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1.
Int J Biol Sci ; 16(6): 921-934, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32140062

RESUMO

Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is the key enzyme responsible for metabolism of the alcohol metabolite acetaldehyde in the liver. In addition to conversion of the acetaldehyde molecule, ALDH is also involved in other cellular functions. Recently, many studies have investigated the involvement of ALDH expression in viral hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease (ALD), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), liver fibrosis, and liver cancer. Notably, ALDH2 expression has been linked with liver cancer risk, as well as pathogenesis and prognosis, and has emerged as a promising therapeutic target. Of note, approximately 8% of the world's population, and approximately 30-40% of the population in East Asia carry an inactive ALDH2 gene. This review summarizes new progress in understanding tissue-specific acetaldehyde metabolism by ALDH2 as well as the association of ALDH2 gene polymorphisms with liver disease and cancer. New research directions emerging in the field are also briefly discussed.

2.
Adv Healthc Mater ; : e2000005, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32181991

RESUMO

The combination of reactive oxygen species-involved chemodynamic therapy (CDT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) holds great promise in enhancing anticancer effects. Herein, a multifunctional Fe-doped polyoxometalate (Fe-POM) cluster is fabricated via a simple method. The Fe-POM can not only be utilized as PTT agents to generate a hyperthermia effect for cancer cell killing under near-infrared (NIR) II laser (1060 nm) irradiation, but also can be used as CDT agents to convert endogenous less-reactive H2 O2 into harmful ·OH and simultaneously deplete glutathione for an amplified CDT effect. Notably, the hyperthermia induced by PTT can further enhance the CDT effect, achieving a synergistic PTT/CDT effect. Owing to the self-assembling properties at lowered pH values, the Fe-POM exhibits high tumor accumulation as revealed by photoacoustic imaging. More importantly, Fe-POM enables effective destruction of tumors without inducing noticeable damage to normal tissues under 1060 nm laser irradiation. The work presents a new type of multifunctional agent with high PTT/CDT efficacy, providing promising methods for PTT-enhanced CDT in a NIR-II biowindow.

4.
J Mater Chem B ; 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129418

RESUMO

The development of nanotechnology has changed the 100-year-old paradigm of photodynamic therapy (PDT), in which organic/inorganic hybrid nanomaterials have made great contributions. In this review, we first describe the mechanisms of PDT and discuss the limitations of conventional PDT. On this basis, we summarize recent progress in organic/inorganic nanohybrids-based photodynamic agents, highlighting how these nanohybrids can be programmed to overcome challenges in photodynamic cancer therapy.

5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 255: 112719, 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114164

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aucklandiae Radix (AR) and Vladimiriae Radix (VR), as traditional Chinese medicine, have been included in many editions of Chinese Pharmacopoeia with similar efficacy such as promoting qi and relieving pain, which are used to treat chest, hypochondriac, abdominal fullness and pain, diarrhea and tenesmus. In most conditions, VR is used to be a substitute of AR or a local habit. However, whether VR could substitute for AR to play a same role in the formulation and clinical applications needs further study. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, similarities and differences between AR and VR would be assessed, and possible reasons that may influence the efficacy of the AR and VR would be explained from the perspective of chemical composition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HPLC-PDA was used to obtain the data of 10 batches of AR and VR, and to establish chemical fingerprint and chemometric analysis. UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS was used to identify the structure of chemical compounds which contributed to the differences between AR and VR. RESULTS: The chemical fingerprint analysis results showed that 20 peaks in common for AR and 26 peaks in common for VR both presented a good similarity (>0.9), and 15 peaks in common for AR and VR also showed a good similarity (>0.9). Nevertheless, chemometric showed AR was distinct from VR and three chemical compounds, which leading to their differences, were identified by UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS. The three chemical compounds were 3ß-acetoxy-11ß-guaia-4 (15),10 (14)-diene-12,6α-olide, 10α,14-epoxy-11ß-guaia-4 (15)-ene-12,6α-olide and costunolide, respectively. CONCLUSION: In general, AR and VR were highly similar, but their differences were deserved to be paid attention to. This research could provide reference for quality control and set a foundation for clinical applications of AR and VR.

6.
Luminescence ; 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160413

RESUMO

On-site identification and quantification of chemicals is critical for promoting food safety, human health, homeland security risk assessment, and disease diagnosis. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been widely considered as a promising method for on-site analysis due to the advantages of nondestructive, abundant molecular information, and outstanding sensitivity. However, SERS for on-site application has been restricted not only by the cost, performance, and portability of portable Raman instruments, but also by the sampling ability and signal enhancing performance of the SERS substrates. In recent years, the performance of SERS for on-site analysis has been improved through portable Raman instruments, SERS substrates, and other combined technologies. In this review, popular commercial portable Raman spectrometers and the related technologies for on-site analysis are compared. In addition, different types of SERS substrates for on-site application are summarized. SERS combined with other technologies, such as electrochemical and microfluidics are also presented. The future perspective of SERS for on-site analysis is also discussed.

7.
Environ Toxicol ; 2020 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170997

RESUMO

Microcystin-leucine arginine (MC-LR) is a cyclic heptapeptide hepatotoxin produced by cyanobacteria. MicroRNA-122 (miR-122) is specifically expressed in the liver. This study focuses on the role of miR-122 in MC-LR-induced dysregulation of hepatic iron homeostasis in C57BL/6 mice. The thirty mice were randomly divided into five groups (Control, 12.5 µg/kg·BW MC-LR, 25 µg/kg·BW MC-LR, Negative control agomir and 25 µg/kg·BW MC-LR + miR-122 agomir). The results show that MC-LR decreases the expressions of miR-122, Hamp, and its related regulators, while increasing the content of hepatic iron and the expressions of FPN1 and Tmprss6. Furthermore, miR-122 agomir pretreatment improves MC-LR induced dysregulation of hepatic iron homeostasis by arousing the related regulators and reducing the expression of Tmprss6. These results suggest that miR-122 agomir can prevent the accumulation of hepatic iron induced by MC-LR, which may be related to the regulation of hepcidin by BMP/SMAD and IL-6/STAT signaling pathways.

8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 194: 110380, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145528

RESUMO

Transgenic crops express Cry proteins exhibit high resistant to target insect pests. When we evaluate the effects of Cry proteins on the parasitoid of target insect pest via tritrophic experiments (transgenic plant-target insect pest-parasitoid) host quality of parasitoids might decrease because of insecticidal protein ingestion, this would cause host-quality mediated effects and influence the accuracy of biosafety assessment. In the current study, high dose of Cry2Aa protein was injected into the hemolymph of Plodia interpunctella by microinjection, and the hemolymph was used as the carrier to deliver Cry protein to Habrobracon hebetor, which has been previously reported as an ectoparasitoid of P. interpunctella larval, in order to avoid the "host-quality mediated effects". Results showed that injected Cry2Aa remained at high concentration and bioactive in the hemolymph of P. interpunctella parasitized by H. hebetor, the hemolymph of P. interpunctella could be used as carriers of Cry protein to H. hebetor, and high dose of Cry2Aa have no negative impacts on the development time, weight of pupa, sex ratio, adults weight (male and female), adult longevity and fecundity, and the activity of stress-related enzymes of H. hebetor. However, the hemolymph of P. interpunctella injected into Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (the positive control) showed significant negative impact on these parameters measured in the present study of H. hebetor. This indicated that Cry2Aa protein had no detrimental effects on the biological parameters of H. hebetor measured in the current study. Meanwhile, this study provides a new method for the safety evaluation of the ectoparasitoids of target pest and might be expanded to the other species of ectoparasitoids of target insects of Cry proteins in biosafety risk assessment.

9.
Biomaterials ; 243: 119934, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163757

RESUMO

Application of 1064 nm activatable NIR-IIa fluorescence imaging (FI) and NIR-II photothermal therapy (PTT) results in high-resolution imaging and good deep-tissue therapy, respectively. Combining NIR-IIa FI with NIR-II PTT may allow precise diagnosis guided efficient treatment of deep-tissue tumors. However, designing a 1064 activatable theranostic nanoplatform using a single dye for both NIR-IIa FI and NIR-II PTT is a challenge. Herein, we synthesized squaraine-based semiconducting polymer nanoparticles (PSQPNs-DBCO) that were excited by a 1064 nm laser for precise NIR-IIa fluorescence imaging guided NIR-II PTT treatment. Combined with bioorthogonal labeling technology, the PSQPNs-DBCO largely accumulated in the tumor section, extremely enhancing signal-to-background ratio (SBR) of imaging and NIR-II PTT efficiency of tumor in live colorectal-bearing animals.

10.
Curr Hypertens Rep ; 22(5): 34, 2020 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200440

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This meta-analysis and systematic review was conducted to evaluate the effect of probiotics on blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), and blood glucose changes in patients with hypertension. RECENT FINDINGS: We searched the PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, and ProQuest databases using a combination of MeSH and free text, from the inception of these databases to 20 January 2020, with no language restrictions. The quantitative PEDro scale method was used to assess the quality of the included studies. We used the random effects models to estimate the outcomes, with heterogeneity among the studies assessed using Cochran's Q statistic. Fourteen included studies published between 2002 and 2019 were included in the meta-analysis, reporting results of 846 hypertension participants. A significant reduction in SBP by - 2.05 mmHg (95% CI - 3.87, -0.24, P = 0.03), DBP by - 1.26 mmHg (95% CI - 2.51, - 0.004, P = 0.047), BMI by - 1.03 (95% CI - 1.28, - 0.97, P < 0.01), and blood glucose by - 0.18 mmol/L (95% CI - 0.30 - 0.05, P = 0.007) was observed following probiotics intervention. Our meta-analysis showed a modest but a significant reduction in SBP and DBP in patients with hypertension, particularly in those with diabetes mellitus, following probiotic supplementation. This effect was associated with treatment duration, dosage, and the age of subject but was not associated with single or multiple strains usage. Additionally, probiotic supplement had a beneficial effect in reducing BMI and blood glucose.

11.
Curr Hypertens Rep ; 22(5): 33, 2020 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200443

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This meta-analysis and systematic review was conducted to evaluate the effect of probiotics on blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), and blood glucose changes in patients with hypertension. RECENT FINDINGS: We searched the PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, and ProQuest databases using a combination of MeSH and free text, from the inception of these databases to 20 January 2020, with no language restrictions. The quantitative Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale method was used to assess the quality of the included studies. We used the random effects models to estimate the outcomes, with heterogeneity among the studies assessed using Cochran's Q statistic. Fourteen included studies published between 2002 and 2019 were included in the meta-analysis, reporting results of 846 hypertension participants. A significant reduction in SBP by - 2.05 mmHg (95% CI - 3.87, - 0.24, P = 0.03), DBP by - 1.26 mmHg (95% CI - 2.51, - 0.004, P = 0.047), BMI by - 1.03 (95% CI - 1.28, - 0.97, P < 0.01), and blood glucose by - 0.18 mmol/L (95% CI - 0.30, - 0.05, P = 0.007) was observed following probiotic intervention. Our meta-analysis showed a modest but a significant reduction in SBP and DBP in patients with hypertension, particularly in those with diabetes mellitus, following probiotic supplementation. This effect was associated with treatment duration, dosage, and the age of subject, but was not associated with single or multiple strains usage. Additionally, probiotic supplement had a beneficial effect in reducing BMI and blood glucose.

12.
Exp Cell Res ; : 111817, 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179097

RESUMO

Overexpression of the c-Myc oncogene has been implicated in cancer stem cell - like (CSC) phenotypes and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer. However, the underlying molecular mechanism by which c-Myc regulates EMT and CSC potential in remains unclear. In the present study, we showed that the expression of c-Myc protein is inversely correlated with microRNA (miR)-200c expression in primary tumor samples from nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) patients. We further demonstrated that Myc and miR-200c negatively regulate the expression each other in NPC cell lines. c-Myc transcriptionally repressed expression of miR-200c by directly binding to two E-box sites located within a 1 kb segment upstream of TSS of the miR-200c. In addition, miR-200c post-transcriptionally repressed expression of c-Myc by binding to its 3'-untranslated region, suggesting the existence of a negative feedback loop between Myc and miR-200c. Overexpression of c-Myc interfered with this feedback loop and activated the EMT program, induced CSC phenotypes, and enhanced drug sensitivity, whereas miR-200c could counteract these biological effects of c-Myc. Our results provide a novel mechanism governing c-Myc and miR-200c expression and indicate that either targeting c-Myc or restoring miR-200c expression would be a promising approach to overcome oncogenic role of c-Myc in NPC.

13.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32123380

RESUMO

Chronic hepatitis B is caused by prolonged infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV), which can substantially increase the risk of developing liver disease. Despite the development of preventive vaccines against HBV, a therapeutic vaccine inducing an effective antibody response still remains elusive. The preS1 domain of the large HBV surface protein is the major viral attachment site on hepatocytes and thus offers a therapeutic target; however, its poor immunogenicity limits clinical translation. Here, we design a ferritin nanoparticle vaccine that can deliver preS1 to specific myeloid cells, including SIGNR1+ dendritic cells (which activate T follicular helper cells) and lymphatic sinus-associated SIGNR1+ macrophages (which can activate B cells). This nanoparticle vaccine induces a high-level and persistent anti-preS1 response that results in efficient viral clearance and partial serological conversion in a chronic HBV mouse model, offering a promising translatable vaccination strategy for the functional cure of chronic hepatitis B.

14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 154, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006115

RESUMO

The pollution levels of lakes vary in quantity and type of contaminants accumulated in their sediment and water. The second Chinese capital city will be built around Baiyangdian Lake in the near future, and thus, it is important to monitor pollution status of Baiyangdian Lake. This study mainly focused on the accumulated heavy metal concentrations in the surface sediment and in variety of fish bodies. Sediment pollution status and ecological risk were evaluated through geo-accumulation (I-geo), contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), potential ecological risk ([Formula: see text]), and mean probable effect concentration quotient (mPEC-Q). In addition, human health risks via fish consumption were also evaluated. Based on the results, the average sediment trace As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations were 9.53, 0.35, 56.37, 32.33, 617.05, 30.18, 19.17, and 84.24 mg/kg dry wt, respectively. Both I-geo and [Formula: see text] inferred low pollution levels and low ecological risks from all assessed trace metals except Cd. Cd posed moderate to high ecological risks. Based on sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), average Ni and Cr concentrations exceeded the threshold effect concentrations (TEC), but their [Formula: see text] are low as their average concentrations is below Hebei province pre-contaminations (30.8 mg/kg for Ni and 68.3 mg/kg for Cr). There is no cumulative toxicity from all the metals through mPEC-Q. Omnivorous fish accumulated statistically insignificantly higher amounts of metals than carnivorous fish, except for Hg. The intake of 12.22 g/person/day fish muscle for the entire life is safe from noncarcinogenic human health problems.


Assuntos
Peixes , Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Lagos , Medição de Risco
15.
Can Respir J ; 2020: 1350872, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32104517

RESUMO

Introduction. Some studies have found that cilia were shorter in COPD smokers than in nonsmokers or healthy smokers. However, the structural abnormalities of cilia and the cause of such abnormalities in COPD patients still remain unknown. Tumor necrosis factor alpha receptor 3 interacting protein 1 (MIP-T3) may play an important role in the progress of ciliary protein transporting. Objectives: This study aimed at exploring the dominated structural abnormalities of cilia and the involvement of MIP-T3 in the pathogenesis of cilia of COPD patients. Methods: Patients who accepted pulmonary lobectomy were divided into 3 groups: the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) smoker group, the healthy smoker group, and the nonsmoker group, according to smoking history and pulmonary function. The ultrastructure of cilia and the percentage of abnormal cilia were analyzed using a transmission electron microscope. Real-time PCR, immunohistochemical staining, and western blotting in bronchial epithelium were used to determine MIP-T3 mRNA and protein expression. The relationship between the percentage of abnormal cilia and lung function and MIP-T3 protein expression was analyzed. Results: Patients in the COPD smoker group had increased percentage of abnormal cilia comparing to both the healthy smoker group and the nonsmoker group (both P values <0.05). MIP-T3 expression was significantly declined in the COPD smoker group (P values <0.05). MIP-T3 expression was significantly declined in the COPD smoker group (P values <0.05). MIP-T3 expression was significantly declined in the COPD smoker group (P values <0.05). MIP-T3 expression was significantly declined in the COPD smoker group (. Conclusions: Our results suggested that the abnormal ciliary ultrastructure, which was common in COPD patients, might be due to MIP-T3 downregulation.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089266

RESUMO

Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, a mitochondrial matrix enzyme, plays a crucial role in protecting the heart against stress, such as ischemia reperfusion and alcohol injury. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 on lipotoxic cardiomyopathy and to explore the possible mechanisms in vitro. Primary cardiomyocytes in the lipotoxic group were treated with oxidatively modified low-density lipoprotein (50 mg/L) for 24 h. Overexpression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 was achieved using the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 activator, Alda-1 (20 µM). We found that cardiomyocyte apoptosis was attenuated by aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 overexpression. In addition, aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 overexpression inhibited the expression of BCL2 associated X, apoptosis regulator (BAX) and caspase 3, while it enhanced protein kinase B (AKT) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3ß) phosphorylation. The results suggested that aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 is cardioprotective against lipotoxic cardiomyopathy, probably by reducing apoptosis through the AKT/glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3ß) pathway. Our findings partially revealed the molecular mechanism of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2's cardioprotective effect against lipotoxic injury, and suggest a new therapeutic strategy to treat lipotoxic cardiomyopathy.

17.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 231: 118096, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006915

RESUMO

In this study, a simple low-temperature route is presented for the synthesis of Mg and Ce co-doped ZnO quantum dots (QDs). X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-vis absorption spectra, and fluorescence measurements were used to characterize the synthesized QDs. The results indicate that the oxygen vacancy concentration could be tuned via Mg and Ce ions doping, which leads to the regulation of luminescence. The visible emission was directly associated with oxygen vacancies, and a blue shift of the visible emission with increasing Ce doping concentration was due to the quantum confinement effect. Finally, we explored the application of Mg and Ce co-doped ZnO QDs by fabricating a white LED device. Notably, the white LED device presents good luminescence properties under a voltage of 3 V and a driven current of 200 mA. The Commission International de l'Eclairage chromaticity, the correlated color temperature, and the color rendering index were determined to be (x = 0.32, y = 0.30), 5733 K, and 81, respectively, which make them potential candidates as single-phased QDs for white light-emitting diodes.

18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(7): 8870-8878, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011852

RESUMO

Many arthropods have compound eyes, which are made up of numerous separate visual units (microlenses) or ommatidia. These natural compound eyes have exceptional optical properties such as wide field of view (FOV), low aberration, and fast motion tracking capability. In this paper, a large-scale artificial compound eye (ACE) is fabricated efficiently using a combination of inkjet printing and air-assisted deformation processes. Both size and geometry of the microlens are controlled via superposed drops on the substrate. The simulation results show that the light intensity of the ACE follows a systematic distribution for tilted incident light, which represents a significant improvement, compared to planar distributed microlenses. We then manufacture ACEs with different heights and diameters, and their FOVs are compared with the theoretically predicted results. The measured FOV was 50°-140°. The acceptance angles for the different ACEs are determined, and their relationship with the ratio of height to radius (H/r) of the microlens is investigated in more detail. Furthermore, the imaging properties of the microlenses with different angles of incidences are studied, which suggest a FOV up to 140° and an acceptance angle of about 50°. The microlens captures images even at an angle of incidence of about 60°. The corresponding distortion in both the x and y directions is also investigated. Our findings provide guidelines for the development and fabrication of ACEs with large FOVs and acceptance angles, which may find applications in military, robotics, medical imaging, and astronomy.

19.
Sci Total Environ ; 711: 135108, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000343

RESUMO

Submerged macrophytes are widely distributed primary producer that play important roles in maintaining healthy aquatic ecosystems. Generally, the relationships between macrophytes and environmental factors are complicated, so nonlinear nonparametric models with relatively flexible structures are optimal for macrophyte habitat simulation. In this study, generalized additive model (GAM) was used to evaluate the response of the submerged macrophytes biomass to water environmental factors in the Baiyangdian Lake. Forward stepwise method was used to implement model optimization. Likelihood ratio test was used to determine whether adding a variable enhances the model performance. Four individual variables (water depth, transparency, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus) and two interaction terms (water depth × transparency and water depth × total phosphorus) were included in the optimal GAM. The optimal model explained 70.5% of the biomass variation with a relatively low residual deviance value (22.40). There was a significant correlation between the measured and predicted data (R2 = 0.716, p = 0.0004). The response lines generated by the model indicated that macrophyte biomass had a positive correlation with transparency but negative correlations with total nitrogen and nitrite nitrogen in water. The response patterns of macrophyte biomass to water depth and total phosphorus were unimodal. The biomass reached the maximum value when the water depth was about 2.1 m and the total phosphorus concentration was 0.07 mg/L. Water depth and transparency, which affect light availability, are critical physical variables affecting the conditions associated with the submerged macrophytes, and excess nitrite and phosphorus limiting macrophyte biomass.

20.
Mol Med Rep ; 21(3): 1461-1470, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016479

RESUMO

The present study was designed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of Bao Gui capsule (BGC) against hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance and leptin resistance of PCOS. Letrozole was used to induce a PCOS model in rats, which were then randomly divided into four groups (n=9): Control, Model, high­dose BGC (BGC­H) and low­dose BGC (BGC­L) group. Serum levels of follicle­stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), insulin, leptin, and interleukin (IL)­1ß, IL­6 and tumor necrosis factor­α (TNF­α) in the hypothalamus were determined by ELISA. Protein levels of cytochrome P450c17α and cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom) in ovaries were determined by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Additionally, the expression of GLUT4 in uterus and muscle tissue, and NF­κB, IKKß and SOCS3 mRNA levels in the hypothalamus were evaluated. BGC significantly reduced body weight gain and decreased serum levels of LH/FSH, T, log T/E2, insulin and leptin compared with the PCOS model rats. Furthermore, BGC markedly reduced the expression of P450c17α and significantly increased the expression of P450arom in ovaries, and increased the expression of GLUT4 in uterus and muscle tissues. BGC also effectively reduced the level of IL­6 and TNF­α, and the expression of IKKß, NF­κB and SOCS3 in the hypothalamus of PCOS model rats. These results suggest that BGC may effectively improve hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, endometrial receptivity and the low­grade chronic inflammation in the hypothalamus.

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