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1.
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi ; 56(1): 34-42, 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486926

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the value of high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) in the diagnosis of anal precancerous lesions. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed, which included 142 patients who underwent HRA in vulvar and anal clinic at Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University from January 2014 to December 2019. With the perianal and anal canal biopsy pathology as the "gold standard", the diagnostic value of HRA and specific findings for anal precancerous lesions were evaluated and the clinical characteristics of patients with anal precancerous lesions were analyzed. Results: (1) Agreement between HRA and anal pathology were 76.6% (95/124, perianal) and 70.0% (84/120, anal canal), in which there was no significant difference (χ2=1.365, P=0.243). The strength of agreement with weighted Kappa statistic were 0.604 (perianal) and 0.455 (anal canal) respectively. HRA diagnosis were more overestimated [16.9% (21/124) in perianal and 25.0% (30/120) in anal canal] than underestimated [6.5% (8/124) in perianal and 5.0% (6/120) in anal canal]. The sensitivity and specificity of HRA in the diagnosis of anal precancerous lesions were all more than 60.0% (perianal lesions: 97.8% and 74.7%; anal canal lesions: 90.9% and 66.7%), and Youden's index were >0.5 (perianal lesions: 0.725; anal canal lesions: 0.576). The positive predictive value of HRA in anal canal lesions (50.8%) was lower than that in perianal lesions (68.8%). (2) The thin acetowhite epithelium was the most common finding in anal precancerous lesions, and its performance in anal canal lesions (the sensitivity, the specificity and the Youden's index were 78.8%, 62.4% and 0.412, respectively) were better than those in perianal lesions (the sensitivity, the specificity and the Youden's index were 28.9%, 96.9% and 0.258, respectively). The dense acetowhite epithelium and vascular patterns were only seen in anal canal lesions. Lugol's iodine was little useful for perianal lesions (the incidence of iodine negative was 0),but quite useful to evaluate the canal lesions (the positive predictive value was 83.3% and the negative predictive value was 82.3%). (3) The average age of patients with low-grade anal precancerous lesion was (37±10) years old, and high-grade anal precancerous lesion was (42±11) years old, and there was significant difference between them (P=0.034). Age curve showed that the peak age was 30-40 years old. Vulvar intraepithelial lesion was the risk factor of anal precancerous lesions (χ2=4.284, P<0.05). Conclusions: HRA patterns are reliable in the diagnosis of anal precancerous lesions, which is important for guiding biopsy. However, it is easy to be overestimated, especially for anal canal lesions. The acetowhite epithelium is the most common finding in anal precancerous lesions, but vascular patterns are only seen in anal canal lesions.

2.
J Appl Microbiol ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411963

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the occurrence of ESBL and colistin-resistant E. coli and its genotypic characterization and identification of virulence determinants in cases of bovine mastitis in three provinces of China. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five hundred and thirty-five milk samples presenting mastitis symptoms were screened for the presence of ESBL, colistin-resistant and different virulence genes. Susceptibility testing was identified by the micro-dilution method. Escherichia coli isolates were used to detect ESBL genes (blaCTX-M , blaSHV and blaTEM ) and colistin-resistant genes mcr-(1-9). Multiplex PCR approach was used for the detection of major blaCTX-M groups, different phylogroups and virulence genes. The clonal relationship was then evaluated with MLST, MLSA and PFGE. RESULTS: Multi-drug resistance (MDR) was found in more than 85% of ESBL and colistin-resistant E. coli isolates. Genotypic characterization showed a dominance of the blaCTX-M-1 group, and the most prevalent alleles observed were blaCTX-M-28 (38·37%), blaCTX-M-14 (17·44%), blaCTX-M-66 (13·95%) and blaCTX-M-55 (10·46%). The targeted virulence genes were detected in 97·89% of isolates. Sequence types ST58 and ST410 were the most predominant (2/20 = 20%). The majority of the E. coli isolates carrying ESBL and mcr-1 were clonally unrelated. CONCLUSION: High level of association was observed between ESBL-producing and COL-resistance in E. coli of bovine mastitis. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report which shows the genetic diversity of ESBL and mcr-1, and various virulent features of E. coli strains isolated from bovine clinical mastitis in three different provinces of China. The major carriers of the blaCTX-M-1 and blaCTX-M-9 were blaCTX-M-28 and blaCTX-M-14 alleles respectively. The association of ESBL-producing E. coli with mcr-1 is of particular concern.

3.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 101(2): 127-130, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455128

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the prevalence and the related factors of dyslipidemia in 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) patients. Methods: A total of 205 patients with 21-OHD were recruited in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 2016 to January 2018. The basic information, glucocorticoid replacement therapy, and laboratory examination results of patients were obtained from medical records. The genotypes of CYP21A2 were identified by Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification. The prevalence of dyslipidemia among 21-OHD patients, basic information and related hormone levels of 21-OHD patients with different status of blood lipid were described. Logistic regression model was used to analyze the related factors of dyslipidemia in 21-OHD patients. Results: The age of subjects was 17.0 (8.3, 25.0) years old, including 51 males (24.9%). According to CYP21A2 genotypes, there were 16 cases in Null group, 26 cases in Group A, 105 cases in group B, 27 cases in group C, and 31 cases in group D. The incidence of dyslipidemia was 29.3% (60/205), among which 37.3% (19/51) in male and 26.6% (41/154) in female patients, respectively. The M (Q1, Q3) of total cortisol level (nmol/L) and body mass index (kg/m2) of male 21-OHD patients with dyslipidemia were 0.17 (0.06, 0.35) and 25.76 (17.01, 30.45), respectively, which were higher than those with ortholiposis [0.04 (0.02, 0.21) and 18.83 (16.53, 23.88)] (all P<0.05). The M (Q1, Q3) of progesterone level (nmol/L), body mass index (kg/m2) and age (years) of female 21-OHD patients with dyslipidemia were 74.40 (50.97, 98.52), 23.09 (21.78, 27.78) and 23.00 (16.50, 28.00), respectively, which were higher than those with ortholiposis [52.81 (33.41, 68.85), 21.55 (18.63, 25.71) and 18.00 (9.50, 25.00)] (all P<0.05). The risk of dyslipidemia increased by 5.0% [OR (95%CI): 1.05 (1.01, 1.09)] for every 1 nmol/L increase of progesterone. Conclusion: The incidence of dyslipidemia is high in 21-OHD patients, and progesterone level is positively correlated with dyslipidemia.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita , Dislipidemias , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/epidemiologia , Adulto , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Esteroide 21-Hidroxilase
4.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 43(1): 132-136, 2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472326

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of patients with ovarian metastases from colorectal cancer. Methods: A total of 122 female patients with ovarian metastases from colorectal cancer underwent treatment in Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences between 2010 and 2015 were recruited. The clinicopathological features, treatment details and survival data of these patients were retrospectively analyzed. Kaplan-Maier method was used for survival analysis, log rank test and Cox proportional hazards model were used for prognostic factor analysis. Results: The median overall survival (OS) was 19.7 months. The 1-year, 3-years and 5-years OS rates were 72.1%, 24.7% and 9.9%, respectively. A total of 99 (81.1%) patients underwent oophorectomy. The median OS of patients who underwent oophorectomy was 21.9 months, significantly longer than 10.3 months of patients without oophorectomy (P<0.01). Ovary as the only site of metastasis, primary tumor resection, and oophorectomy were associated with improved survival (all P<0.01). Primary tumor resection and oophorectomy were independent prognostic factors for OS (both P<0.01). Conclusion: Patients with ovarian metastases from colorectal cancer might acquire a survival benefit from surgical resection of the primary tumor and ovaries.

5.
Transl Oncol ; 14(3): 101007, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421750

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prostate and breast cancer are the most prevalent primary malignant human tumors globally. Prostatectomy and breast conservative surgery remain the most common definitive treatment option for the >500,000 men and women newly diagnosed with localized prostate and breast cancer each year only in the US. Morphological examination is the mainstay of diagnosis but margin under-sampling of the excised cancer tissue may lead to local recurrence. In despite of the progress of non-invasive optical imaging, there is still a clinical need for targeted optical imaging probes that could rapidly and globally visualize cancerous tissues. METHODS: Elevated expression of junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) on tumor cells and its multiple pro-tumorigenic activity make the JAM-A a candidate for molecular imaging. Near-infrared imaging probe, which employed anti-JAM-A monoclonal antibody (mAb) phthalocyanine dye IR700 conjugates (JAM-A mAb/IR700), was synthesized and used to identify and visualize heterotopic human prostate and breast tumor mouse xenografts in vivo. RESULTS: The intravenously injected JAM-A mAb/IR700 conjugates enabled the non-invasive detection of prostate and breast cancerous tissue by fluorescence imaging. A single dose of JAM-A mAb/IR700 reduced number of mitotic cancer cells in vivo, indicating theranostic ability of this imaging agent. The JAM-A mAb/IR700 conjugates allowed us to image a specific receptor expression in prostate and breast tumors without post-image processing. CONCLUSION: This agent demonstrates promise as a method to image the extent of prostate and breast cancer in vivo and could assist with real-time visualization of extracapsular extension of cancerous tissue.

8.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 24(1): 35-42, 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461250

RESUMO

In the past 30 years, minimally invasive surgery has been greatly improved with the development of the energy platform, instrument platform, and imaging platform. Taking colorectal cancer surgery as an example, the five elements of surgical procedure have developed to a certain extent. The surgical approach has undergone a process from large to small. The range of resection ranges from simple bowel resection to radical resection/extended radical resection, and then to surgery that focuses on preserving organ function. With the recognition of the direction of normal lymphatic drainage and the characteristics of tumor lymphatic metastasis, lymph node dissection has been gradually standardized. The reconstruction of the digestive tract has changed from manual sutures to full endoscopic anastomosis, and then to the concept of functional anastomosis. The removal of the specimen has improved from large incision through the abdominal wall, to small laparoscopic incision, and then to the natural cavity. The evolution of these procedures depends on the advancement of technology platforms and equipment, and the recognition of new concepts. The development of minimally invasive platform must be in the direction of ensuring the implementation of the most optimized surgical approach. The platform is more secure, integrated, multifunctional, and intelligent. In the future, minimally invasive procedures must be aimed at maximizing the benefits of patients. The procedures are more scientific, functional, comfortable and diverse. Surgical innovation has promoted the development of the platform. The platform and the surgical procedure promote each other's development.

9.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 24(1): 62-67, 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461254

RESUMO

Objective: At present, surgeons do not know enough about the mesenteric morphology of the colonic splenic flexure, resulting in many problems in the complete mesenteric resection of cancer around the splenic flexure. In this study, the morphology of the mesentery during the mobilization of the colonic splenic flexure was continuously observed in vivo, and from the embryological point of view, the unique mesenteric morphology of the colonic splenic flexure was reconstructed in three dimensions to help surgeons further understand the mesangial structure of the region. Methods: A total of 9 patients with left colon cancer who underwent laparoscopic radical resection with splenic flexure mobilization by the same group of surgeons in Union Hospital of Fujian Medical University from January 2018 to June 2019 were enrolled. The splenic flexure was mobilized using a "three-way approach" strategy based on a middle-lateral approach. During the process of splenic flexure mobilization, the morphology of the transverse mesocolon and descending mesocolon were observed and reconstructed from the embryological point of view. The lower margin of the pancreas was set as the axis, and 4 pictures for each patient (section 1-section 4) were taken during middle-lateral mobilization. Results: The median operation time of the splenic flexure mobilization procedure was 31 (12-55) minutes, and the median bleeding volume was 5 (2-30) ml. One patient suffered from lower splenic vessel injury during the operation and the bleeding was stopped successfully after hemostasis with an ultrasound scalpel. The transverse mesocolon root was observed in all 9 (100%) patients, locating under pancreas, whose inner side was more obvious and tough, and the structure gradually disappeared in the tail of the pancreatic body, replaced by smooth inter-transitional mesocolon and dorsal lobes of the descending colon. The mesenteric morphology of the splenic flexure was reconstructed by intraoperative observation. The transverse mesocolon was continuous with a fan-shaped descending mesocolon. During the embryonic stage, the medial part (section 1-section 2) of the transverse mesocolon and the descending mesocolon were pulled and folded by the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). Then, the transverse mesocolon root was formed by compression of the pancreas on the folding area of the transverse mesocolon and the descending mesocolon. The lateral side of the transverse mesocolon root (section 3-section 4) was distant from the mechanical traction of the SMA, and the corresponding folding area was not compressed by the tail of the pancreas. The posterior mesangial lobe of the transverse mesocolon and the descending mesocolon were continuous with each other, forming a smooth lobe. This smooth lobe laid flat on the corresponding membrane bed composed of the tail of pancreas, Gerota's fascia and inferior pole of the spleen. Conclusions: From an embryological point of view, this study reconstructs the mesenteric morphology of the splenic flexure and proposes a transverse mesocolon root structure that can be observed consistently intraopertively. Cutting the transverse mesocolon root at the level of Gerota's fascia can ensure the complete resection of the mesentery of the transverse colon.

10.
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 59(1): 6-17, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412628

RESUMO

Objective: To summarize the experience of surgical treatment of primary liver cancer. Methods: The clinical data of 10 966 surgically managed cases with primary liver cancer, from January 1986 to December 2019 at Hepatobiliary Center, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, were retrospectively analyzed. The life table method was used to calculate the survival rate and postoperative recurrence rate. Log-rank test was used to compare the survival process of different groups, and the Cox regression model was used for multivariate analysis. In addition, 2 884 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) with more detailed follow-up data from 2009 to 2019 were selected for survival analysis. Among 2 549 patients treated with hepatectomy, there were 2 107 males and 442 females, with an age of (56.6±11.1) years (range: 20 to 86 years). Among 335 patients treated with liver transplantation, there were 292 males and 43 females, with an age of (51.0±9.7) years (range: 21 to 73 years). The outcomes of hepatectomy versus liver transplantation, anatomic versus non-anatomic hepatectomy were compared, respectively. Results: Of the 10 966 patients with primary liver cancer, 10 331 patients underwent hepatectomy and 635 patients underwent liver transplantation. Patients with liver resection were categorized into three groups: 1986-1995(712 cases), 1996-2008(3 988 cases), 2009‒2019(5 631 cases). The 5-year overall survival rate was 32.9% in the first group(1986-1995). The 5-year overall survival rate of resected primary liver cancer was 51.7% in the third group(2009-2019), among which the 5-year overal survival rates of hepatocellular carcinoma, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and mixed liver cancer were 57.4%, 26.6% and 50.6%, respectively. Further analysis was performed on 2 549 HCC patients with primary hepatectomy. The 1-, 3-, 5-, and 10-year overall survival rates were 88.1%, 71.9%, 60.0%, and 41.0%, respectively, and the perioperative mortality rate was 1.0%. Two hundred and forty-seven HCC patients underwent primary liver transplantation, with 1-, 3-, 5-, and 10-year overall survival rates of 84.0%, 64.8%, 61.9%, and 57.6%, respectively. Eighty-eight HCC patients underwent salvage liver transplantation, with the 1-, 3-, 5-, and 10-year overall survival rates of 86.8%, 65.2%, 52.5%, and 52.5%, respectively. There was no significant difference in survival rates between the two groups with liver transplantation (P>0.05). Comparing the overall survival rates and recurrence rates of primary hepatectomy (2 549 cases) with primary liver transplantation (247 cases), the 1-, 3-, 5-, and 10-year overall survival rates in patients within Milan criteria treated with hepatectomy and transplantation were 96.3%, 87.1%, 76.9%, 54.7%, and 95.4%, 79.4%, 77.4%, 71.7%, respectively (P=0.754). The 1-, 3-, 5-year recurrence rates were 16.3%, 35.9%, 47.6% and 8.1%, 11.7%, 13.9%, respectively(P<0.01). The 1-, 3-, 5-, 10-year overall survival rates in patients with no large vessels invasion beyond the Milan criteria treated with liver resection and transplantation were 87.2%, 65.9%, 53.0%, 33.0% and 87.6%, 71.8%, 71.8%, 69.3%, respectively(P=0.003); the 1-, 3-, 5-year recurrence rate were 39.2%, 57.8%, 69.7% and 29.7%, 36.7%, 36.7%, respectively (P<0.01). The 1-, 3-, 5-, and 10-year overall survival rates in patients with large vessels invasion treated with liver resection and transplantation were 62.1%, 36.1%, 22.2%, 15.0% and 62.9%, 31.8%,19.9%, 0, respectively (P=0.387); the 1-, 3-, 5-year recurrence rates were 61.5%, 74.7%, 80.8% and 59.7%, 82.9%, 87.2%, respectively(P=0.909). Independent prognostic factors for both overall survival and recurrence-free survival rates of HCC patients treated with liver resection included gender, neoadjuvant therapy, symptoms, AST, intraoperative or postoperative blood transfusion, tumor number, tumor size, cirrhosis, macrovascular invasion, microvascular invasion, and pathological differentiation. Propensity score matching analysis of 443 pairs further showed that there was no significant difference in overall survival rate between anatomical liver resection and non-anatomical liver resection(P=0.895), but the recurrence rate of non-anatomical liver resection was higher than that of anatomical liver resection(P=0.035). Conclusions: In the past decade, the overall survival rate of HCC undergoing surgical treatment is significantly higher than before. For HCC patients with good liver function reservation, surgical resection can be performed first, and salvage liver transplantation can be performed after recurrence. The effect of salvage liver transplantation is comparable to that of primary liver transplantation. As for the choice of liver resection approaches, non-anatomical resection can reserve more liver tissue and can be selected as long as the negative margin is guaranteed.

11.
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 59(1): 24-31, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412630

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the pathogens' distribution and antimicrobial resistance in the bile of acute biliary tract infection patients. Methods: The data of bile bacterial culture and drug sensitivity test of 223 acute biliary tract infection patients who underwent gallbladder puncture or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography drainage from July 2009 to July 2019 were analyzed retrospectively at Department of General Surgery,Xinhua Hospital,Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine.There were 141 males and 82 females with age of 67.3 years(range:28 to 93 years).Three to five milliliter of bile was extracted from each patient and sent to the laboratory for bacterial culture,identification and drug sensitivity test.The patients were divided into two groups according to the visiting time: the former group (n=124) was admitted from July 2009 to July 2014,and the latter group(n=99) was admitted from August 2014 to July 2019.The distribution of pathogenic bacteria and the changing trend of drug resistance rate of common bacteria in the two groups were compared.The results of drug sensitivity test were analyzed by WHONET software provided by WHO bacterial surveillance network.The drug resistance rates in different time periods were compared by χ2 test. Results: In this study,there were 147 cases of acute cholangitis and 76 cases of acute cholecystitis.A total of 376 strains of pathogenic bacteria were cultured.Among them,98 strains(26.1%) were gram-positive bacteria,269 strains(71.5%) were gram-negative bacteria and 9 strains(2.4%) were fungi.The top three gram-positive bacteria were Enterococcus faecium (49.0%,48/98),Enterococcus faecalis(20.4%,20/98),and Enterococcus luteus(7.1%,7/98).The top 5 gram-negative bacteria were Escherichia coli(33.5%,90/269),Klebsiella pneumoniae(13.8%,37/269),Pseudomonas aeruginosa(13.0%,35/269),Acinetobacter baumannii (12.6%,34/269),and Enterobacter cloacae(4.8%,13/269).From 2009 to 2019,there was no significant change in the proportion of gram-positive bacteria (former group vs. latter group: 25.3% vs. 28.2%) and gram-negative bacteria(former group vs.latter group: 74.7% vs. 71.8%) in the bile of patients with acute biliary tract infection.Gram-positive bacteria were mainly Enterococci(85.7%,84/98) and gram-negative bacteria were Escherichia coli(33.5%,90/269).Acinetobacter baumannii accounted for 7.8%(11/142) of gram-negative bacteria in the former group and 18.1%(23/127) in the latter group,an increase of 10.3% over previous five years.Pseudomonas aeruginosa had a downward trend,16.9% in the former group(24/142) and 8.7% in the latter group (11/127),the proportion decreased by 8.2%,and the other changes were not significant.The drug resistance rates of common gram-positive bacteria were relatively stable,and the drug resistance rates of Enterococcus faecium to many antibiotics were higher than those of Enterococcus faecalis.The resistance rates of gram-negative bacteria to most antibiotics showed an upward trend,among which Klebsiella pneumoniae showed an upward trend to most of antibiotics(former group: 0/15-4/13, latter group: 55.0%-70.0%; χ2=3.996-16.942, P=0.000-0.046).The drug resistance rates of Acinetobacter baumannii was generally higher,but there were no significant changes in the drug resistance rates of Acinetobacter baumannii between the two groups.The drug resistance rates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to most antibiotics increased,and the overall drug resistance rates of Escherichia coli were stable and showed a slight upward trend. Conclusions: The main pathogens in bile of patients with acute biliary tract infection are gram-negative bacteria.The constituent ratio of various gram-negative bacteria had no significant change from 2009 to 2019,but the drug resistance rates shows an upward trend.Among the gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli is the most important pathogen,and the proportion has no significant change.The proportion of Acinetobacter baumannii in the former group was significantly higher than that in the former group.And the proportion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa has a decreased trend.

14.
Insect Mol Biol ; 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452691

RESUMO

Brown planthopper (BPH), white-backed planthopper (WBPH) and small brown planthopper (SBPH), are the closely related rice pests that perform differentially on wheat plants. Using fecundity as a fitness measure, we found that SBPH well-adapted on wheat plants, followed by WBPH, while BPH had the worst performance. The transcriptomic responses of SBPH and BPH to wheat plants have been compared previously. To understand the different fitness mechanisms of three planthoppers, this study first investigated the transcriptomic responses of WBPH to rice and wheat plants. Genes involved in detoxification, transportation and proteasome were significantly enriched in WBPH in response to different diets. Moreover, comparative analysis demonstrated that most co-regulated genes in BPH and SBPH showed different expression changes; whereas most co-regulated genes in BPH and WBPH exhibited similar expression changes. Subsequently, this study also investigated the influences of host plants on the bacterial community of three planthoppers. The three planthoppers harboured distant diversity of bacterial communities. However, there was no dramatic change in bacterial diversity or relative abundance in planthoppers colonized on different hosts. This study illustrates generic and species-specific changes of three rice planthoppers in response to different plants, which deepen our understanding towards the host fitness for planthopper species.

15.
Poult Sci ; 100(1): 273-282, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357691

RESUMO

This study was designed to evaluate the effects of γ-irradiated Astragalus polysaccharides (IAPS) on growth performance, cecal microbiota populations, and concentrations of cecal short-chain fatty acids of immunosuppressed broilers. A total of 144 one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned into 3 groups: nontreated group (control), cyclophosphamide (CPM)-treated groups fed either a basal diet or the diets containing 900 mg/kg IAPS, respectively. On day 16, 18, and 20, broilers in the control group were intramuscularly injected with 0.5 mL sterilized saline (0.75%, wt/vol), and those in the CPM and IAPS groups were intramuscularly injected with 0.5 mL CPM (40 mg/kg of BW). The trial lasted 21 d. Compared with the control group, CPM treatment decreased the broiler average daily gain (ADG) and feed intake (P < 0.05) but did not affect the overall microbial diversity and compositions, as well as the concentrations of cecal acetate, propionate, and butyrate in cecum of broilers (P > 0.05). Dietary IAPS supplementation increased broiler ADG, Shannon index, and decreased Simpson index (P < 0.05). Specifically, broilers fed diets containing IAPS showed lower abundances of Faecalibacterium, Bacteroides, and Butyricicoccus and higher proportions of Ruminococcaceae UCG-014, Negativibacillus, Shuttleworthia, Sellimonas, and Mollicutes RF39_norank, respectively (P < 0.05). The IAPS treatment also increased butyrate concentration (P < 0.05) and tended to elevate acetate concentration (P = 0.052) in cecal digesta. The results indicated that IAPS are effective in increasing the cecal beneficial bacteria and short-chain fatty acids production, contributing to improvement in the growth performance of immunosuppressive broilers. These findings may expand our knowledge about the function of modified Astragalus polysaccharides in broiler chickens.

16.
Domest Anim Endocrinol ; 74: 106521, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739762

RESUMO

Wilms' tumor gene WT1 encodes a nuclear transcriptional factor, which has been shown to regulate granulosa cell steroidogenesis in bovine; however, it is not known whether the functions of theca cells are regulated by WT1. Here, we determined the effects of this gene on theca cell proliferation, apoptosis, and steroidogenesis in vitro. In cultured bovine theca cells, the downregulation of WT1 increased the secretion of progesterone but had no effect on proliferation and apoptosis. WT1 includes the variants WT1(+KTS) and WT1(-KTS), which differ by 3 amino acids KTS (lysine, threonine, and serine). WT1(±KTS) upregulation increased the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of STAR and CYP17A1 and decreased the progesterone secretion and CYP11A1 mRNA expression. In contrast to WT1(+KTS), WT1(-KTS) upregulation also decreased the mRNA expression of 3ß-HSD. In both variants, WT1(-KTS) has more obvious effects. In conclusion, WT1 can decrease progesterone secretion, likely due in part to the inhibition of CYP11A1 and 3ß-HSD.

17.
Sci Total Environ ; 760: 143863, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341631

RESUMO

This study mainly investigated the distribution characteristics and risk assessment of 14 antibiotics in typical marine aquaculture farms surrounding the Bohai Sea. The effects of various culture modes (outdoor pond culture, recirculating water culture, greenhouse pond culture, raft culture, cage culture and bottom sowing culture), and diverse cultured organism species such as fish (grouper, bass, pike and turbot), mollusk (oyster, scallop, conch and mussel) and sea cucumber on the distribution of antibiotics in different mariculture pond matrices (seawater, sediment/biofilm and organism) were studied. In addition, antibiotic pollution levels in various matrices (water, sediment, organism and feed) from different mariculture areas surrounding the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea were compared. The biofilm on the inner wall of greenhouse pond was more capable of accumulating antibiotics than the biofilm attached to the rope for raft culture and net for cage culture, and other culture sediments. The antibiotic concentration level in the culture matrices (water, sediment/biofilm and organism) was the highest under greenhouse pond culture mode, and that under the industrial recirculating water culture mode was the lowest. Antibiotic concentration in culture matrices of fish ponds was higher than that of sea cucumber ponds and mollusk ponds. The levels of antibiotics in water and sediment from marine aquaculture farms in Laizhou (Bohai Sea coast) were higher than those in Haiyang and Jimo (Yellow Sea coast). Enrofloxacin in turbot might cause considerable harm to human health, and the risk of antibiotics in other seafood could be ignored. Antibiotic ecological risks and resistance risks were generally low in water. Fluoroquinolones posed medium to high ecological risks in the natural receiving water around the mariculture farm. Trimethoprim and enrofloxacin showed relatively high antibiotic resistance risks in mariculture water and natural water, which might exert selective pressure on the bacterial community in the environment.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Antibacterianos/análise , Aquicultura , Baías , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Água do Mar , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
19.
BJOG ; 128(1): 67-76, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770714

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate a stillbirth rate at 24 or more gestational weeks in 2015-2016 and to explore potentially preventable causes in China. DESIGN: A multi-centre cross-sectional study. SETTING: Ninety-six hospitals distributed in 24 (of 34) provinces in China. POPULATION: A total of 75 132 births at 24 completed weeks of gestation or more. METHODS: COX Proportional Hazard Models were performed to examine risk factors for antepartum and intrapartum stillbirths. Population attributable risk percentage was calculated for major risk factors. Correspondence analysis was used to explore region-specific risk factors for stillbirths. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Stillbirth rate and risk factors for stillbirth. RESULTS: A total of 75 132 births including 949 stillbirths were used for the final analysis, giving a weighted stillbirth rate of 13.2 per 1000 births (95% CI 7.9-18.5). Small for gestational age (SGA) and pre-eclampsia/eclampsia increased antepartum stillbirths by 26.2% and 11.7%, respectively. Fetal anomalies increased antepartum and intrapartum stillbirths by 17.9% and 7.4%, respectively. Overall, 31.4% of all stillbirths were potentially preventable. Advanced maternal age, pre-pregnant obesity, chronic hypertension and diabetes mellitus were important risk factors in East China; low education and SGA were major risk factors in Northwest, Southwest, Northeast and South China; and pre-eclampsia/eclampsia and intrapartum complications were significant risk factors in Central China. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of stillbirth was 13.2 per 1000 births in China in 2015-2016. Nearly one-third of all stillbirths may be preventable. Strategies based on regional characteristics should be considered to reduce further the burden of stillbirths in China. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: The stillbirth rate was 13.2 per 1000 births in China in 2015-2016 and nearly one-third of all stillbirths may be preventable.


Assuntos
Natimorto/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi ; 48(12): 1053-1059, 2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355750

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effects of femoral approach versus radial approach on the incidence of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) in patients with coronary heart disease, who received twice contrast agents within a short interval. Methods: A total of 322 patients with coronary heart disease, who admitted to the General Hospital of Northern Theater Command from January 2010 to January 2015, were included in this retrospective analysis. All patients exposed to contrast agents twice within 30 days. The patients were divided into two groups according to the approach of interventional operation: radial artery group (n=235) and femoral artery group (n=87). Serum creatinine (SCr) values were detected at 48 and 72 hours post procedure. Endpoint events were CI-AKI, which was defined as SCr increased>0.5 mg/dl (44.2 µmol/L) or relative ratio ((postoperative SCr-preoperative SCr)/preoperative SCr×100%>25%) within 72 hours after contrast agent use after excluding other causes. Clinical characteristics and the incidence of CI-AKI were compared between the two groups, multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to detect the risk factors of postoperative CI-AKI in these patients. Results: The proportion of smoking, PCI history, STEMI patients and levels of fibrinogen, fasting blood glucose, troponin T was significantly higher in femoral artery group than in radial artery group (all P<0.05). The interval between two procedure sessions was significantly longer in the femoral artery group than in the radial artery group (P=0.001). The incidence of CI-AKI tended to be higher in femoral artery group than in radial artery group after the first operation (18.6% (16/87) vs. 11.9% (28/235), P=0.133). CI-AKI incidence after the second operation was similar between the two groups (P>0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that interventional approach was not an independent risk factor for postoperative CI-AKI in patients with coronary heart disease undergoing interventional procedures twice within 30 days (P>0.05);STEMI (OR=2.854, 95%CI 1.100-7.404, P=0.031) and diuretics use (OR=4.002, 95%CI 1.470-10.893, P=0.007) were independent risk factors for CI-AKI after the first operation. Conclusion: There is no correlation between the risk of CI-AKI and interventional approaches in patients with coronary heart disease who undergo interventional surgery twice within 30 days.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda , Doença das Coronárias , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Meios de Contraste/efeitos adversos , Artéria Femoral/cirurgia , Humanos , Incidência , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Artéria Radial , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
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