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1.
BMC Neurol ; 19(1): 269, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine whether items of the Chinese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Basic (MoCA-BC) could discriminate among cognitively normal controls (NC), and those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), mild Alzheimer's disease (AD), and moderate-severe (AD), as well as their sensitivity and specificity. METHODS: MCI (n = 456), mild AD (n = 502) and moderate-severe AD (n = 102) patients were recruited from the memory clinic, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai, China. NC (n = 329) were recruited from health checkup outpatients. Five MoCA-BC item scores were collected in interviews. RESULTS: The MoCA-BC orientation test had high sensitivity and specificity for discrimination among MCI, mild AD and moderate-severe AD. The delayed recall memory test had high sensitivity and specificity for MCI screening. The verbal fluency test was efficient for detecting MCI and differentiating AD severity. CONCLUSIONS: Various items of the MoCA-BC can identify MCI patients early and identify the severity of dementia.

2.
Drug Chem Toxicol ; : 1-8, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665937

RESUMO

Salusin-α is a bioactive peptide that protects against atherosclerosis and hepatosteatosis. Serum salusin-α level is declined in patients suffering with renal insufficiency. However, it is still undefined whether salusin-α plays a role in diabetic nephropathy. The present study was designed to investigate the potential roles of salusin-α in diabetic renal disease. Herein, we demonstrated that the salusin-α levels in both plasma and kidney tissues from diabetic rats were obviously downregulated. Exogenous administration of salusin-α eliminated the typical characteristics of diabetic nephropathy. Salusin-α treatment decreased renal fibrosis, which was related with reduced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of renal tubular epithelial cells. Injection of salusin-α suppressed the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via attenuation of NADPH oxidase subunits protein expressions and recovery of the antioxidant system. Mechanistically, the activated Akt/mTORC1/p70S6K signaling pathway in diabetic nephropathy was counteracted by salusin-α treatment. Our results demonstrated that salusin-α exerted protective effect against diabetic nephropathy via reduced oxidative stress and fibrosis, dependent on inactivation of the Akt/mTORC1/p70S6K signaling cascade. Salusin-α may be considered as a promising target for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy.

3.
Vet Res ; 50(1): 42, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164173

RESUMO

Haemonchus contortus (H. contortus) has evolved sophisticated evasion mechanisms to ensure their survival, including generating excretion and secretion products (ESPs) to regulate the secretion of host cytokines. Interleukin 4 (IL4) is a classic T-helper cell type 2 (Th2)-type cytokine that plays an irreplaceable role against nematode infection. In this study, three proteins, glutathione S-transferase domain containing protein (HcGST), transthyretin domain containing protein (HcTTR) and calponin actin-binding domain containing protein (HcCab), were identified to bind to goat IL4 by co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assays and yeast two-hybrid screening. Additionally, cell proliferation analysis showed that HcTTR blocked the IL4-induced proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in goats, while HcGST and HcCab did not. In addition, HcTTR could also downregulate the transcription of candidate genes in the IL4-induced JAK/STAT pathway. These results indicated that HcTTR is a novel antagonist against goat IL4 from HcESPs, and this information could improve our understanding of the relationship between host cytokines and parasite infections.


Assuntos
Regulação para Baixo/genética , Cabras/fisiologia , Haemonchus/genética , Proteínas de Helminto/genética , Interleucina-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Albumina/genética , Animais , Cabras/parasitologia , Haemonchus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Helminto/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Receptores de Albumina/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transcrição Genética/genética
4.
Cell Cycle ; 18(14): 1573-1587, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164038

RESUMO

Aging is a risk factor for various acute and chronic kidney injuries. Kidney aging is accompanied by the secretion of growth factors, proteases, and inflammatory cytokines, known as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). These factors accelerate the aging process and senescence-associated changes. Delaying kidney senescence may prevent acute and chronic kidney injury. Methionine restriction (MR) was found to be an effective intervention for delaying senescence. However, the mechanism of MR remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of MR on the survival rate and renal aging of C57BL/6 mice and examined the relevant mechanisms. MR increased the survival rate and decreased the levels of senescence markers in the aging kidney. Both in vivo and in vitro, MR upregulated the transsulfuration pathway to increase H2S production, downregulated senescence markers and the SASP, and activated AMPK. The ability of MR to delay aging was reduced when AMPK was inhibited. These results suggest that MR may slow animal aging and kidney senescence through H2S production and AMPK pathway activation. Abbreviations: DR: diet restriction; MR: methionine restriction; SASP: senescence-associated secretory phenotype; AL: ad libitum; CKD, chronic kidney disease; AKI: acute kidney disease; TSP: transsulfuration pathway; CGL: cystathionine g-lyase; H2S: hydrogen sulfide; AMPK: AMP-activated protein kinase; mTOR: mammalian target of rapamycin; IS: indoxyl sulfate; CC: compound C.

5.
Mikrochim Acta ; 186(6): 328, 2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053994

RESUMO

Carbon nanodots doped with boron and nitrogen (BN-CDs) with an average diameter of around 11 nm were prepared by a hydrothermal approach using adenine and 3-aminobenzene boronic acid as the starting materials. The atomic ratio of boron to nitrogen atomic in the BN-CDs is approximately 1:1. This indicates that a large fraction of N atoms goes lost during preparation because the B/N ratio of the precursors is about 1:6. The BN-CDs display blue fluorescence (best measured at excitation/emission wavelengths of 305/380 nm) which is independent of the excitation wavelength. On exposure to hypochlorite anion, fluorescence is quenched and the color of the solutions changes from yellow to brown. Fluorescence drops linearly in the 0.1-1000 µM hypochlorite concentration range. The colorimetric response, best measured as the absorbance ratio at 236/260 nm, ranges from 0.3 to 4.0 mM. The color changes can be readily detected visually. The probe was applied to the determination of hypochlorite in living cells and in (spiked) tap water. Graphical abstract Excitation wavelength-independent fluorescent boron and nitrogen codoped carbon nanodots (BN-CDs) were obtained by a hydrothermal approach. The BN-CDs were used to detect hypochlorite in wastewater by a fluorometric and colorimetric dual-readout assay.

6.
BMJ Open ; 9(4): e025084, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30992290

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Both pregestational and gestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM, GDM) occur more frequently in First Nations (North American Indians) pregnant women than their non-Indigenous counterparts in Canada. We assessed whether the impacts of PGDM and GDM on perinatal and postneonatal mortality may differ in First Nations versus non-Indigenous populations. DESIGN: A population-based linked birth cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 17 090 First Nations and 217 760 non-Indigenous singleton births in 1996-2010, Quebec, Canada. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relative risks (RR) of perinatal and postneonatal death. Perinatal deaths included stillbirths and neonatal (0-27 days of postnatal life) deaths; postneonatal deaths included infant deaths during 28-364 days of life. RESULTS: PGDM and GDM occurred much more frequently in First Nations (3.9% and 10.7%, respectively) versus non-Indigenous (1.1% and 4.8%, respectively) pregnant women. PGDM was associated with an increased risk of perinatal death to a much greater extent in First Nations (RR=5.08[95% CI 2.99 to 8.62], p<0.001; absolute risk (AR)=21.6 [8.6-34.6] per 1000) than in non-Indigenous populations (RR=1.76[1.17, 2.66], p=0.003; AR=4.2[0.2, 8.1] per 1000). PGDM was associated with an increased risk of postneonatal death in non-Indigenous (RR=3.46[1.71, 6.99], p<0.001; AR=2.4[0.1, 4.8] per 1000) but not First Nations (RR=1.16[0.28, 4.77], p=0.35) infants. Adjusting for maternal and pregnancy characteristics, the associations were similar. GDM was not associated with perinatal or postneonatal death in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The study is the first to reveal that PGDM may increase the risk of perinatal death to a much greater extent in First Nations versus non-Indigenous populations, but may substantially increase the risk of postneonatal death in non-Indigenous infants only. The underlying causes are unclear and deserve further studies. We speculate that population differences in the quality of glycaemic control in diabetic pregnancies and/or genetic vulnerability to hyperglycaemia's fetal toxicity may be contributing factors.

7.
Mol Cell Proteomics ; 18(6): 1070-1084, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867229

RESUMO

The chemokine-like factor (CKLF)-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing family (CMTM) is a gene family that has been implicated in male reproduction. CMTM4 is an evolutionarily conserved member that is highly expressed in the testis. However, its function in male fertility remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that CMTM4 is associated with spermatogenesis and sperm quality. Using Western blotting and immunohistochemical analyses, we found CMTM4 expression to be decreased in poor-quality human spermatozoa, old human testes, and testicular biopsies with nonobstructive azoospermia. Using CRISPR-Cas9 technology, we knocked out the Cmtm4 gene in mice. These Cmtm4 knockout (KO) mice showed reduced testicular daily sperm production, lower epididymal sperm motility and increased proportion of abnormally backward-curved sperm heads and bent sperm midpieces. These mice also had an evident sub-fertile phenotype, characterized by low pregnancy rates on prolonged breeding with wild type female mice, reduced in vitro fertilization efficiency and a reduced percentage of acrosome reactions. We then performed quantitative proteomic analysis of the testes, where we identified 139 proteins to be downregulated in Cmtm4-KO mice, 100 (71.9%) of which were related to sperm motility and acrosome reaction. The same proteomic analysis was performed on sperm, where we identified 3588 proteins with 409 being differentially regulated in Cmtm4-KO mice. Our enrichment analysis showed that upregulated proteins were enriched with nucleosomal DNA binding functions and the downregulated proteins were enriched with actin binding functions. These findings elucidate the roles of CMTM4 in male fertility and demonstrates its potential as a promising molecular candidate for sperm quality assessment and the diagnosis or treatment of male infertility.

8.
Diabetes Care ; 42(5): 964-971, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833369

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Fetal excessive exposure to glucocorticoids may program cardiometabolic risk. Placental 11 ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11ß-HSD2) serves as a barrier to prevent fetal overexposure to maternal glucocorticoids. It has not been explored whether placental 11ß-HSD2 levels are associated with cardiometabolic health in postnatal life. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In a prospective birth cohort study of 246 mother-infant pairs, we measured placental 11ß-HSD2 expression and maternal (32-35 weeks of gestation) and cord plasma cortisol concentrations. The primary outcomes were HOMA of insulin resistance (IR) and blood pressure (BP) in infants at age 1 year. Other outcomes included fasting insulin, HOMA ß-cell function, carotid intima-media thickness, weight z score, and skinfold thickness (triceps and subscapular) at age 1 year. RESULTS: Placental 11ß-HSD2 expression was negatively correlated with HOMA-IR (r = -0.17, P = 0.021) and fasting insulin (r = -0.18, P = 0.017) and marginally negatively correlated with systolic BP (r = -0.16, P = 0.057) but was not correlated with HOMA of ß-cell function, diastolic BP, carotid intima-media thickness, and skinfold thickness (all P > 0.1) in infants at age 1 year. Cord plasma cortisol was negatively correlated to skinfold thickness (r = -0.20, P = 0007) but was not correlated with other outcomes at age 1 year. Maternal plasma cortisol was positively correlated with maximal carotid intima-media thickness (r = 0.20, P = 0.03) but was not correlated with other outcomes. Adjusting for maternal and infant characteristics, the associations were similar. CONCLUSIONS: The study is the first to show that higher placental 11ß-HSD2 expression is associated with lower IR in infancy. Independent cohort studies are required to confirm this novel finding.

9.
Nanotechnology ; 30(28): 285502, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30884476

RESUMO

In this paper, a novel electrochemical sensor based on Au nanoparticles/8-aminoquinoline functionalized graphene oxide (AuNPs/GAQ) nanocomposite was developed and tested for the first time for detection of paraquat (PQ). The morphology and composition of AuNPs/GAQ nanocomposite were characterized by various techniques, including transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry were utilized to investigate the electrochemical performances of AuNPs/GAQ nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode. The obtained modified electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity towards detection of PQ. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed sensor showed low detection limit (6 nM, S/N = 3), wide linear range (0.02-24 µM), high selectivity and good stability. In addition, it was successfully applied for detection of PQ in natural water samples with satisfactory results.

10.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 105, 2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30871600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma-associated antigen 59 (HCA59), which is one of the most important excretory/secretory products of Haemonchus contortus (HcESPs), is known to have antigenic functions. However, its immunomodulatory effects on host cells are poorly understood. METHODS: Here, we cloned the HCA59 gene and expressed the recombinant protein of HCA59 (rHCA59). Binding activities of rHCA59 to goat peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and dendritic cells (DCs) were checked by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and the immunoregulatory effects of rHCA59 on cytokine secretions, cell migration, cell proliferation, nitric oxide production, and changes in expression of genes in related pathways were observed by co-incubation of rHCA59 with goat PBMCs and DCs. Monocyte phagocytosis and characterization of goat blood DC subsets were detected by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The IFA results revealed that rHCA59 could bind to PBMCs and DCs. Treatment of PBMCs with rHCA59 significantly increased cellular proliferation and NO production in a dose-dependent manner, while cell migration was vigorously blocked. Treatment with rHCA59 significantly suppressed monocytes phagocytosis. The quantity of surface marker CD80 on DCs increased significantly after rHCA59 treatment. In addition, the expression of genes included in the WNT pathway was related to the differentiation and maturation of DCs, and the production of IL-10 and IL-17 produced by PBMCs was altered. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings illustrated that rHCA59 could enhance host immune responses by regulating the functions of goat PBMCs and DCs, which would benefit our understanding of HCA59 from parasitic nematodes contributing to the mechanism of parasitic immune evasion.


Assuntos
Antígenos Glicosídicos Associados a Tumores/imunologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/veterinária , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/imunologia , Proteínas de Helminto/imunologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/imunologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/parasitologia , Diferenciação Celular , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/parasitologia , Feminino , Cabras , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Proteínas de Helminto/genética , Imunomodulação , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/parasitologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/parasitologia , Masculino , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/parasitologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Ratos , Proteínas Recombinantes
11.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol ; 17(1): 2, 2019 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30606202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic endometritis (CE) is a condition which results in reduced receptivity of embryos by dysregulated lymphocyte subsets, abnormal expression of cytokines, chemokines and other regulatory molecules in the endometrium (EM). Macroautophagy (autophagy), the highly conserved cellular homeostasis pathway, plays an essential role in the development and function of T lymphocytes, and supports T cell lineage stability and survival fitness. The possible relationships between autophagy and local cytokine milieus in repeated implantation failure (RIF) with CE have not been elucidated yet. METHODS: This case-control study was performed at a large reproductive medicine center between February 2015 and July 2016. Seventy-five recurrent implantation falliure women with CE who had "strawberry aspect" and 75 women with male factor infertility were included. In this study, endometrial expressions of IL-17, IL-10, TGF-ß and autophagy related molecules, including LC3-II and mTORC1 were investigated by qRT-PCR, Western blot, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry assays. RESULTS: The expression of IL-17 was significantly higher in patients with CE compared to women with male factor infertility, while the expressions of IL-10 and TGF-ß were significantly lower. Moreover, the expression of autophagy (LC3-II) is increased, while the expression of mTORC1 was impaired. CONCLUSIONS: CE is associated with shifted cytokine milieu towards Th17 over Treg immunity in endometrium through impaired autophagy by decreased mTORC1.


Assuntos
Autofagia/genética , Implantação do Embrião/genética , Endometrite/metabolismo , Endométrio/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença Crônica , Endometrite/complicações , Endometrite/genética , Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
12.
J Cell Physiol ; 234(7): 10819-10826, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624764

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive breast cancer subtype. The aim of our study was to investigate the functional role of microRNA-135b (miR-135b) in TNBC. A real-time polymerase chain reaction assay was used to quantify miR-135b expression levels in 90 paired TNBC tissue and adjacent normal tissue samples. Wound-healing and transwell assays were performed to evaluate the effects of miR-135b expression on the migration and invasion of TNBC cells. Luciferase reporter and western blot analyses were used to verify whether the mRNA encoding APC is a major target of miR-135b. In the current study, we found that miR-135b was highly expressed in TNBC tissue and cells, and the expression levels were correlated with lymph node status and TNM stage. In TNBC cells, the ectopic expression of miR-135b promoted cell proliferation and invasion in vitro. In addition, our study proved that the overexpression of miR-135b significantly suppressed APC expression by targeting the 3'-untranslated region of APC, whereas enhanced APC expression could partially abrogate the miR-135b-mediated promotion of carcinogenic traits in TNBC cells. Taken together, our study demonstrated that miR-135b expression promoted the proliferation and invasion of TNBC by downregulating APC expression, indicating that miR-135b may serve as a promising target for the treatment of TNBC patients.

13.
Front Genet ; 9: 446, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30386373

RESUMO

Background: Mosquitoes are the primary vectors responsible for malaria transmission to humans, with numerous experiments having been conducted to aid in the control of malaria transmission. One of the main approaches aims to develop malaria parasite resistance within the mosquito population by introducing a resistance (R) allele. However, when considering this approach, some critical factors, such as the life of the mosquito, female mosquito fertility capacity, and human and mosquito mobility, have not been considered. Thus, an understanding of how mosquitoes and humans affect disease dynamics is needed to better inform malaria control policymaking. Methods: In this study, a method was proposed to create a metanetwork on the basis of the geographic maps of Gambia, and a model was constructed to simulate evolution within a mixed population, with factors such as birth, death, reproduction, biting, infection, incubation, recovery, and transmission between populations considered in the network metrics. First, the same number of refractory mosquitoes (RR genotype) was introduced into each population, and the prevalence of the R allele (the ratio of resistant alleles to all alleles) and malaria were examined. In addition, a series of simulations were performed to evaluate two different deployment strategies for the reduction of the prevalence of malaria. The R allele and malaria prevalence were calculated for both the strategies, with 10,000 refractory mosquitoes deployed into randomly selected populations or selection based on nodes with top-betweenness values. The 10,000 mosquitoes were deployed among 1, 5, 10, 20, or 40 populations. Results: The simulations in this paper showed that a higher RR genotype (resistant-resistant genes) ratio leads to a higher R allele prevalence and lowers malaria prevalence. Considering the cost of deployment, the simulation was performed with 10,000 refractory mosquitoes deployed among 1 or 5 populations, but this approach did not reduce the original malaria prevalence. Thus, instead, the 10,000 refractory mosquitoes were distributed among 10, 20, or 40 populations and were shown to effectively reduce the original malaria prevalence. Thus, deployment among a relatively small fraction of central nodes can offer an effective strategy to reduce malaria. Conclusion: The standard network centrality measure is suitable for planning the deployment of refractory mosquitoes. Importance: Malaria is an infectious disease that is caused by a plasmodial parasite, and some control strategies have focused on genetically modifying the mosquitoes. This work aims to create a model that takes into account mosquito development and malaria transmission among the population and how these factors influence disease dynamics so as to better inform malaria-control policymaking.

14.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 579, 2018 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30400957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fasciola gigantica-induced immunomodulation is a major hurdle faced by the host for controlling infection. Here, we elucidated the role of F. gigantica Ras-related protein Rab10 (FgRab10) in the modulation of key functions of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of goats. METHODS: We cloned and expressed recombinant FgRab10 (rFgRab10) protein and examined its effects on several functions of goat PBMCs. Protein interactors of rFgRab10 were predicted in silico by querying the databases Intact, String, BioPlex and BioGrid. In addition, a total energy analysis of each of the identified interactions was also conducted. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis was carried out using FuncAssociate 3.0. RESULTS: The FgRab10 gene (618 bp), encodes 205-amino-acid residues with a molecular mass of ~23 kDa, had complete nucleotide sequence homology with F. hepatica Ras family protein gene (PIS87503.1). The rFgRab10 protein specifically cross-reacted with anti-Fasciola antibodies as shown by Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis. This protein exhibited multiple effects on goat PBMCs, including increased production of cytokines [interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-10, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ)] and total nitric oxide (NO), enhancing apoptosis and migration of PBMCs, and promoting the phagocytic ability of monocytes. However, it significantly inhibited cell proliferation. Homology modelling revealed 63% identity between rFgRab10 and human Rab10 protein (Uniprot ID: P61026). Protein interaction network analysis revealed more stabilizing interactions between Rab proteins geranylgeranyltransferase component A 1 (CHM) and Rab proteins geranylgeranyltransferase component A 2 (CHML) and rFgRab10 protein. Gene Ontology analysis identified RabGTPase mediated signaling as the most represented pathway. CONCLUSIONS: rFgRab10 protein exerts profound influences on various functions of goat PBMCs. This finding may help explain why F. gigantica is capable of provoking recognition by host immune cells, less capable of destroying this successful parasite.

15.
Analyst ; 2018 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30411742

RESUMO

Herein, we employ pH-dependent solubility equilibrium to develop the one-pot aqueous synthesis of dual-color emission fluorescent carbon nanosphere (DFCSs) with novel physicochemical properties. Unexpectedly, some of the DFCSs have a regular nanosphere shape, containing uniform carbon dots (∼20 nm) on their surface. This may be attributed to the change in the surface composition of the carbon nanospheres under the strong alkaline conditions (pH 13), which results in dual-wavelength emission by single-wavelength excitation. Interestingly, the fluorescence intensities of the two emission peaks of the DFCSs at 315/410 nm can be simultaneously quenched upon the addition of Co2+ due to the strong coordination between Co2+ and the O-containing luminescent groups from the carbon dots and DFCSs. Also, the results demonstrate that one Co2+ simultaneously combines with two chromophoric groups. Furthermore, the quenched DFCSs exhibit high sensitivity for pyrophosphate (PPi) in the range of 0.075-200.0 µM through a fluorescence recovery process, which can be attributed to the stronger Co2+-O[double bond, length as m-dash]P bond. This results in the removal of Co2+ from the surface of DFCSs-Co2+ system via competitive adsorption interactions. Meanwhile, this sensor shows high selectivity for PPi over mercapto amino acid and phosphate in aqueous solution. These results indicate the DFCSs can act as a dual-signal PPi-selective sensor via a ratiometric competitive mechanism.

16.
Shock ; 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30289851

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Early differential diagnosis of an infection in a trauma patient is likely to have a significant influence on the prognosis. In the present study, we evaluated the early differential value of plasma presepsin, procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), and white blood cells (WBCs) on infection in trauma patients. METHODS: Trauma patients were divided into noninfected (n = 89) and infected trauma groups (n = 68); healthy adult volunteers (n = 60) and patients having sterile surgery (n = 60) were enrolled as the controls. Plasma presepsin, PCT, CRP, and WBC counts were measured and the injury severity score (ISS) was calculated. RESULTS: Plasma presepsin levels within the first 3 d of admission were only significantly increased in the infected trauma group, but not in the noninfected trauma and sterile groups. This indicated that presepsin might have an ability to differentiate the infection in trauma patients; however, plasma PCT, CRP, and WBCs were significantly increased in both the infected and noninfected trauma patients. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that only increased plasma presepsin, PCT, and ISS were significantly associated with an increased likelihood of infection in trauma patients. Both presepsin and PCT were valuable for diagnosing infection; presepsin had a higher area under the curve than PCT. CONCLUSIONS: Presepsin might be a superior biomarker for early differentiation of infection in trauma patients; however, trauma stress elevates PCT, CRP, and WBCs even in the absence of infection; therefore, caution is advised when using these indicators to diagnose infection.

17.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 20(9): 753-757, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30210029

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of vitamin D (VitD) deficiency on cardiac autonomic nerve function in obese pre-school children. METHODS: A total of 242 pre-school children with simple obesity were enrolled, and according to the serum 25-(OH) VitD level, they were divided into VitD deficiency group (76 children), VitD insufficiency group (83 children), and VitD sufficiency group (83 children). The three groups were compared in terms of deceleration capacity (DC) of heart rate, acceleration capacity (AC) of heart rate, and heart rate variability (HRV). The correlations of VitD level with DC, AC, and HRV were analyzed for the VitD insufficiency and VitD deficiency groups. RESULTS: The VitD deficiency group had the lowest DC, root mean square of successive differences between adjacent RR intervals (RMSSD), and low-frequency power (LF) and the highest AC (P<0.05). The VitD insufficiency group had significantly lower DC, RMSSD, and LF and significantly higher AC compared with the VitD sufficiency group (P<0.05). The VitD deficiency group had significantly lower standard deviation of normal-to-normal RR intervals (SDNN) and high-frequency power (HF) than the VitD sufficiency group (P<0.05). In the VitD deficiency group, VitD level was positively correlated with DC, SDNN, standard deviation of average normal-to-normal RR intervals, RMSSD , LF, and HF and was negatively correlated with AC (P<0.05). In the VitD insufficiency group, VitD level was negatively correlated with AC (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Obese pre-school children with VitD insufficiency or deficiency have cardiac autonomic dysfunction, and cardiac vagal tone decreases with the reduction in VitD level.

18.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 63: 60-68, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30172012

RESUMO

Fluorine and aluminium are nervous system poisons, but it remains unclear whether combined fluorine and aluminium exposure damages spatial learning and memory and, if so, by what mechanism. This study showed that exposure to fluorine and aluminium, either alone or combined, during the embryonic stage and into adulthood caused spatial learning and memory impairment in offspring rats; its mechanism may be associated with increases in miR-132 and miR-204 expression and downregulation of the BDNF-TrkB pathway in the hippocampus. The effects of F were obvious, but the effects of Al were slight. There were antagonistic effects between F and Al, with Al reducing the toxicity of F.

19.
Front Immunol ; 9: 1627, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30061894

RESUMO

Serine/threonine-protein phosphatases (STPs), as integral constituents of parasitic excretory/secretory proteins, are assumed to be released during the host-parasite interactions. However, knowledge about these phosphatases and their immunoregulatory and immune protective efficiencies with host peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) is scant. In this study, an open reading frame of STP from Haemonchus contortus designated as HcSTP-1 was amplified and cloned using reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. The 951-bp nucleotides sequence was encoded to a protein of 316 amino acid residues, conserved in characteristics motifs GDXHG, GDYVDRG, GNHE, HGG, RG, and H. The HcSTP-1 protein was detected at approximately 35 kDa as recombinant protein fused in an expression vector system and resolved on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Immunohistochemically, HcSTP-1 was found to be localized in both male and female adult worm sections. Using immunofluorescence assay, the binding activity of rHcSTP-1 was confirmed on surface of goat PBMCs, which resulted in expression of multiple cytokines and various immunoregulatory activities in vitro. The RT-PCR results showed that mRNA level of interleukin-2, TGF-ß1, IFN-γ, and IL-17 (with 10 µg/ml) was upregulated and IL-10 was decreased. However, IL-6 showed no change after PBMCs incubated with rHcSTP-1 protein. Further functional analysis showed that migratory activity of cells, intracellular nitrite production (NO), and apoptotic efficiency of PBMCs were elevated at significant level, whereas the proliferation of goat PBMCs and monocytes-associated major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I and MHC-II expressions were decreased significantly at concentration-dependent fashion. Our results showed that the HcSTP-1 protein engaged in vital suppressive regulatory roles on host immune cells, which might represent a potential molecular target for controlling H. contortus infection in future.

20.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2018 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30033483

RESUMO

A previous study from our team found that continuous exposure to fluorine combined with aluminum (FA) impaired the neurobehavioral reflexes, spatial learning, and memory of offspring rats. To date, the specific mechanisms for these changes are unclear. Here, high-throughput sequencing was utilized to analyze the microRNA (miRNA) profile of the hippocampi in the offspring of rats exposed to FA during the embryonic stage and into adulthood through tap water supplemented with NaF and AlCl3 at concentrations of (0, 0); (60, 600); (120, 600); and (240, 600) mg/L, respectively. qRT-PCR was performed to validate the reliability of the sequence data. Twenty differentially expressed miRNAs were selected for further analysis using bioinformatics tools. Several genes related to neuromodulation were found to be regulated by miR-10a-5p, miR-34b-5p, and miR-182, which might be harmful to normal nerve function. The protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) in hippocampus were markedly downregulated. These data suggest that miR-10a-5p, miR-34b-5p, and miR-182 and BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway are involved in mechanisms of hippocampal damage in the offspring of rats exposed to FA. HIGHLIGHTS: • Multiple miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed in offspring rat hippocampus after fluorine combined with aluminum (FA) exposure. • Twenty differentially expressed miRNAs might mediate FA-induced developmental neurotoxicity. • MiR-10a-5p, miR-34b-5p, and miR-182 were closely related to neurotoxic signaling of FA. • The BDNF-TrkB learning and memory-associated pathway was downregulated in the hippocampus after FA exposure.

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