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1.
Bioresour Technol ; 312: 123505, 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447124

RESUMO

Triclosan (TCS), as an antimicrobial agent, is considered as a representative emerging contaminant and was frequently detected in excess sludge. This study investigated the effect of TCS on activate wastewater sludge (WAS) digestion through laboratory methane production experiment. It was concluded that TCS had a tendency to restrain methane production from sludge with its exposure level increasing. The results displayed that the yields of final maximum cumulative methane production were similar about 108.4 mL/g VSS at TCS level lower 200 mg TCS/kg TSS, while the values were approximately 95.2 mL/g VSS with TCS level over 550 mg TCS/kg TSS. Although TCS could be degraded, its intermediates in this study had no effect on sludge digestion. In addition, TCS at higher levels had seriously negative effect on the solubilization, hydrolysis, acidification, and methanogenesis processes. Microbial community was further analyzed to understand the TCS's effect on digestion system from a micro perspective.

2.
Front Immunol ; 11: 835, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32457755

RESUMO

The Glioblastoma (GBM) immune microenvironment plays a critical role in tumor development, progression, and prognosis. A comprehensive understanding of the intricate milieu and its interactions remains unclear, and single-cell analysis is crucially needed. Leveraging mass cytometry (CyTOF), we analyzed immunocytes from 13 initial and three recurrent GBM samples and their matched peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pPBMCs). Using a panel of 30 markers, we provide a high-dimensional view of the complex GBM immune microenvironment. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and polychromatic immunofluorescence were used for verification of the key findings. In the initial and recurrent GBMs, glioma-associated microglia/macrophages (GAMs) constituted 59.05 and 27.87% of the immunocytes, respectively; programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), T cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain-3 (TIM-3), lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-ß (TGFß) demonstrated different expression levels in the GAMs among the patients. GAMs could be subdivided into different subgroups with different phenotypes. Both the exhausted T cell and regulatory T (Treg) cell percentages were significantly higher in tumors than in pPBMCs. The natural killer (NK) cells that infiltrated into the tumor lesions expressed higher levels of CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3), as these cells expressed lower levels of interferon-γ (IFNγ). The immune microenvironment in the initial and recurrent GBMs displayed similar suppressive changes. Our study confirmed that GAMs, as the dominant infiltrating immunocytes, present great inter- and intra-tumoral heterogeneity and that GAMs, increased exhausted T cells, infiltrating Tregs, and nonfunctional NK cells contribute to local immune suppressive characteristics. Recurrent GBMs share similar immune signatures with the initial GBMs except the proportion of GAMs decreases.

3.
Sleep Breath ; 2020 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458376

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome has been reported to be associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Adiponectin (Ad) has many protective roles in the human body, including its function as an anti-inflammatory and an anti-oxidant, as well as its role in preventing insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH)-induced pulmonary injury and the protective role of Ad in experimental rats. METHODS: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups with 10 rats in each group: normal control (NC) group, CIH group, and CIH + Ad group. Rats in the NC group were kept breathing room air for 12 weeks. Rats in the CIH group were intermittently exposed to a hypoxic environment for 8 h/day for 12 weeks. Rats in the CIH + Ad group received 10 µg Ad twice weekly via intravenous injection. After 12 weeks of CIH exposure, we detected the pulmonary function, pulmonary artery pressure, lung histology, pulmonary cell apoptosis, pulmonary artery endothelial cell apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. We also analyzed expression proteins involved in the mitochondria-, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-, and Fas receptor-associated pulmonary apoptosis pathways, as well as the SIRT3/SOD2 pathway. RESULTS: CIH exposure for 12 weeks did not lead to abnormal pulmonary function, PH, or pulmonary artery endothelial cell apoptosis. However, we observed a significant increase in the rate of pulmonary cell apoptosis, the expression of proteins involved in mitochondria-, ER stress-, and Fas receptor-associated pulmonary apoptosis pathways, and the generation of ROS in the CIH group compared with the NC group. In contrast, the MMP and protein expressions of SIRT3/SOD2 pathway were significantly decreased in the CIH group compared with the NC group. Ad supplementation in the CIH + Ad group partially improved these changes induced by CIH. CONCLUSION: Even though CIH did not cause abnormal pulmonary function or PH, early lung injury was detected at the molecular level in rats exposed to CIH. Treatment with Ad ameliorated the pulmonary injury by activating the SIRT3/SOD2 pathway, reducing ROS generation, and inhibiting ROS-associated lung cell apoptosis.

4.
Anal Chem ; 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450687

RESUMO

The outbreak of rabies virus (RABV) in Asia and Africa has attracted widespread concern due to its 100% mortality rate, and RABV detection is crucial to its diagnosis and treatment. Herein, we report a sensitive and reliable strategy for the dual-modal RABV detection using pomegranate-shaped dendritic silica nanospheres fabricated with densely incorporated quantum dots (QDs) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labelled antibody. The immunoassay involves the specific interaction between virus and nanospheres-conjugated antibody, coupled with robust fluorescence signal originating from QDs and naked-eye discernible colorimetric signal on the oxTMB. The ultrahigh loading capacity of QDs enables the detection limit down to 8 pg/mL via fluorescence modality, a 348-fold improvement as compared with conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Additionally, the detection range was from 1.20 × 102 to 2.34 × 104 pg/mL by plotting the absorbance at 652 nm with RABV concentrations, with a detection limit of 91 pg/mL, which is nearly 2 order of magnitude lower than that of the conventional ELISA. Validated with 12 brain tissue samples, our immunoassay results are completely consistent with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results. Compared with the PCR assay, our approach requires no complex sample pretreatments or expensive instruments. This is the first report on RABV diagnosis using nanomaterials for colorimetry-based prescreening and fluorescence-based quantitative detection, which may pave the way for virus-related disease diagnosis and clinical analysis.

5.
Plant Dis ; : PDIS01200034A, 2020 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32452717

RESUMO

Colletotrichum asianum is a worldwide plant pathogen causing serious fruit or leaf anthracnose diseases on a variety of plant hosts such as mango, coffee berry, chili, and other potential hosts, and it is distributed widely in Asia, America, Africa, and Oceania. This is the first genome resource available for C. asianum. The draft genome assembly will allow further analysis of species diversity and evolutionary mechanisms, and may serve as a foundation for genetic analysis that leads to greater understanding of interactions between plants and fungal pathogens.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394250

RESUMO

Phosphorus (P) is an essential biogenic element in aquatic ecosystem, and its speciation in sediment may influence the water quality. The composition of P in suspended particular matters (SPM) and sediments were analyzed. Metal ions bonding PO43- and chelating organic P (OP) were explored by Visual MINTEQ simulation and infrared spectroscopy. Inorganic P (IP) mainly comprises orthophosphate and pyrophosphate in SPM. OP mainly includes α-glycerol phosphate, ß-Gly, monophosphate, and mononucleotides from aquatic plants in SPM. Cyclotella, Nitzschia, Amphiprore, and terrestrial C3 plants are the main source of aquatic plants in JH, while they are from Oscillatoria and Merismopedia in JL. These aquatic plants directly determine whether OP or IP is taken to surface sediments during the setting of SPM. The bonding between PO43- and Ca is more preferential than Al and Fe, so the excess PO43- makes Ca compounds bonding IP (Ca-IP) and Al/Fe/Mn (hydr) oxides associated IP (Al/Fe/Mn-IP) dominant, but limited PO43- preferentially contributes more Ca-IP. Metal ions in saline water can firmly cheat with OP via P-OH and/or P=O groups to promote the burial of OP.

7.
Poult Sci ; 99(1): 89-94, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416856

RESUMO

The study was conducted to develop a specific, simple, and sensitive method for diagnosis of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). In this experiment, the selected downstream primer was labeled with biotin and the 5' end of RAA probe was labeled with FAM by reverse transcription recombinase-aided amplification (RT-RAA) combined with lateral flow dipstick (LFD). A RT-RAA-LFD assay that could be used for detection of IBV was established after optimization of RT-RAA reaction time, reaction temperature, and primer concentration. This method did not need reverse transcription of IBV template under isothermal condition (37°C), the amplification of target gene fragments could be completed within only 24 min, and the amplification products could be visually observed and determined by LFD within 3 min. The specificity test demonstrated that there was no cross reaction with the nucleic acids of other similar common pathogens. The lowest detectable limit for IBV was 102 copies/µL, and this method was 100 times more sensitive than conventional PCR (104 copies/µL), as verified by sensitivity test. The results showed that RT-RAA-LFD assay with strong specificity and high sensitivity was simple and easy to operate, and could be used for rapid detection of IBV in clinical diagnosis.

8.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 65, 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385226
9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473092

RESUMO

Normal oocyte meiosis is a prerequisite for successful human reproduction, and abnormalities in the process will result in infertility. In 2016, we identified mutations in TUBB8 as responsible for human oocyte meiotic arrest. However, the underlying genetic factors for most affected individuals remain unknown. TRIP13, encoding an AAA-ATPase, is a key component of the spindle assembly checkpoint, and recurrent homozygous nonsense variants and a splicing variant in TRIP13 are reported to cause Wilms tumors in children. In this study, we identified homozygous and compound heterozygous missense pathogenic variants in TRIP13 responsible for female infertility mainly characterized by oocyte meiotic arrest in five individuals from four independent families. Individuals from three families suffered from oocyte maturation arrest, whereas the individual from the fourth family had abnormal zygote cleavage. All displayed only the infertility phenotype without Wilms tumors or any other abnormalities. In vitro and in vivo studies showed that the identified variants reduced the protein abundance of TRIP13 and caused its downstream molecule, HORMAD2, to accumulate in HeLa cells and in proband-derived lymphoblastoid cells. The chromosome mis-segregation assay showed that variants did not have any effects on mitosis. Injecting TRIP13 cRNA into oocytes from one affected individual was able to rescue the phenotype, which has implications for future therapeutic treatments. This study reports pathogenic variants in TRIP13 responsible for oocyte meiotic arrest, and it highlights the pivotal but different roles of TRIP13 in meiosis and mitosis. These findings also indicate that different dosage effects of mutant TRIP13 might result in two distinct human diseases.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32373543

RESUMO

Common marmosets infected with GB virus-B (GBV-B) chimeras containing hepatitis C virus (HCV) core and envelope proteins (CE1E2p7) developed more severe hepatitis than those infected with HCV envelope proteins (E1E2p7), suggesting that HCV core protein might be involved in the pathogenesis of viral hepatitis. The potential role of HCV core in hepatic inflammation was investigated. Six individual cDNA libraries of liver tissues from HCV CE1E2p7 or E1E2p7 chimera-infected marmosets (three animals per group) were constructed and sequenced. By differential expression gene analysis, 30 of 632 mRNA transcripts were correlated with the immune system process, which might be associated with hepatitis. A protein-protein interaction network was constituted by STRING database based on these 30 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), showing that IL-32 might play a central regulatory role in HCV core-related hepatitis. To investigate the effect of HCV core protein on IL-32 production, HCV core expressing and mock constructs were transfected into Huh7 cells. IL-32 mRNA and secretion protein were detected at significantly higher levels in cells expressing HCV core protein than in those without HCV core expression (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively). By KEGG enrichment analysis and using the specific signaling pathway inhibitor LY294002 for inhibition of PI3K, IL-32 expression was significantly reduced (P < 0.001). In conclusion, HCV core protein induces an increase of IL-32 expression via the PI3K pathway in hepatic cells, which played a major role in development of HCV-related severe hepatitis.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32373546

RESUMO

Brucellosis is a serious zoonosis occurring mainly in developing countries, and its diagnosis is largely dependent on serologic detection and bacterial culture. In this study, we developed the murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against a conserved and major outer membrane protein 25 (Omp25) of Brucella species (B. spp.) for use in clinical diagnosis. The mAbs to Omp25 were produced by hybridoma technique, which were utilized for developing various immunoassays for detection of Brucellae, including Western blot (WB), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunochemical staining (ICS), immunofluorescence staining (IFS), and flow cytometry assay (FCM). A number of five mAbs (2B10, 4A12, 4F10, 6C12, and 8F3) specific to Omp25 were selected, including 2 IgG1, 2 IgG2a, and 1 IgG2b. Among them, mAbs 6C12, 8F3, and 4A12 reacted highly with B. melitensis (M5-90), B. abortus (S19, 104M, and 2308), and B. suis strain (S2). No cross-reactivity with Yersinia enterocolitica O:9, Salmonella spp., and Escherichia coli was found. By mapping Omp25 epitopes, mAb 6C12 was found as reacting with a semi-conformational epitope, and mAbs 4A12 and 8F3 as recognizing a different linear epitope, respectively. The paired mAbs were tested for detecting Brucella species, suggesting that 8F3 was suitable for solid phase capture and 6C12 or 4A12 was suitable for conjugation with HRP for detection of Brucella Omp25 in ELISA. The FCM was established by mAb 6C12 for detecting intracellular Brucellae-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from brucellosis patients. In conclusion, mAbs against Omp25 are precious reagents for detection of Brucellae in clinical samples with various immunoassays. mAb 6C12-based FCM could be potentially used for the monitoring of therapeutic efficacy for brucellosis in clinical practice.

13.
J Viral Hepat ; 2020 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32336003

RESUMO

The causative factors of occult hepatitis B infection are complicated and not yet been fully elucidated. Mutations in hepatitis B virus (HBV) S gene are one of the factors may contributing to occult infection. In this study, 89 blood donors with genotype B occult HBV infection were investigated. Fifty-seven hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive/HBV DNA-positive blood donors served as control group for comparison. Occult HBV-related mutations with a high incidence (P < .05) in the S gene were identified. To further verify these occult infection-related mutations, a conservative full-gene expression vector of HBV B genotype (pHBV1.3B) was constructed. Then, the mutant plasmids on the basis of pHBV1.3B were constructed and transfected into HepG2 cells. Extracellular as well as intracellular HBsAg was analysed by electrochemical luminescence and cellular immunohistochemistry. Ten occult infection-related mutations (E2G, Q101R, K122R, M133T, D144E, G145R, V168A, S174N, L175S and I226S) were significantly more frequent in the occult infection group (P < .05). Five of the ten mutations (E2G, D144E, G145R, V168A and S174N) strongly decreased extracellular HBsAg level (P < .05) in the transfection system. Notably, the E2G mutation had the most significant impact on the ratio of extracellular HBsAg (3.8% vs pHBV1.3B) and intracellular HBsAg (239.3% vs pHBV1.3B) (P < .05), and the fluorescence density of E2G mutant HBsAg was significantly higher than that of pHBV1.3B (P < .0001). Hence, ten mutations were associated with genotype B occult HBV infection; E2G and V168A were novel mutations which we confirmed significantly affect HBsAg detection. E2G might cause HBsAg secretion impairment that results in intracellular accumulation and a decrease in HBsAg secretion.

14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: WHO characterizes novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) as a pandemic. Here, we investigated the clinical, cytokine levels, T cell proportion and related gene expression occurring in COVID-19 patients on admission and after intial treatment. METHODS: 11 patients diagnosed as COVID-19 with similar initial treatment regimen were enrolled in the hospital. Plasma cytokines, CyTOF and microfluidic qPCR for gene expression were conducted. RESULTS: 5 mild and 6 severe patients were included. Cough and fever were the top symptoms in the 11 COVID-2019 cases. The elder age, more neutrophils numbers and higher C-reactive protein level were found in severe cases. IL-10 level was significantly varied with disease progression and treatment. The decreased T cell proportions were observed in COVID-19 patients especially in severe cases, and all elevated to normal in mild patiens after initial treatment but only CD4+T cells return to normal in severe cases. The number of DEGs increased with the disease progress, and decreased after initial treatment. All down-regulated DEGs in severe cases mainly involved in Th17 cell differentiation, cytokine-mediated signaling pathway and T cell activation. After initial treatmen in severe cases, MAP2K7 and SOS1 were upregulated relative to that on admission. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show a decreased T cell proportion with down-regulated gene expression related to T cell activation and differentiation were occurred in COVID-19 severe patients, which may help to provide effective treatment strategies for COVID-19 .

15.
Curr Med Sci ; 40(2): 232-238, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32337684

RESUMO

Metarhizosides A-G (1-7), seven new polysubstituted phenyl glucosides, were isolated from the extracts of solid rice medium of a marine-derived fungus Metarrhizium anisopliae. Compounds 1-7 all contain a polysubstituted phenyl group and the sugar unit is identified as 4'-O-methyl-ß-D-glucopyranose. Their structures were elucidated by NMR spectroscopy and chemical method. These compounds were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity by using LPS-stimulated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells and the cytotoxicities against four human cancer cell lines.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248093

RESUMO

Text effects are combinations of visual elements such as outlines, colors and textures of text, which can dramatically improve its artistry. Although text effects are extensively utilized in the design industry, they are usually created by human experts due to their extreme complexity; this is laborious and not practical for normal users. In recent years, some efforts have been made toward automatic text effect transfer; however, the lack of data limits the capabilities of transfer models. To address this problem, we introduce a new text effects dataset, TE141K, with 141,081 text effect/glyph pairs in total. Our dataset consists of 152 professionally designed text effects rendered on glyphs, including English letters, Chinese characters, and Arabic numerals. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest dataset for text effect transfer to date. Based on this dataset, we propose a baseline approach called text effect transfer GAN (TET-GAN), which supports the transfer of all 152 styles in one model and can efficiently extend to new styles. Finally, we conduct a comprehensive comparison in which 14 style transfer models are benchmarked. Experimental results demonstrate the superiority of TET-GAN both qualitatively and quantitatively and indicate that our dataset is effective and challenging.

18.
Sci China Life Sci ; 63(5): 697-705, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246402

RESUMO

The Hippo pathway is a newly identified pathway and evolutionarily conserved from flies to humans mainly regulating cell proliferation. Transcriptional co-activator Yes-associated protein (YAP) functions as a major downstream effector and key node of the Hippo pathway. Phosphorylation of YAP is critical to regulate YAP activity and its corresponding functions. ß-adrenergic receptor (ß-AR), a typical G protein coupled receptor (GPCR), mediates proliferation in various cell types and regulates multiple physical and pathological processes. However, the role of ß-AR in regulating YAP remains elusive. Here, we report that ß-AR can obviously stimulate YAP tyrosine phosphorylation. The mechanism is that ß-AR stimulation results in tyrosine kinase Src activation and Src phosphorylates YAP tyrosine at Y357. Further studies demonstrate that inhibition of Src kinase activity can obviously alleviate ß-AR induced YAP tyrosine phosphorylation and cell proliferation. We conclude that ß-AR can induce YAP tyrosine phosphorylation and also establish the Src/YAP pathway as a critical signaling branch downstream of GPCR.

19.
iScience ; 23(4): 100982, 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234664

RESUMO

Protons are highly related to cell viability during physiological and pathological processes. Developing new probes to monitor the pH variation could be extremely helpful to understand the viability of cells and the cell death study. Carbonized polymer dots (CPDs) are superior biocompatible and have been widely applied in bioimaging field. Herein, a new type of extreme-pH suitable CPDs was prepared from citric acid and o-phenylenediamine (CA/oPD-CPDs). Due to the co-existence of hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, CA/oPD-CPDs tend to aggregate in neutral condition with a dramatic decrease of fluorescence, but disperse well in both acidic and alkaline conditions with brighter emission. This specialty enables them to selectively illuminate lysosomes in cells. Moreover, CA/oPD-CPDs in the cytoplasm could serve as a sustained probe to record intracellular pH variation during apoptosis. Furthermore, CA/oPD-CPDs present a continuous fluorescence increase upon 2-h laser irradiation in living cells, underscoring this imaging system for long-term biological recording.

20.
Clin Epigenetics ; 12(1): 56, 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32317010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abnormal DNA methylation is a hallmark of human cancers and may be a promising biomarker for early diagnosis of human cancers. However, the majority of DNA methylation biomarkers that have been identified are based on the hypothesis that early differential methylation regions (DMRs) are maintained throughout carcinogenesis and could be detected at all stages of cancer. METHODS: In this study, we identified potential early biomarkers of colorectal cancer (CRC) development by genome-wide DNA methylation assay (Illumina infinium450, 450 K) of normal (N = 20) and pre-colorectal cancer samples including 18 low-grade adenoma (LGA) and 22 high-grade adenoma (HGA), integrated with GEO and ArrayExpress datasets (N = 833). RESULTS: We identified 209 and 8692 CpG sites that were significantly hyper-methylated in LGA and HGA, respectively. Pathway analysis identified nervous system-related methylation changes that are significantly associated with early adenoma development. Integration analysis revealed that DNA methylation in the promoter region of ADHFE1 has the most potential for being an early diagnostic biomarker for colorectal adenoma and cancer (sensitivity = 0.96, specificity = 0.95, area under the curve = 0.97). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we demonstrated that DNA methylation have been shown significant changes in the stage of LGA and HGA in the development of colon cancer. Genome-wide DNA methylation to LGA and HGA provided an important proxy to identify promising early diagnosis biomarkers for colorectal cancer.

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