC cells by targeting CARM1.

11.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 8(2): 115-124, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: National investigations on the interaction of insulin resistance, ß-cell dysfunction, and obesity with the development of diabetes are scarce in China. We aimed to investigate the individual and joint associations of insulin resistance and ß-cell dysfunction with incident diabetes, and to examine the modifying effect of BMI and waist circumference on these associations among adults with normal glucose tolerance and with prediabetes. METHODS: In this nationwide, population-based, prospective cohort study, we analysed data from the China Cardiometabolic Disease and Cancer Cohort Study, which recruited adults aged 40 years or older during 2011-12 (baseline) and invited participants to attend follow-up visits in 2014-16. Patients with diabetes at baseline, missing data for baseline measures of glucose tolerance status, missing data for baseline homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA) indexes, missing data for baseline covariates, and missing data for measures of glucose tolerance status at follow-up visits were excluded. At baseline and follow-up visits, a comprehensive set of questionnaires, clinical measurements, oral glucose tolerance tests, and laboratory examinations were carried out following standardised protocols. Glucose tolerance status and prediabetes were defined according to the American Diabetes Association 2010 criteria. In the main analysis, we examined the contributions of insulin resistance (HOMA of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) and ß-cell dysfunction (HOMA of ß-cell function [HOMA-B]) to diabetes risk, and evaluated the impact of obesity on these associations. FINDINGS: 94 952 participants (31 517 men and 63 435 women) were included in the analysis. High HOMA-IR was associated with a greater hazard of diabetes (quartile 4 vs 1: hazard ratio [HR] 6·70, 95% CI 6·08-7·39; per unit increase in Z score: HR 2·17, 95% CI 2·10-2·24) than low HOMA-B (quartile 1 vs 4: 4·08, 3·72-4·48; per unit decrease in Z score: 1·92, 1·85-2·00). Approximately 24·4% (95% CI 23·6-25·2) of the incident diabetes could be attributed to insulin resistance and 12·4% (11·2-13·7) could be attributed to ß-cell dysfunction. The HRs for diabetes were 1·83 (95% CI 1·72-1·95) per unit increase in Z score of HOMA-IR and 2·03 (1·86-2·21) per unit decrease in Z score of HOMA-B among participants with normal weight; the corresponding HRs for diabetes were 2·02 (1·93-2·11) and 1·88 (1·79-1·98) among participants with obesity (pinteraction=0·0091). These associations and interactions were similar for participants with normal glucose tolerance or prediabetes. INTERPRETATION: Insulin resistance shows a stronger association with incident diabetes than does ß-cell dysfunction in Chinese adults, and this association pattern was more prominent among adults with obesity. Given the limitations of HOMA indexes as surrogate measures of insulin resistance and ß-cell dysfunction, these findings should be interpreted with caution. FUNDING: National Natural Science Foundation of China.

12.
Liver Int ; 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been considered as a risk factor of adverse cardiovascular prognosis, but the relationship between subclinical atherosclerosis and NAFLD remains controversial. We aimed to investigate the impact of subclinical atherosclerosis on incident NAFLD and liver fibrosis. METHODS: We included 3433 subjects aged ≥40 years and free of NAFLD. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV) and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) were measured at baseline to assess subclinical atherosclerosis status. At follow-up visit, NAFLD was diagnosed by hepatic ultrasound and fibrosis was assessed by NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS), fibrosis-4 score (FIB-4) and aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI). RESULTS: A total of 654 (19.1%) subjects developed NAFLD during the follow-up period of 4.3 years. In the multivariate logistic regression models, each standard deviation (SD) increment of ba-PWV was associated with 20% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-1.33), 22% (95% CI 1.08-1.39), 17% (95% CI 1.04-1.32) and 37% (95% CI 1.07-1.75) higher risk of incident NAFLD, higher NFS, FIB-4 and APRI respectively. Compared with the lowest quartile of ba-PWV, the highest quartile ba-PWV had 63% (95% CI 1.20-2.22), 112% (95% CI 1.42-3.17), 86% (95% CI 1.28-2.69) and 201% (95% CI 1.29-7.04) higher risk of incident NAFLD, higher NFS, FIB-4 and APRI respectively. Besides, per SD increase of CIMT was associated with a 12% (95% CI 1.01-1.24) higher risk of incident NAFLD. CONCLUSIONS: Increased ba-PWV was independently associated with incident NAFLD and higher probability of fibrosis, whereas CIMT was associated with incident NAFLD but not with fibrosis.

13.
Phys Rev E ; 100(4-1): 043202, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770946

RESUMO

We investigate the precession of electron spins during beam-driven plasma-wakefield acceleration based on density down-ramp injection by means of full three-dimensional (3D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. A relativistic electron beam generated via, e.g., laser wakefield acceleration, serves as the driving source. It traverses the prepolarized gas target and accelerates polarized electrons via the excited wakefield. We derive the criteria for the driving beam parameters and the limitation on the injected beam flux to preserve a high degree of polarization for the accelerated electrons, which are confirmed by our 3D PIC simulations and single-particle modeling. The electron-beam driver is free of the prepulse issue associated with a laser driver, thus eliminating possible depolarization of the prepolarized gas due to ionization by the prepulse. These results provide guidance for future experiments towards generating a source of polarized electrons based on wakefield acceleration.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681165

RESUMO

Idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) patients are characterized by the absence of puberty and varying degrees of deteriorated metabolic conditions. Osteocalcin (OC) could regulate testosterone secretion and energy metabolism, but it remains unknown whether such an effect exists in IHH patients. Our study is aimed to examine the relationship between serum OC levels with testosterone and its responsiveness to gonadotropin stimulation and metabolic profiles in male IHH patients. A total of 99 male patients aged 18-37 years and diagnosed with IHH were enrolled in the current study, and the relationships between OC and testicular volume, baseline total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), and peak TT (Tmax) levels after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulation, gonadotropin responsiveness index (GRI), which is calculated by dividing Tmax by testicular volume, as well as metabolic profiles, such as 2-h post-challenge glucose (2hPG) and fat percentage (fat%), were analyzed. The results showed that OC had an independent negative relationship with testicular volume (r = -0.253, P = 0.012) and a positive association with Tmax (r = 0.262, P = 0.014) after adjusting for confounders. In addition, OC was a major determinant of GRI (adjusted R 2 for the model = 0.164, P = 0.012), fat% (adjusted R 2 for the model = 0.100, P = 0.004), and 2hPG (adjusted R 2 for the model = 0.054, P = 0.013) in IHH patients. In conclusion, OC is associated with testosterone secretion upon gonadotropin stimulation, glucose metabolism, and fat mass variations in IHH. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02310074).

15.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; 44(6): 1441-1452, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is prevalent in patients with all stages of CKD and is associated with adverse outcome. Abnormally elevated GFR, or hyperfiltration, may play a crucial role in the initiation and progression of CKD. However, the association between depression and hyperfiltration is not known. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between depression and hyperfiltration. METHODS: This was an observational cross-sectional study. A total of 3,716 volunteers (1,303 males and 2,413 females) aged 40-75 years without CKD from a community in China were included for the study. Depressive symptoms and the presence of a minor or major depressive episode were assessed with the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition)-based structured interview, respectively. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants in the present study was 53.8 ± 9.0 years. 115 participants had clinically relevant depression, and 122 participants had a minor or major depressive episode. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted for potential confounders, the association between clinically relevant depression and renal hyperfiltration remained significant in men but not in women. As compared with men without depression (PHQ <5) or depressive episodes, those with clinically relevant depression (PHQ ≥10) had a significantly higher risk of renal hyperfiltration. The fully adjusted OR (95% CI) was 4.81 (1.62-14.30, p = 0.005), those with a major depressive episode had a higher risk of renal hyperfiltration (OR 7.45; 95% CI 2.04-27.21, p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Depressive symptoms and major depressive episodes are associated with renal hyperfiltration in middle-aged and elderly Chinese men without CKD. Future studies are needed to verify and clarify the role of depression in the development of abnormally high eGFR and CKD.

16.
J Comput Biol ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710242

RESUMO

The early diagnosis of lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) is difficult, causing an unsatisfactory prognosis. Therefore, the 5-year survival rate of LUSC is poor. This study aimed at screening the potential diagnostic and prognostic markers for LUSC. The data of LUSC gene expression profiles and DNA methylation were obtained from the The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database; the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and the differentially methylated genes (DMGs) were screened out by an independent t-test and Benjamini/Hochberg methods. Further, the classifiers of the gene expression and DNA methylation markers in LUSC were constructed. After that, diagnostic and prognostic markers in LUSC were analyzed by the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. The DEGs and the DMGs from the TCGA database of LUSC were screened out. After strict filtration, we identified three potential DMGs (POU domain, class 4, transcription factor 2 [POU4F2], EN1, single-minded homolog 1 [SIM1]) for early diagnosis and seven potential DEGs (G-protein coupled receptor 78 [GPR78], PCDHA5, myosin binding protein H [MYBPH], RTL3, KIAA0408, HSD3B2, PCDHA12) for prognosis of LUSC. The tumor-normal tissue classification model and prognosis model were validated in two independent datasets. In addition, the PPI network was constructed, including three DMGs and the five DEGs (GPR78, MYBPH, KIAA0408, HSD3B2, PCDHA12) of the seven DEGs. The potential DMGs (POU4F2, EN1, SIM1) and DEGs (GPR78, MYBPH, KIAA0408, HSD3B2, PCDHA12) for the diagnosis and prognosis of LUSC identified in this article are expected to be further applied in clinical practice of the treatment of LUSC.

17.
Endocrine ; 66(3): 666-672, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606865

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Up to 40% of patients with pheochromocytomas or paragangliomas (PPGLs) carry a germline mutation. This study aimed to build a nomogram using clinical information to predict the probability of germline mutation in PPGLs. METHODS: The data were collected from 563 patients who were diagnosed with PPGLs between 2002 and 2015. Clinical and pathologic features were assessed with a multivariable logistic regression analysis to predict the presence of germline mutations. A nomogram to predict the probability of germline mutation was constructed with R software. Discrimination and calibration were employed to evaluate the performance of the nomogram. RESULTS: By multivariate analysis, age at manifestation, bilateral, or multifocal tumors and family history were identified as independent predictors of the presence of any germline mutation. The nomogram was then developed using these three variables. The nomogram showed an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0. 841 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.809-0.871). The calibration plot indicated that the nomogram-predicted probabilities compared very well with the actual probabilities (Hosmer-Lemeshow test: P = 0.888). CONCLUSION: The nomogram is a valuable predictive tool for the presence of germline mutations in patients with PPGLs.

18.
FEBS Open Bio ; 9(11): 1869-1879, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505105

RESUMO

Cervical cancer is one of the most common gynecological malignancies globally, Unfortunately, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are not effective at treating some cases of this disease, and the 5-year survival rate is only 40-50%. Cell division cycle 25A (CDC25A) has been shown to induce radioresistance in a variety of tumor cells, but the role of CDC25A in the radioresistance of cervical cancer has not been fully elucidated. Here, we report that CDC25A is highly expressed and miR-122-5p lowly expressed in cervical cancer tissues and cells. The TargetScan database was used to predict CDC25A as a target of miR-122-5p, and the interactions between miR-122-5p and CDC25A were further confirmed by western blot, real-time PCR and dual-luciferase reporter assay. Under X-ray irradiation, up-regulation of CDC25A can promote the radiation resistance of cervical cancer cells, whereas overexpression of miR-122-5p or knockdown of CDC25A inhibits the survival and induces apoptosis of cervical cancer colonies. In conclusion, our data suggest that miR-122-5p enhances the radiosensitivity of cervical cancer cells by targeting CDC25A.

19.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e028904, 2019 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501106

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Upper body fat has been associated with an unfavourable cardiometabolic risk. We aimed to investigate the associations between mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), a novel indicator of upper body fat, and a wide spectrum of cardiometabolic risk profiles in Chinese population. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional analyses were performed using data from a well-defined community in 2014, Shanghai, China. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 6287 Chinese adults (2310 men and 3977 women) aged 40 years or older. OUTCOME MEASURES: Multivariable logistic regression model was used to examine the associations of MUAC with cardiometabolic disorders including central obesity, diabetes, hypertension, hypertriglyceridaemia, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and subclinical atherosclerosis. RESULTS: In the overall participants, after multivariable adjustment, each 1 SD (3.13 cm) increment in MUAC was positively associated with central obesity (OR 2.05; 95% CI 1.85 to 2.28), hypertension (OR 1.10; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.19) and low HDL cholesterol (OR 1.10; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.22). Multivariable-adjusted ORs for subclinical atherosclerosis were gradually increased across increasing quartiles of MUAC with the lowest quartile as reference (quartile 2: OR 1.31; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.58; quartile 3: OR 1.33; 95% CI 1.10 to 1.62; quartile 4: OR 1.45; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.80; p for trend=0.005). Similar but more prominent associations were observed among women than men. In addition, MUAC was significantly interacted with diabetes (p for interaction=0.04) and insulin resistance (p for interaction=0.01) on subclinical atherosclerosis. CONCLUSION: A greater MUAC was positively associated with higher risks of several cardiometabolic disorders and subclinical atherosclerosis in Chinese adults.

20.
Diabetes Care ; 42(11): 2117-2126, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455687

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Comprehensive assessment of serum lipidomic aberrations before type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) onset has remained lacking in Han Chinese. We evaluated changes in lipid coregulation antecedent to T2DM and identified novel lipid predictors for T2DM in individuals with normal glucose regulation (NGR). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In the discovery study, we tested 667 baseline serum lipids in subjects with incident diabetes and propensity score-matched control subjects (n = 200) from a prospective cohort comprising 3,821 Chinese adults with NGR. In the validation study, we tested 250 lipids in subjects with incident diabetes and matched control subjects (n = 724) from a pooled validation cohort of 14,651 individuals with NGR covering five geographical regions across China. Differential correlation network analyses revealed perturbed lipid coregulation antecedent to diabetes. The predictive value of a serum lipid panel independent of serum triglycerides and 2-h postload glucose was also evaluated. RESULTS: At the level of false-discovery rate <0.05, 38 lipids, including triacylglycerols (TAGs), lyso-phosphatidylinositols, phosphatidylcholines, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-plasmalogen phosphatidylethanolamines (PUFA-PEps), and cholesteryl esters, were significantly associated with T2DM risk in the discovery and validation cohorts. A preliminary study found most of the lipid predictors were also significantly associated with the risk of prediabetes. Differential correlation network analysis revealed that perturbations in intraclass (i.e., non-PUFA-TAG and PUFA-TAGs) and interclass (i.e., TAGs and PUFA-PEps) lipid coregulation preexisted before diabetes onset. Our lipid panel further improved prediction of incident diabetes over conventional clinical indices. CONCLUSIONS: These findings revealed novel changes in lipid coregulation existing before diabetes onset and expanded the current panel of serum lipid predictors for T2DM in normoglycemic Chinese individuals.

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