Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 6.337
Filtrar
1.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 44, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common hospital-acquired infection (HAI) in intensive care units (ICUs). Ventilator-associated event (VAE), a more objective definition, has replaced traditional VAP surveillance and is now widely used in the USA. However, the adoption outside the USA is limited. This study aims to describe the epidemiology and clinical outcomes of VAEs in China, based on a prospectively maintained registry. METHODS: An observational study was conducted using an ICU-HAI registry in west China. Patients that were admitted to ICUs and underwent mechanical ventilation (MV) between April 1, 2015, and December 31, 2018, were included. The characteristics and outcomes were compared between patients with and without VAEs. The rates of all VAEs dependent on different ICUs were calculated, and the pathogen distribution of patients with possible VAP (PVAP) was described. RESULTS: A total of 20,769 ICU patients received MV, accounting for 21,723 episodes of mechanical ventilators and 112,697 ventilator-days. In all, we identified 1882 episodes of ventilator-associated condition (VAC) events (16.7 per 1000 ventilator-days), 721 episodes of infection-related ventilator-associated complications (IVAC) events (6.4 per 1000 ventilator-days), and 185 episodes of PVAP events (1.64 per 1000 ventilator-days). The rates of VAC varied across ICUs with the highest incidence in surgical ICUs (23.72 per 1000 ventilator-days). The median time from the start of ventilation to the onset of the first VAC, IVAC, and PVAP was 5 (3-8), 5 (3-9), and 6 (4-13) days, respectively. The median length of hospital stays was 28.00 (17.00-43.00), 30.00 (19.00-44.00), and 30.00 (21.00-46.00) days for the three VAE tiers, which were all longer than that of patients without VAEs (16.00 [12.00-23.00]). The hospital mortality among patients with VAEs was more than three times of those with non-VAEs. CONCLUSIONS: VAE was common in ICU patients with ≥ 4 ventilator days. All tiers of VAEs were highly correlated with poor clinical outcomes, including longer ICU and hospital stays and increased risk of mortality. These findings highlight the importance of VAE surveillance and the development of new strategies to prevent VAEs.

2.
Org Lett ; 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544606

RESUMO

A ternary catalytic system comprising a chiral aldehyde, a transition metal, and a Lewis acid is rationally designed for the asymmetric α-allylic alkylation reaction of aza-aryl methylamines and π-allylmetal electrophiles. Structural diversity chiral amines bearing carbon-carbon double bonds and aza-heterocycles are produced in moderate to good yields with good to excellent enantioselectivities. These products can be readily converted into other chiral amines without the loss of enantioselectivity. A reasonable reaction mechanism is proposed to illustrate the stereoselective control results.

3.
Cell ; 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545088

RESUMO

Rich fossil evidence suggests that many traits and functions related to terrestrial evolution were present long before the ancestor of lobe- and ray-finned fishes. Here, we present genome sequences of the bichir, paddlefish, bowfin, and alligator gar, covering all major early divergent lineages of ray-finned fishes. Our analyses show that these species exhibit many mosaic genomic features of lobe- and ray-finned fishes. In particular, many regulatory elements for limb development are present in these fishes, supporting the hypothesis that the relevant ancestral regulation networks emerged before the origin of tetrapods. Transcriptome analyses confirm the homology between the lung and swim bladder and reveal the presence of functional lung-related genes in early ray-finned fishes. Furthermore, we functionally validate the essential role of a jawed vertebrate highly conserved element for cardiovascular development. Our results imply the ancestors of jawed vertebrates already had the potential gene networks for cardio-respiratory systems supporting air breathing.

4.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; : 1-6, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547262

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The authors investigated the effect of foot cooling (FC) between sets in a leg press pyramid workout with resistance-trained participants. METHODS: A total of 12 resistance-trained men (age = 21.8 [0.6] y; training experience = 1.7 [1] y) performed a pyramid workout, including 4 sets of 85% to 90% 1-repetition maximum leg press exercise to exhaustion with interset FC or noncooling in a repeated-measures crossover design separated by 5 days. The authors immersed the participants' feet in 10°C water for 2.5 minutes between sets. RESULTS: Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed that FC elicited significantly higher repetitions and electromyography (EMG) values of the vastus lateralis (simple main effect of condition) than did noncooling (P < .05) in the second (repetitions: 11 [3.5] vs 7.75 [3.2]; EMG: 63.4% [19.4%] vs 54.5% [18.4%]), third (repetitions: 8.9 [3.2] vs 6.4 [2.1]; EMG: 71.5% [17.4%] vs 60.6% [19.4%]), and fourth (repetitions: 7.5 [2.7] vs 5.1 [2.2]; EMG: 75.2% [19.6%] vs 59.3% [23.5%]) sets. The authors also detected a simple main effect of set in the FC and noncooling conditions on repetitions (P < .05) and in the FC condition on the vastus lateralis EMG values. Although the authors observed no time × trial interactions for the rating of perceived exertion, the authors observed main effects on the sets (7.7-9.6 vs 7.9-9.3, P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Interset FC provides an ergogenic effect on a leg press pyramid workout and may offset fatigue, as indicated by higher repetitions and EMG response, without increasing perceived exertion.

5.
Rice (N Y) ; 14(1): 15, 2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547972

RESUMO

Small RNAs (sRNAs) are mainly classified into microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) according to their origin. miRNAs originate from single-stranded RNA precursors, whereas siRNAs originate from double-stranded RNA precursors that are synthesized by RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. Both of single-stranded and double-stranded RNA precursors are processed into sRNAs by Dicer-like proteins. Then, the sRNAs are loaded into ARGONAUTE proteins, forming RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs). The RISCs repress the expression of target genes with sequences complementary to the sRNAs through the cleavage of transcripts, the inhibition of translation or DNA methylation. Here, we summarize the recent progress of sRNA pathway in the interactions of rice with various parasitic organisms, including fungi, viruses, bacteria, as well as insects. Besides, we also discuss the hormone signal in sRNA pathway, and the emerging roles of circular RNAs and long non-coding RNAs in rice immunity. Obviously, small RNA pathway may act as a part of rice innate immunity to coordinate with growth and development.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 771: 145367, 2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548727

RESUMO

Determining the size speciation and chemical transformation of trace metals is of paramount in order to better assess the impact of hydrothermal activities on the ocean metal budgets. In this study, we examined the concentration and size speciation of dissolved trace metals (i.e. Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Mo, As, Pb, Cd) in the hydrothermal plumes of two vent fields (i.e. Longqi and Tiancheng) on the Southwest Indian Ridge. The majority of dissolved Mn (75-100%) in the buoyant and non-buoyant plumes were presented as soluble Mn (<1 kDa), while dissolved Fe in the buoyant plume contained considerable colloidal Fe (54-95%). More than 66% of hydrothermally dissolved Fe was removed in the buoyant plume within a short distance of dispersion. Except for the samples most proximal to the fluid source, concentrations of Cu, Ni and Mo in the plumes were comparable to those of the background seawater and independent of the plume dilution. Concentrations of dissolved As and Pb in the buoyant plume of the Tiancheng field were higher than those of the Longqi field, resulting from the scavenging of As in the Longqi field and the release of Pb from metal sulfide dissolution in the Tiancheng field. Concentrations of dissolved Cd in the non-buoyant plume were nearly identical to the background seawater and soluble Cd was dominant (75-92%) in the soluble phase. In contrast, 33-96% (or 0.024-0.085 µg/kg) of dissolved Cd was removed in the buoyant plume and the remaining dissolved Cd was mainly in colloidal phase (up to 96%), suggesting that hydrothermal plume was likely an important sink of oceanic Cd and colloidal ligands played an important role in the stabilization of hydrothermal Cd. Our study has demonstrated the very dynamic nature of trace metal speciation in hydrothermal vent fluids.

7.
Gastrointest Endosc ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Intrapapillary capillary loops (IPCLs) are microvascular structures that correlate with invasion depth of early squamous cell neoplasia (ESCN) and allow accurate prediction of histology. Artificial intelligence may improve human recognition of IPCL patterns and prediction of histology to allow prompt access to endoscopic therapy of ESCN where appropriate METHODS: One hundred fifteen patients were recruited at 2 academic Taiwanese hospitals. ME-NBI videos of squamous mucosa were labeled as dysplastic or normal according to their histology and IPCL patterns classified by consensus of 3 experienced clinicians. A convolutional neural network (CNN) was trained to classify IPCLs, using 67742 high quality ME-NBI by 5-fold cross validation. Performance measures were calculated to give an average F1 score, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. A panel of 5 Asian and 4 European experts predicted the histology of a random selection of 158 images using the JES IPCL classification; accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated. RESULTS: Expert European Union (EU) and Asian endoscopists attained F1 scores (a measure of binary classification accuracy) of 97.0% and 98%, respectively. Sensitivity and accuracy of the EU and Asian clinicians were 97%, 98% and 96.9%, 97.1% respectively. The CNN average F1 score was 94%, sensitivity 93.7% and accuracy 91.7%. Our CNN operates at video rate and generates class activation maps that can be used to visually validate CNN predictions. CONCLUSIONS: We report a clinically interpretable CNN developed to predict histology based on IPCL patterns, in real-time, using the largest reported dataset of images for this purpose. Our CNN achieved diagnostic performance comparable to an expert panel of endoscopists.

8.
Arab J Gastroenterol ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33551347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: The present study was designed to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of antofloxacin-based bismuth quadruple therapy in Chinese patients with Helicobacter pylori infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Total 290 patients with H. pylori infection were randomly and equally divided into two groups as per different bismuth quadruple therapies for 14 d: colloidal bismuth pectin 200 mg thrice a day, lansoprazole 30 mg twice a day, amoxicillin 1 g twice a day, and antofloxacin 200 mg once a day (ACLA group) or levofloxacin 500 mg once a day (LCLA group). Eradication was assessed with 13C-urea breath test 6 wk after treatment completion; the primary endpoint was the eradication rate by intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analyses. The minimum inhibitory concentration was measured with the PDM epsilometer test to assess the susceptibility of H. pylori strains on gastric biopsy specimens to antofloxacin and levofloxacin. RESULTS: The eradication rates of H. pylori in the ACLA group were 93.8% and 97.8% for the ITT and PP analysis, respectively; these rates were significantly higher than those in the LCLA group, at 86.2% and 92.6%, respectively (p = 0.031 and 0.041, respectively). The total incidence of adverse events during the eradication therapy did not significantly differ between the ACLA and LCLA groups (31.7% vs. 37.9%%, p = 0.267), and the two groups displayed similar severity of adverse events (p = 0.156) and compliance rate (100% by ACLA vs. 97.8% by LCLA, p = 0.080). The eradication rate with the antofloxacin susceptible strains in the ACLA group was significantly higher than that with the resistant strains (99.2% vs. 66.7%, p = 0.045). Moreover, the eradication rate with the levofloxacin susceptible strains in the LCLA group was significantly higher than that with the resistant strains (95.3% vs. 80.0%, p = 0.013). CONCLUSION: Antofloxacin is safe and effective for H. pylori eradication. Antofloxacin-based bismuth quadruple therapy could be an alternative treatment for H. pylori eradication.

9.
Obes Rev ; : e13219, 2021 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554474

RESUMO

This systematic review investigated dose-response relationship between maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and pregnancy outcomes following assisted reproductive technology, including clinical pregnancy rate (CPR), miscarriage rate (MR), and live birth rate (LBR). We searched four major databases and finally included 105 studies involving more than 271,632 pregnant women. We performed linear or nonlinear dose-response meta-analyses using random effects models. At per-woman level, pooling of unadjusted estimates shown an inverted J-shaped relationship between maternal BMI and CPR; pooling of adjusted estimates showed a linear association, suggesting statistical association between higher maternal BMI and lower CPR (adjusted OR [aOR] for 5-unit increase in BMI: 0.96, 95%CI: 0.94-0.98). At per-cycle level, linear dose-response relationship was found between maternal BMI and CPR (crude relative risk, RR, [cRR] for 5-unit increase in BMI 0.97, 0.96-0.98; aOR 0.96, 0.94-0.99). Linear dose-response relationship was established between maternal BMI and the outcomes of MR or LBR (higher BMI associated with higher MR [cRR 1.15, 1.08-1.22] and lower LBR [cRR 0.91, 0.88-0.94] at per-woman level). Sensitivity analyses showed no significant changes. In conclusion, there is dose-response relationship between maternal BMI and pregnancy outcomes following assisted reproductive technology. Higher BMI values may suggest suboptimal pregnancy outcomes.

10.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559090

RESUMO

AIMS: Quinolone-containing triple therapy has been considered as the second-line therapy for eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). At present, there are no data to show the efficacy and safety of antofloxacin-based rescue therapy for the eradication of H. pylori, and this pilot clinical trial was designed. METHODS: A total of 196 patients who failed H. pylori eradication using the clarithromycin-based or metronidazole-based triple or bismuth quadruple therapy were randomly allocated to one of the following rescue eradication therapy groups: AEA group (antofloxacin 200 mg once daily, esomeprazole 20 mg + amoxicillin 1000 mg twice daily) for 14 days, or LEA group (levofloxacin 500 mg once daily, esomeprazole 20 mg + amoxicillin 1000 mg twice daily) for 14 days. The minimal inhibitory concentrations were tested by the E-test method. The gyrA mutation was analyzed by sequencing. Follow-up 13/14C-urea breath test was examined at 1 month after discontinuation. RESULTS: A total of 178 eligible patients were included in this study. The eradication rate was significantly higher in AEA group than in LEA group according to both ITT (87.6% vs. 68.5%; P = 0.002) and PP analyses (90.7% vs. 70.1%; P = 0.001). ITT analyses indicated that the eradication rate was significantly higher in AEA group than in LEA group with Asn87 mutation (78.9% vs. 31.3%; P = 0.005) and levofloxacin-resistant strains (76.9% vs. 44.2%; P = 0.003). Two groups exhibited similar adverse event rates (AEA 14.6% vs. LEA 20.2%, P = 0.323). CONCLUSIONS: The findings showed that antofloxacin may be a promising candidate in rescue therapy for H. pylori eradication failure in China.

11.
J Endourol ; 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528290

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to validate the efficacy and reliability of two predictive models for postoperative fever after retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) in pediatric patients Materials and Methods: A total of 124 children who were treated with RIRS between August 2014 and August 2020 in our center were included. All the predictors were obtained by preoperative routine examinations. Receiver Operative Curve (ROC) and Area Under Curve (AUC) were showed to compare the predictive power of the two models. RESULTS: 124 children included of 94 boys and 30 girls, with median ages of 2.1 (1.3, 7.0) years and median BMI of 17.3 (15.6, 20.6) kg/m2. The total points of the two nomograms were 81.0 (67.3, 90.3) and 45.5 (20.4, 94.0). Eventually, 21 children (16.9%) were suffered from postoperative fever. With exception of CRP values (25.0 vs. 5.0 mg/L, P = 0.015), irrigation volumes (800 vs. 500 mL, P = 0.01) and total points of two predictive models (Nomogram 1: 88.0 vs. 76.0, P < 0.001; Nomogram 2: 76.0 vs. 39.0, P = 0.016), there was no statistical difference detected between the fever and non-fever groups. ROC curves showed that Nomogram 1 presented with better predictive accuracy and efficacy with excellent AUC values of 0.805 in comparison with Nomogram 2 (0.805 vs. 0.664, P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: We reported a sample of 124 children undergoing RIRS with the final stone free rate of 87.1%. 21 pediatric patients (16.9%) were suffered from postoperative fever. Nomogram 1 presented with better predictive power for postoperative fever after RIRS in pediatric patients.

12.
Mol Biol Evol ; 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533895

RESUMO

Endothermy is a typical convergent phenomenon which has evolved independently at least eight times in vertebrates, and is of significant advantage to organisms in extending their niches. However, how vertebrates other than mammals or birds, especially teleosts, achieve endothermy has not previously been fully understood. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of two billfishes (swordfish and sailfish), members of a representative lineage of endothermic teleosts. Convergent amino acid replacements were observed in proteins related to heat production and the visual system in two endothermic teleost lineages, billfishes and tunas. The billfish-specific genetic innovations were found to be associated with heat exchange, thermoregulation, and the specialized morphology, including elongated bill, enlarged dorsal fin in sailfish and loss of the pelvic fin in swordfish.

13.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 2021 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554451

RESUMO

The distribution of cholinergic cell bodies and fibers was examined in the mesencephalon and isthmus of Gekko gecko. Distinct groups with prominent labeled cells were observed in the cranial nerve motor nuclei and isthmic nuclei, and weak labeled cell bodies and fibers were observed in the mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve and the central nucleus of the torus semicircularis. After discussing the topological relationships within the tectum and isthmus, we unify the nomenclature of the caudal deep mesencephalic nucleus in lizards and the rostral magnocellular nucleus isthmi in turtles that is similar in terms of the preisthmic position, nontopographic connections with the tectum, and the same midbrain origin to the magnocellular preisthmic nucleus in birds, and may be homologous to the superficial cuneiform nucleus in mammals. None of them belong to the cholinergic nucleus isthmi, as the latter has isthmus origin and topographic reciprocal connections with the tectum. We also discuss the origin and intrinsic function of the inner longitudinal tract of the thick ChAT-ir fibers that course through the mesencephalon and diencephalon. We review the subdivisions of the mesencephalon and isthmus of Gekko gecko as revealed by ChAT immunohistochemistry, as well as the limits of the diencephalo-mesencephalic, mesencephalic-isthmo, and isthmo-rhombocephalic by the ChAT-ir cell- and fiber-poor distribution, and discuss the caudal limit of the isthmus. Our research on the subdivisions of the mesencephalon and isthmus in G. gecko as revealed by ChAT immunohistochemistry will serve as the neuroanatomical basis for subsequent relevant studies of Gekko gecko.

14.
Sci Total Environ ; 773: 145653, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582336

RESUMO

Hydrothermal vent represents an extreme environment where metal-enriched fluids are in contact with chemosymbiotic animals. In the present study, Zn isotopic compositions were determined in multiple tissues of three dominant hydrothermal vent mollusks (the mussel Bathymodiolus marisindicus and two gastropods Chrysomallon squamiferum and Gigantopelta aegis) collected from a hydrothermal vent field (Southwest Indian Ridge in the Indian Ocean). We found approximately 1.78‰ differences in the δ66Zn values among the three vent mollusks despite of their similar range of Zn concentrations. The significant variation in the δ66Zn values was considered to be indicative of different Zn uptake sources among the three species as a result of their morphological adaptations. Zinc uptake associated with symbiotic activities may be more relevant in the vent gastropods, whereas Zn uptake from hydrothermal fluids during filter-feeding may also play a role in the vent mussels. However, no significant difference in δ66Zn values was observed among tissues of any of the mollusks, showing the absence of Zn isotope fractionation during internal Zn transport. Our results demonstrated that variable Zn uptake pathways existed among different hydrothermal vent mollusks and could be differentiated by determining the Zn isotopic compositions in their tissues. We also highlight that Zn isotope ratios can be used to track Zn sources to the vent mollusks.

15.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) exerts significant financial expenses on caregivers, and knowledge of caregivers' support for out-of-pocket payment is of great importance for policymaking on the insurance coverage of future AD medication in Taiwan. We aimed to investigate caregivers' willingness-to-pay (WTP) for a hypothetical curative AD medication and the effect of different factors on the amount of WTP. METHODS: Informal caregivers of patients with AD and informants of patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were included. An iterative bidding game technique, followed by a dichotomous choice questions and a final open-ended question were used to elicit caregivers' maximum WTP. The correlations between the WTP and characteristics of caregiver and patient were analyzed, including sex, educational level, severity of dementia, neuropsychiatric symptoms assessed by Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), time needed to support patients assessed by Caregiver Activity Survey (CAS), and caregivers' monthly income. RESULTS: 1134 informal caregivers of patients with AD or MCI were included. Caregivers of patients with AD were willing to pay for a curative AD medication, and their maximum WTP value was higher than informants of MCI patients. Among patients with AD and patients with MCI, caregivers' monthly income was positively correlated with WTP. Apathy subsyndrome was the only factor correlated with percentage of WTP in caregiver's income in the MCI group. CONCLUSION: Support for out-of-pocket WTP for a hypothetical curative AD medication was significantly related to caregiver's income.

16.
Sci Adv ; 7(8)2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597247

RESUMO

An R loop is a unique triple-stranded structure that participates in multiple key biological processes and is relevant to human diseases. Accurate and comprehensive R loop profiling is a prerequisite for R loops studies. However, current R loop mapping methods generate large discrepancies, therefore an independent method is in urgent need. Here, we establish an independent R loop CUT&Tag (Tn5-based cleavage under targets and tagmentation) method by combining CUT&Tag and GST-His6-2×HBD (glutathione S-transferase-hexahistidine-2× hybrid-binding domain), an artificial DNA-RNA hybrid sensor that specifically recognizes the DNA-RNA hybrids. We demonstrate that the R loop CUT&Tag is sensitive, reproducible, and convenient for native R loop mapping with high resolution, and find that the capture strategies, instead of the specificity of sensors, largely contribute to the disparities among different methods. Together, we provide an independent strategy for genomic profiling of native R loops and help resolve discrepancies among multiple R loop mapping methods.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598731

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To speculate whether induction chemotherapy (IC) or adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) could obtain better survival benefit for stage III or IV locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LA-NPC). METHODS: Only randomized controlled trials were incorporated. There were five treatments (CCRT, IC + CCRT, CCRT + AC, IC + RT and RT alone) recruited for analysis. Overall survival (OS), locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) with a hazard ratio (HR) were selected as endpoints. First of all, we performed a traditional meta-analysis and subsequently conducted network meta-analysis based on the Bayesian method. RESULTS: Totally, 15 studies, including 6182 patients, were incorporated for analysis. There was a statistically significant benefits in favor of IC + CCRT, compared with CCRT alone, for OS [HR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.63-0.89], LRFS [HR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.56-0.86], and DMFS [HR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.54-0.78]. What's more, we did not observed any significant differences between CCRT + AC and CCRT alone for all the endpoints. Unsurprisingly, it was RT alone that demonstrate the poorest survival benefit. Strange to say, survival benefit, between IC + CCRT and IC + RT, or between IC + CCRT and CCRT + AC, did not significantly exist. CONCLUSION: Induction chemotherapy IC + CCRT provided better survival benefit than CCRT alone. CCRT + AC failed to increase survival benefit significantly compared to CCRT alone. More research about comparing IC + CCRT with IC + RT or CCRT + AC are needed.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599948

RESUMO

A combined severity factor (RCSF) which is usually used to evaluate the effectiveness of hydrothermal pretreatment at above 100 °C had been developed to assess the influence of temperature, time, and alkali loading on pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose. It is not suitable for evaluating alkaline pretreatment effectiveness at lower than 100 °C. According to the reported deducing process, this study modified the expression of [Formula: see text] as [Formula: see text] which is easier and more reasonable to assess the effectiveness of alkaline pretreatment. It showed that RCSF exhibited linear trend with lignin removal, and quadratic curve relation with enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency (EHE) at the same temperature. The EHE of alkali-treated SCB could attain the maximum value at lower RCSF, which indicated that it was not necessary to continuously enhance strength of alkaline pretreatment for improving EHE. Within a certain temperature range, the alkali loading was more important than temperature and time to influence pretreatment effectiveness and EHE. Furthermore, the contribution of temperature, time, and alkali loading to pretreatment cost which was seldom concerned was investigated in this work. The alkali loading contributed more than 70% to the pretreatment cost. This study laid the foundation of further optimizing alkaline pretreatment to reduce cost for its practical application.

19.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(1): 85-8, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559449

RESUMO

The ISO 22236 Traditional Chinese medicine-Thread-embedding acupuncture needle for single use, as the first international standard (IS) in acupoint thread-embedding field, has been officially published by International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 2020. The background of its development, difficulties and countermeasures in the process of development were reviewed, and the experience of standard development was summarized, aiming to provide methods and references for future IS development of acupuncture and moxibustion instruments. It is suggested that strengthening the discourse power in the process of IS development, increasing the compound talents cultivation for IS, valuing the importance of enterprises in the development of IS, and creating an advantageous environment for the development of IS are the keys to improve the level of standardization of acupuncture and moxibustion instruments and play a more important role in the IS development.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Acupuntura , Moxibustão , Pontos de Acupuntura , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Padrões de Referência
20.
Anal Chem ; 93(6): 3301-3307, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535747

RESUMO

Diabetes is one of the metabolic diseases marked by hyperglycemia and is often accompanied by the occurrence of some complications. As a biomarker of oxidative stress, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has close association with the occurrence and development of diabetes and its complications. Unfortunately, there is no fluorescent probe reported for imaging H2O2 in diabetic mice. Here, a novel near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probe named QX-B was designed and synthesized to detect H2O2. For the probe, the quinolinium-xanthene dye is used as the fluorophore and borate ester is chosen as the response group. After the addition of H2O2, a strong NIR fluorescence signal at 772 nm is observed. The probe not only shows high sensitivity with 10-fold enhancement but also displays excellent selectivity to H2O2 over other possible interfering species. In the meantime, the possible response mechanism of QX-B toward H2O2 was proposed and verified by the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiment, mass spectra (MS) experiment, and density functional theory (DFT) calculation. Furthermore, based on the low cell cytotoxicity of QX-B, it has been applied in imaging exogenous and endogenous H2O2 in HeLa cells, HCT116 cells, 4T1 cells, and zebrafish successfully. More importantly, inspired by the performance of NIR fluorescence, QX-B has been used in monitoring H2O2 in diabetic mice for the first time. This provides very important information for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes and its complications.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA