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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 236: 113508, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35427876

RESUMO

Perfluorooctanoate acid (PFOA) is a highly persistent and widespread chemical in the environment. PFOA serum levels in pregnant women are positively associated with an increased risk of placenta-related disorders. However, the mechanism of PFOA cytotoxicity involved in placental cells and cellular responses such as ER stress remains poorly understood. In this study, we studied the cellular toxicity of PFOA with a focus on proliferation and apoptosis in a human placental trophoblast cell line. Cell viability, number, apoptosis, stress response, activation of the involved signaling pathways were assessed. Our results showed PFOA affected cell viability, proliferation and also resulted in apoptosis. Besides, both pro-proliferation and pro-apoptosis effects were attenuated by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inhibitors. Further experiments demonstrated that two different signaling pathways were activated by PFOA-induced ER stress and involved in PFOA toxicity: the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent ERK signaling triggered trophoblast proliferation, while the ATF4-dependent C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) signaling was the trigger of apoptosis. We conclude that PFOA-induced ER stress is the trigger of proliferation and apoptosis of trophoblast via ROS or UPR signaling pathway, which leads to the altered balance critical to the normal development and function of the placenta.


Assuntos
Placenta , Trofoblastos , Apoptose , Caprilatos , Proliferação de Células , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos , Humanos , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/metabolismo
2.
Bioresour Technol ; 351: 127008, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35306128

RESUMO

High-solids anaerobic digestion (HS-AD) of food waste frequently confronted the acidification and failure under high organic loading rates (OLRs). Results indicated powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition significantly enhanced methane production and process stability than granular activated carbon, and columnar activated carbon at higher OLRs via accelerating the propionate consumption. Potential direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) partners, including various syntrophic oxidation bacteria and methanogens, were enriched with the activated carbon (AC) addition. Furthermore, DIET contribution to methane production was 35% by PAC, predicated by the modified Anaerobic Digestion Model No.1 (ADM1). This study deeply elucidated the DIET mechanism and offered the potential foundations for the selection and applications of AC-based materials in HS-AD of food waste.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Eliminação de Resíduos , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Elétrons , Alimentos , Metano , Esgotos/microbiologia
3.
Biopreserv Biobank ; 20(2): 138-148, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34714122

RESUMO

A growing body of evidence has demonstrated the importance of the gut microbiome in human health. In general, fecal microbial samples are used to study the mechanisms of relevant diseases. In this context, it is worth mentioning that an optimized cryopreservation method is urgently needed to successfully perform clinical diagnosis, therapy, and scientific investigations of the gut microbiome without affecting its viability and biological activity. In this study, we aimed to test the relative cryopreservation efficiency of different nontoxic natural cryoprotectants using infant fecal and meconium samples. First, we selected two facultative and two obligate anaerobic bacteria as the experimental gut microbial strain to compare these cryoprotectants' toxicity and concentration-dependent bacteria viabilities after cryopreservation, then the viabilities and bacterial diversity of mixed facultative and obligate anaerobic bacteria. Finally, we explored the effects of optimized cryoprotectants for meconium and infant feces after cryopreservation using 16S rRNA sequencing analyses. In addition, to better understand the effectiveness of these cryoprotectants, we used different freeze-thaw conditions mimicking real-life situations in the process of distribution. We found that the better choice for the infant fecal sample's cryopreservation was 100 mg/mL trehalose, whereas 200 mg/mL trehalose/betaine was the optimum choice for meconium cryopreservation. We hope that our results will shed light on the importance of natural cryoprotectants toward the long-term and stable viability of invaluable human gut microbial specimens.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Criopreservação/métodos , Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Humanos , Lactente , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Trealose
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 813: 151908, 2022 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838917

RESUMO

The cobalt-contaminated soil has exposed potential toxicity to humans, plants, and animals. Industrial activities like ore smelting, alloy manufacture, and electric and electronic devices production have induced the increased cobalt content in soil resulting in higher ecosystem risk in diverse environmental media. However, knowledge gaps in cobalt transfer in soil and the limited understanding of remediation techniques make it challenging to estimate their potential application scenarios. Thus, keeping in view the above facts, this paper summarizes the natural and anthropogenic sources arousing the increase of cobalt in soil and reviews the cobalt species in soil and factors that influence the mobilization of cobalt. Moreover, the status of the remediation technologies is critically evaluated, including phytoremediation, immobilization, and separation technologies (soil washing and electroremediation) with a focus on the application and mechanism of phytoremediation and immobilization. Based on the actual application, further improvements and prospects of all techniques are proposed. This comprehensive review might serve to guide technique selection and inspire more scientific exploration on the remediation of cobalt-contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cobalto , Ecossistema , Humanos , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
5.
Sleep Breath ; 26(1): 489-496, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33929688

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the association of sleep duration and quality in early pregnancy with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and explore their interaction effect on GDM. METHODS: Participants from 2 hospitals were enrolled in this case-control study between April 2018 and November 2020. Sleep duration and quality were measured using the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). RESULTS: A total of 1300 participants (396 GDM and 904 controls) were included. After adjusting for potential confounders, higher global PSQI scores or poor sleep quality were associated with GDM with odds ratios of 1.13 (95% CI 1.07, 1.19, p < 0.001) and 1.75 (95% CI 1.29, 2.38, p < 0.001), respectively; sleep duration < 7 h, 9-9.9 h and ≥ 10 h were all associated with increased GDM with odds ratios of 4.28 (95% CI 2.51, 7.31, p < 0.001), 1.69 (95% CI 1.20, 2.39, p = 0.003), and 4.42 (95% CI 3.01, 6.50, p < 0.001), respectively. In the stratified analysis based on sleep duration, the effect of poor sleep quality on GDM in the < 7 h group (OR 5.47, 95% CI 2.57, 11.64, p < 0.001) was much stronger than that in the 7-8.9 h group (OR 1.24, 95% CI 0.81, 1.91, p = 0.327), and the p value of the interaction was 0.011. CONCLUSIONS: Poor sleep quality and short or long sleep duration in early pregnancy were all associated with GDM, and an interaction effect between short sleep duration and poor sleep quality on GDM was noted.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Front Vet Sci ; 8: 759283, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34869731

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a cosmopolitan zoonosis caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, which affects humans and a wide range of mammalian intermediate hosts. Parasite tetraspanin proteins are crucial for host-parasite interactions, and therefore they may be useful for vaccine development or disease diagnosis. In the present study, the major antigen coding sequence of tetraspanin 11 (Eg-TSP11) from E. granulosus was determined. The results of immunolocalization showed that Eg-TSP11 was mainly located in the tegument of adult worms and protoscoleces. Western blotting analysis showed that the serum from dogs injected with recombinant Eg-TSP11 (rEg-TSP11) could recognize Eg-TSP11 among natural protoscolex proteins. Moreover, the serum from dogs with E. granulosus infection also recognized rEg-TSP11. Serum indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays demonstrated that IgG levels gradually increased after the first immunization with rEg-TSP11 compared with those in the control group. Furthermore, the serum levels of interleukin 4, interleukin 5, and interferon gamma were significantly altered in the rEg-TSP11 group. Importantly, we found that vaccination with rEg-TSP11 significantly decreased worm burden and inhibited segment development in a dog model of E. granulosus infection. Based on these findings, we speculated that rEg-TSP11 might be a potential candidate vaccine antigen against E. granulosus infection in dogs.

7.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 604313, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34712206

RESUMO

Background: Triclosan (TCS) is a widely used antibacterial agent in personal care products and is ubiquitous in the environment. We aimed to examine whether TCS exposure affects microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract of zebrafish. Methods: After exposure to TCS 0 (Dimethyl Sulphoxide, DMSO control), 0.03, 0.3, 3, 30, 100, and 300ng/ml, respectively, from day 0 to 120days post fertilization (dpf), or for 7days in adult 4-month zebrafish, the long- and short-term impact of TCS exposure on the microbiome in the gastrointestinal tract was evaluated by analyzing 16S rRNA gene V3-V4 region sequencing. Results: The top two most dominant microbiota phyla were Proteobacteria and Fusobacteria phylum in all zebrafish groups. In TCS exposure 0-120 dpf, compared with DMSO control, the mean number of microbial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was 54.46 lower (p<0.0001), Chao indice 41.40 lower (p=0.0004), and Ace indice 34.10 lower (p=0.0044) in TCS 300ng/ml group, but no change was observed in most of the other TCS concentrations. PCoA diagram showed that the microbial community in the long-term TCS 300ng/ml exposure group clustered differently from those in the DMSO control and other TCS exposure groups. A shorter body length of the zebrafish was observed in the long-term TCS exposure at 0.03, 100, and 300ng/ml. For 7-day short-term exposure in adult zebrafish, no difference was observed in alpha or beta diversity of microbiota nor the relative abundance of Proteobacteria or Fusobacteria phylum among DMSO control and any TCS levels, but a minor difference in microbial composition was observed for TCS exposure. Conclusions: Long-term exposure to high TCS concentration in a window from early embryonic life to early adulthood may reduce diversity and alter the composition of microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract. The effect of short-term TCS exposure was not observed on the diversity of microbiota but there was a minor change of microbial composition in adult zebrafish with TCS exposure.

9.
Aquat Toxicol ; 238: 105926, 2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340000

RESUMO

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is known as an environmental endocrine disruptor and has developmental neurotoxicity that could be associated with behavior changes in human and animal studies. Previous studies have shown that PFOA might affect the dopaminergic nervous system. However, the mode of action underlying the effects of PFOA remains poorly understood. Our study used zebrafish as an animal model to investigate the effects of early-life PFOA exposure on dopaminergic neuron development and dopamine functions in zebrafish larvae. Zebrafish fertilized eggs were exposed to different concentrations of PFOA (0, 10, 100, 1000 µg/L). After exposure to PFOA for 7 days, the locomotor activity of zebrafish was decreased; the mRNA levels of nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group a member 2b (nr4a2b), paired box 2 and 5 (pax2, pax5), tyrosine hydroxylase 1/2 (th1/th2) and dopamine transporter (dat) were increased; mRNA and protein level of mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (manf) were decreased. Neural cell proliferation in the preoptic area of hypothalamus was increased. In conclusion, dopaminergic neuron development might be one of the targets of early-life PFOA exposure. The neurobehavior changes induced by PFOA exposure might link to multiple aspects of dopaminergic neuron development and dopamine functions in zebrafish larvae.

10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 223: 112546, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330038

RESUMO

Trace levels of oxytetracycline (OTC)-a veterinary antibiotic and feed additive-are widespread in the environment. Studies revealed that OTC potentially impairs thyroid function, which may affect neurobehaviour; however, the impact of exposure to environmental concentrations of OTC on adult neurobehaviour is unknown. In this study, the effects of OTC on zebrafish after 30-day exposure were investigated. The total swimming distance was significantly increased under vibration and light/dark stimulation, while time spent in the white area was prolonged during the black/white preference test, indicating that the zebrafish became bolder and more impulsive under low OTC exposure. Additionally, monoamine neurotransmitter (5-hydroxytryptamine, dopamine, norepinephrine) levels were decreased and gene expression of monoamine oxidase (mao) involved in neurotransmitter metabolism was upregulated at the transcription level after OTC exposure. Because triiodothyronine (T3) levels were enhanced following exposure to OTC, we speculated that T3 may mediate OTC damage to the nervous system. Our simulated molecular docking analysis showed that OTC combined with the sodium iodide cotransporter protein may result in excessive T3 synthesis. We further exposed zebrafish to T3, and they exhibited similar behaviour to the OTC exposure group. In conclusion, environmental OTC may activate monoamine oxidase and enhance the metabolism of monoaminergic neurotransmitters via T3, thereby inducing abnormal neurobehaviour.


Assuntos
Oxitetraciclina , Animais , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Oxitetraciclina/toxicidade , Tri-Iodotironina , Peixe-Zebra
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112389, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082246

RESUMO

Triclosan (TCS) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC), which is used ubiquitously as an antimicrobial ingredient in healthcare products and causes contamination in the environment such as air, water, and biosolid-amended soil. Exposure to TCS may increase the risk of reproduction diseases and health issues. Several groups, including ours, have proved that TCS increased the biosynthesis of steroid hormones in different types of steroidogenic cells. However, the precise mechanism of toxic action of TCS on increased steroidogenesis at a molecular level remains to be elucidated. In this study, we try to address the mode of action that TCS affects energy metabolism with increased steroidogenesis. We evaluated the adverse effects of TCS on energy metabolism and steroidogenesis in human ovarian granulosa cells. The goal is to elucidate how increased steroidogenesis can occur with a shortage of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) whereas mitochondria-based energy metabolism is impaired. Our results demonstrated TCS increased estradiol and progesterone levels with upregulated steroidogenesis gene expression at concentrations ranging from 0 to 10 µM. Besides, glucose consumption, lactate level, and pyruvate kinase transcription were increased. Interestingly, the lactate level was attenuated with increased steroidogenesis, suggesting that pyruvate fate was shifted away from the formation of lactate towards steroidogenesis. Our study is gathering evidence suggesting a mode of action that TCS changes energy metabolism by predominating glucose flow towards the biosynthesis of steroid hormones. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that TCS presents such toxic action in disrupting hormone homeostasis.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/toxicidade , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Células da Granulosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Triclosan/toxicidade , Anaerobiose , Animais , Estradiol/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Granulosa/metabolismo , Humanos , Progesterona/metabolismo
12.
Environ Int ; 156: 106621, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Humans are widely exposed to environmental perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), which may affect glucose homeostasis. However, research linking PFAS exposure to glucose homeostasis during pregnancy is limited and the results were inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the association between PFAS exposure and glucose homeostasis in pregnancy in a large prospective cohort. METHODS: A total of 2747 pregnant women who participated in the Shanghai Birth Cohort, had blood samples in early pregnancy and completed a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 24-28 gestational weeks were included. 10 PFAS were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS-MS) in the plasma samples in early pregnancy. Logistic regression was used to explore the associations between PFAS concentrations and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), while multiple linear regression was used to model the associations between PFAS and OGTT fasting, 1-h and 2-h glucose levels. Potential confounders were adjusted. Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) and a quantile-based g-computation approach (qgcomp) were employed to explore the joint and independent effects of PFAS on glucose homeostasis. RESULTS: The incidence of GDM was 11.8%. One log-unit increment in plasma concentrations in early pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of GDM for perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) (adjusted odd ratio (aOR) = 1.23, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.05, 1.44) and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) (aOR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.46). Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and PFHpA were positively correlated with 1-h and 2-h glucose levels. Results of the mixed exposure model showed that the joint effects of PFAS were significantly associated with abnormal glucose homeostasis; In the BKMR model, PFAS mixture exposure was positively associated with the GDM incidence, 1-h and 2-h glucose levels and negatively correlated with FBG level. A similar trend could be observed in qgcomp and the positive correlation between PFAS and 2-h glucose level was significant (ß = 0.12, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.20). PFOS, PFNA and PFHpA may be the main contributors after controlling for other PFAS congeners. PFOS was significantly correlated with GDM incidence and 2-h glucose level, and PFHpA was significantly associated with FBG and 2-h glucose levels. The above associations were more prominent among women with a normal prepregnant BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Environmental exposure to PFAS may affect glucose homeostasis in pregnancy and increase the risk of GDM, especially in normal weight women.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Diabetes Gestacional , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Teorema de Bayes , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Gestacional/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Glucose , Homeostase , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 262: 124-128, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015639

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between previous induced abortion and in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes among Chinese women. STUDY DESIGN: In this retrospective cohort study, a total of 1436 infertility patients treated with IVF for the first time in the reproductive centre of Anhui Province Maternity and Child Health Hospital from February 2014 to April 2018 were selected as the study population, and 95 (6.6 %) had a history of induced abortion. Data were assessed from the hospital electronic database and medical records in the reproductive centre. RESULTS: In total, 818 women (57.0 %) achieved clinical pregnancy, and 501 (34.9 %) achieved live birth. After adjustments for a series of potential confounding factors, women with a history of induced abortion had a significantly decreased probability of clinical pregnancy per transfer (OR: 0.71, 95 % CI: 0.53, 0.95, p = 0.037) and live birth per pregnancy (OR: 0.52, 95 % CI: 0.30, 0.90, p = 0.021) and a higher risk of miscarriage per pregnancy (OR: 1.89, 95 % CI: 1.24, 2.88, p = 0.009) than those without. Because relevant information was unavailable, the impacts of different types of previous induced abortion were not assessed. CONCLUSIONS: Previous induced abortion may have an adverse effect on IVF outcomes among infertility patients.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Criança , China , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Humanos , Nascido Vivo , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Environ Pollut ; 283: 117137, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33866218

RESUMO

Perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), an emerging pollutant, is associated with disruption of placental functions and adverse birth outcomes. However, the precise mechanism of this disruption remains unclear. Extravillous trophoblasts make up the majority of cells in the placenta, and have invasive abilities, which plays a critical role in a successful pregnancy. It has been reported that inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) signaling is associated with trophoblast migration and invasion. In this study, PFBS exposure was found to enhance trophoblast invasion and increase matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) levels. Additionally, PFBS upregulated iNOS levels and stimulated NO generation. iNOS inhibitor treatment attenuated the increased invasion of trophoblasts and MMP-9 expression induced by PFBS. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation was also enhanced by PFBS exposure. In the presence of an ERK pathway inhibitor, however, the increases in trophoblast invasion, the induction of NO production, iNOS expression and MMP-9 expression induced by PFBS were attenuated. Taken together, these results suggest that iNOS/NO signaling is triggered by activation of the ERK signaling pathway, and that iNOS/NO signaling mediates PFBS-induced stimulation of trophoblast invasion.


Assuntos
Placenta , Trofoblastos , Movimento Celular , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos , Humanos , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz , Óxido Nítrico , Gravidez , Ácidos Sulfônicos
15.
Environ Pollut ; 278: 116760, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725532

RESUMO

A paradoxical impact of high rates of production and consumption of antibiotics is their widespread release in the environment. Consequently, low concentrations of antibiotics and their byproducts have been routinely identified from various environmental settings especially from aquatic environments. However, the impact of such low concentrations of antibiotics on the exposed host especially in early life remains poorly understood. We exposed zebrafish to two different environmental concentrations of oxytetracycline and sulfamethoxazole, from larval stage to adulthood (∼120 days) and characterized their impact on the taxonomic diversity, antibiotic resistance genes, and metabolic pathways of the gut microbiome using metagenomic shotgun sequencing and analysis. Long term exposure of environmental concentrations of oxytetracycline and sulfamethoxazole significantly impacted the taxonomic composition and metabolic pathways of zebrafish gut microbiome. The antibiotic exposed samples exhibited significant enrichment of multiple flavobacterial species, including Flavobacterium sp. F52, Flavobacterium johnsoniae and Flavobacterium sp. Fl, which are well known pathogenic bacteria. The relative abundance of antibiotic resistance genes, especially several tetratcycline and sulfonamide resistance genes were significantly higher in the exposed samples and showed a linear correlation with the antibiotic concentrations. Furthermore, several metabolic pathways, including folate biosynthesis, oxidative phosphorylation, and biotin metabolism pathways, showed significant enrichment in the antibiotic exposed samples. Collectively, our results suggest that early life exposure of the environmental concentrations of antibiotics can increase the abundance of unfavorable bacteria, antibiotic resistance genes and associated pathways in the gut microbiome of zebrafish.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Flavobacterium , Peixe-Zebra
16.
Sleep Breath ; 25(1): 487-492, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32266661

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore the effect of nighttime sleep duration and midday napping in early pregnancy on gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among Chinese women. METHODS: Information on midday napping and nighttime sleep duration was assessed by a questionnaire. Diagnostic information of GDM was derived from the routine oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) during the second trimester of pregnancy. RESULTS: A total of 500 pregnant women, including 196 patients with GDM and 304 controls, were included in the present study. In the case group, 47% of women took a midday nap > 1 h/day, and the proportion was 22% in the control group. Compared with women who had a midday nap ≤ 1 h/day, women who had a nap > 1 h/day had a significantly increased risk of GDM (OR 3.00, 95% CI 1.87, 4.82, p < 0.001). Compared with women who had a nighttime sleep of 7 to 8.9 h/night, women who slept < 7 or ≥ 9 h/night all had a significantly increased risk of GDM. Stratified analyses showed that compared with the nighttime sleep duration of 7 to 8.9 h/day, the GDM risk of the < 7 h/night group increased among mothers who had a midday nap ≤ 1 h/day. The impact was stronger than among women who had a nap > 1 h/day (p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Shorter or longer nighttime sleep duration and longer midday napping duration in early pregnancy were all related to GDM. Midday napping would reduce the risk of GDM among mothers with shorter nighttime sleep duration.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/etiologia , Sono , Adulto , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
17.
Front Nutr ; 8: 773965, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34988108

RESUMO

Objective: Thyroid hormones are essential for neurodevelopment in early life. However, the impact of mild alterations in neonatal thyroid hormones on infant neurodevelopment and its sex dimorphism is unclear. We aimed to assess whether mild variations in neonatal thyroid hormones of term-born newborns with maternal euthyroid are related to neurodevelopment in 2-year-old boys and girls. Methods: This study used data from 452 singleton term-born infants of mothers with normal thyroid function in Shanghai, China, and their follow-up measure at the age of 2 years. Cord serum concentrations of free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) were measured by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassays and classified into three groups: the low (1st, Q1), middle (2nd-4th, Q2-Q4), and high (5th, Q5) quintiles. Neurodevelopment indices were assessed using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, third edition (ASQ-3), at 24 months of age. Results: Compared to infants with thyroid hormones in the middle (Q2-Q4), boys with FT4 in the lowest quintile had 5.08 (95% CI: 1.37, 8.78) points lower scores in the communication domain, 3.25 (0.25,6.25) points lower scores in the fine motor domain, and 3.84 (0.04, 7.64) points lower scores in the personal-social domain, respectively. Boys with FT3 in the highest quintile had 4.46 (0.81, 8.11) points increase in the personal-social domain. These associations were not observed in girls. No associations were observed between cord blood serum TSH and ASQ-assessed neurodevelopment in the boys or the girls. Conclusions: Mild alterations in thyroid hormones of newborns were associated adversely with neurodevelopment in boys, suggesting the importance of optimal thyroid hormone status for neurodevelopment in early life.

18.
J Cell Biol ; 219(10)2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854115

RESUMO

The eicosanoid leukotriene B4 (LTB4) relays chemotactic signals to direct neutrophil migration to inflamed sites through its receptor BLT1. However, the mechanisms by which the LTB4-BLT1 axis relays chemotactic signals during intravascular neutrophil response to inflammation remain unclear. Here, we report that LTB4 produced by neutrophils acts as an autocrine/paracrine signal to direct the vascular recruitment, arrest, and extravasation of neutrophils in a sterile inflammation model in the mouse footpad. Using intravital subcellular microscopy, we reveal that LTB4 elicits sustained cell polarization and adhesion responses during neutrophil arrest in vivo. Specifically, LTB4 signaling coordinates the dynamic redistribution of non-muscle myosin IIA and ß2-integrin, which facilitate neutrophil arrest and extravasation. Notably, we also found that neutrophils shed extracellular vesicles in the vascular lumen and that inhibition of extracellular vesicle release blocks LTB4-mediated autocrine/paracrine signaling required for neutrophil arrest and extravasation. Overall, we uncover a novel complementary mechanism by which LTB4 relays extravasation signals in neutrophils during early inflammation response.


Assuntos
Inflamação/genética , Leucotrieno B4/genética , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Receptores do Leucotrieno B4/genética , Animais , Comunicação Autócrina/genética , Antígenos CD18/genética , Movimento Celular/genética , Fatores Quimiotáticos/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Camundongos , Miosina não Muscular Tipo IIA/genética , Comunicação Parácrina/genética
19.
Aquat Toxicol ; 227: 105608, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858424

RESUMO

As a feed additive in agriculture, the antibiotic oxytetracycline (OTC) has become widely distributed in the natural environment, leading to the exposure of many organisms to low doses of OTC. Although OTC is clinically contraindicated in children because of its multiple side effects, the effect of exposure to low doses of environmental OTC on children is unknown, particularly during development. In this study, we investigated the effects of OTC on the thyroid endocrine system in zebrafish, through determinations of the whole-body contents of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and analysis of the mRNA expression of regulatory genes involved in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to OTC at environmentally relevant concentrations from 2 h to 120 days post-fertilisation. After exposure to OTC at 1,000 and 5,000 ng/L, T3 contents were significantly enhanced (37.8% and 45.1%, respectively) and TSH contents were reduced (16% and 16.3%, respectively) compared with those in the controls. The OTC-driven increase in the transcription of genes involved in thyroid synthesis (tpo and nis) may be responsible for the altered T3 levels. These data indicate that OTC may cause thyroid dysfunction and lead to reduced TSH secretion owing to enhanced negative feedback control of the HPT axis. Meanwhile, a decrease in body length, weight, and BMI and an increase in heart rate were observed with increasing OTC exposure. In conclusion, our results indicate that long-term exposure to low concentrations of OTC may alter the transcription of key genes involved in the HPT axis, as well as T3 and TSH contents, thereby disrupting the thyroid system and affecting the growth and development of zebrafish.


Assuntos
Oxitetraciclina/toxicidade , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Tireotropina , Tiroxina/metabolismo , Tri-Iodotironina/metabolismo
20.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 60, 2020 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preterm birth (PTB, < 37 completed weeks' gestation) is one of the global public health concerns. Epidemiologic evidence on the potential impact of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) on PTB is still limited and inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the associations between prenatal PFAS exposure and PTB among singleton live births. METHODS: We studied 2849 mother-infant pairs in the Shanghai Birth Cohort (SBC) from 2013 to 2016. Ten PFAS in maternal plasma in early pregnancy (gestational age, median (interquartile range): 15 (13-16) weeks) were measured. Primary outcomes were duration of gestation, PTB, spontaneous PTB and clinically indicated PTB. A linear regression model was used to assess the associations between ln-transformed PFAS and duration of gestation (in weeks). Logistic regression models were applied to estimate the relative risks of these outcomes. RESULTS: The incidence of overall PTB was 4.8% (95% confidence limit: 4.0-5.6%, n = 136) in this study population. In the linear regression analyses, PFAS were not associated with the duration of gestation after controlling for potential confounders. In the multiple logistic models, no significant associations were observed between PFAS and overall PTB, spontaneous or indicated PTB. CONCLUSION: In this prospective cohort study, we did not observe significant associations between maternal plasma PFAS concentrations in early pregnancy and gestational length, overall PTB, spontaneous or indicated PTB.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Fluorcarbonetos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/induzido quimicamente , Adulto Jovem
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