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1.
Neurosci Lett ; 709: 134379, 2019 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323253

RESUMO

Deficiency of deleted in liver cancer 2 (DLC2), a novel domain to inhibit RhoA activity, plays an important role in inflammatory pain. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study investigated the role of DLC2 and its downstream cascade of RhoA/ROCK in formalin-induced inflammatory pain using DLC2-knockout (DLC2-/-) mice and compared them with DLC2 wild-type (DLC2+/+) mice. Mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were evaluated using von Frey filament aesthesiometer and Hargreaves test, respectively. The spinal cord dorsal horn (L3-L5) was selected for molecular and cellular identification by Western blot and immunofluorescence. DLC2-/- mice showed increased mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Expression of ROCK1, ROCK2 and IL-1ß was significantly higher in DLC2-/- mice. Intrathecal administration of RhoA inhibitor (C3 exoenzyme) or ROCK inhibitor (Y27632) significantly attenuated formalin-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia in DLC2-/- mice. ROCK2 and IL-1ß expression were reduced by C3 exoenzyme or Y27632. Spinal p38 activation was also inhibited by C3 exoenzyme or Y27632. Double-labelling immunofluorescence demonstrated co-localization of DLC2 with spinal dorsal microglia. The number of activated microglia in the spinal dorsal horn was significantly higher in DLC2-/- mice, but was reduced by Y27632. These findings indicate that DLC2 deficiency increased formalin-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia through regulating RhoA/ROCK2, and IL-1ß may be a downstream effector. Our results also suggest that RhoA/ROCK enhanced p38 activation plays an important role in formalin-induced inflammatory pain. The finding that DLC2 attenuated inflammatory pain through inhibiting RhoA/ROCK2 suggests that the DLC2/RhoA/ROCK2/p38/IL-ß pathway may be a potential therapeutic target to reduce inflammatory pain.

2.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316177

RESUMO

KRAS is one of the most important proto-oncogenes. Its mutations occur in almost all tumor types, and KRAS mutant cancer is still lack of effective therapy. Prenyl-binding protein phosphodiesterase-δ (PDEδ) is required for the plasma membrane association and subsequent activation of KRAS oncogenic signaling. Recently, targeting PDEδ has provided new promise for KRAS mutant tumors. However, the therapeutic potential of PDEδ inhibition remains obscure. In this study, we explored how PDEδ inhibition was responded in KRAS mutant cancer cells, and identified KRAS mutant subset responsive to PDEδ inhibition. We first performed siRNA screen of KRAS growth dependency of a small panel of human cancer lines, and identified a subset of KRAS mutant cancer cells that were highly dependent on KRAS signaling. Among these cells, only a fraction of KRAS-dependent cells responded to PDEδ depletion, though KRAS plasma membrane association was effectively impaired. We revealed that the persistent RAF/MEK/ERK signaling seemed responsible for the lack of response to PDEδ depletion. A kinase array further identified that the feedback activation of EPH receptor A2 (EPHA2) accounted for the compensatory activation of RAF/MEK/ERK signaling in these cells. Simultaneous inhibition of EPHA2 and PDEδ led to the growth inhibition of KRAS mutant cancer cells. Together, this study gains a better understanding of PDEδ-targeted therapeutic strategy and suggests the combined inhibition of EPHA2 and PDEδ as a potential therapy for KRAS mutant cancer.

3.
Chin J Nat Med ; 17(3): 161-186, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30910054

RESUMO

Chimonanthus plants widely distributed in southern area of China, which have a long history of edibles and medicine. Phytochemical investigations have shown that Chimonanthus produced 143 non-volatile constituents, including alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, coumarins and others, which exhibit significant anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic and other biological activities. On the basis of systematic reviewing of literatures, this article overviews the non-volatile constituents and pharmacology of Chimonanthus from domestic and foreign over the last 30 years (until June 2018), and may provide a useful reference for the further development of Chimonanthus.


Assuntos
Calycanthaceae/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Animais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Fitoterapia
4.
J Vis Exp ; (143)2019 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735150

RESUMO

A proper animal model is crucial for a better understanding of diseases. Animal models established by different methods (subcutaneous injections, xenografts, genetic manipulation, chemical reagents induction, etc.) have various pathological characters and play important roles in investigating certain aspects of diseases. Although no single model can totally mimic the whole human disease progression, orthotopic organs disease models with a proper stromal environment play an irreplaceable role in understanding diseases and screening for potential drugs. In this article, we describe how to implant breast cancer cells into the mammary fat pad in a simple, less invasive, and easy-to-handle way, and follow the metastasis to distant organs. With the proper features of primary tumor growth, breast and nipple pathological changes, and a high occurrence of other organs' metastasis, this model maximumly mimics human breast cancer progression. Primary tumor growth in situ, long-distant metastasis, and the tumor microenvironment of breast cancer can be investigated by using this model.

5.
Mol Neurobiol ; 56(8): 5626-5642, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659419

RESUMO

Chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment, also known as "chemobrain," is a common side effect. The purpose of this study was to examine whether ginsenoside Rg1, a ginseng-derived compound, could prevent chemobrain and its underlying mechanisms. A mouse model of chemobrain was developed with three injections of docetaxel, adriamycin, and cyclophosphamide (DAC) in combination at a 2-day interval. Rg1 (5 and 10 mg/kg daily) was given 1 week prior to DAC regimen for 3 weeks. An amount of 10 mg/kg Rg1 significantly improved chemobrain-like behavior in water maze test. In vivo neuroimaging revealed that Rg1 co-treatment reversed DAC-induced decreases in prefrontal and hippocampal neuronal activity and ameliorated cortical neuronal dendritic spine elimination. It normalized DAC-caused abnormalities in the expression of multiple neuroplasticity biomarkers in the two brain regions. Rg1 suppressed DAC-induced elevation of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), but increased levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 in multiple sera and brain tissues. Rg1 also modulated cytokine mediators and inhibited DAC-induced microglial polarization from M2 to M1 phenotypes. In in vitro experiments, while impaired viability of PC12 neuroblastic cells and hyperactivation of BV-2 microglial cells, a model of neuroinflammation, were observed in the presence of DAC, Rg1 co-treatment strikingly reduced DAC's neurotoxic effects and neuroinflammatory response. These results indicate that Rg1 exerts its anti-chemobrain effect in an association with the inhibition of neuroinflammation by modulating microglia-mediated cytokines and the related upstream mediators, protecting neuronal activity and promoting neuroplasticity in particular brain regions associated with cognition processing.

6.
Eur J Pain ; 23(4): 812-822, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30570802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Total intravenous anesthesia with propofol has been shown to reduce postoperative pain in some clinical studies, but knowledge of its underlying analgesic mechanism remains limited. In this study, we compared the analgesic effects of propofol versus isoflurane in an animal model of postoperative pain and evaluated its underlying molecular mechanisms. METHODS: Plantar incision was made in the hind paws of rats under general anesthesia with 2.5% of inhalational isoflurane (isoflurane group) or intravenous infusion of propofol (1.5 mg kg-1  min-1 , propofol group). Mechanical allodynia was assessed by paw withdrawal threshold before and after incision. Spinal dorsal horns (L3-L5) were harvested 1 hr after incision to assess the level of phosphorylated GluN2B, p38MAPK, ERK, JNK, and EPAC using Western blot and immunofluorescence. RESULTS: Mechanical allodynia induced by plantar incision peaked at 1 hr and lasted for 3 days after incision. It was significantly less in the propofol group compared with the isoflurane group in the first 2 hr following incision. The incision-induced increases in phosphorylated GluN2B, p38MAPK, and EPAC1 were significantly reduced in the propofol group. The number of spinal dorsal neurons co-expressed with EPAC1 and c-Fos after the incision was significantly lower in the propofol group. CONCLUSION: Propofol reduced pain responses in an animal model of postoperative pain and suppressed the spinal GluN2B-p38MAPK/EPAC1 signaling pathway. Since the p38MAPK/EPAC pathway plays a critical role in the development of postoperative hyperalgesia, our results provide evidence-based behavioral, molecular, and cellular mechanisms for the analgesic effects of propofol when used for general anesthesia. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings may provide a new mechanism for the postsurgical analgesic effect of propofol, which is particularly interesting during the subacute period after surgery as it is the critical period for the development of persistent postsurgical pain.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Inalatórios/farmacologia , Anestésicos Intravenosos/farmacologia , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoflurano/farmacologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/metabolismo , Propofol/farmacologia , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/efeitos dos fármacos , Corno Dorsal da Medula Espinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/metabolismo , Humanos , Hiperalgesia/metabolismo , Masculino , Período Pós-Operatório , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Corno Dorsal da Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
7.
Res Vet Sci ; 122: 102-110, 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30481676

RESUMO

Heat stress (HS) and its associated pathologies are major challenges facing the pig industry in southern China, and are responsible for large economic losses. However, the molecular mechanisms governing the abnormal secretion of HS-responsive hormones, such as glucocorticoids, are not fully understood. The goal of this study was to investigate differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in the adrenal glands of pigs, and to elucidate changes in the immune neuroendocrine system in pigs following HS. Through a functional proteomics approach, we identified 1202 peptides, corresponding to 415 proteins. Of these, we found 226 DEPs between heat-stressed and control porcine adrenal gland tissue; 99 of these were up-regulated and 127 were down-regulated in response to HS. These DEPs included proteins involved in substrate transport, cytoskeletal changes, and stress responses. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was used to identify the subcellular characterization, functional pathway involvement, regulatory networks, and upstream regulators of the identified proteins. Functional network and pathway analyses may provide insights into the complexity and dynamics of HS-host interactions, and may accelerate our understanding of the mechanisms of HS.

8.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 66(2): 789-799, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30347619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: OD is common in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the relationship between OD and clinical symptoms and the potential mechanisms of OD in AD patients are still unknown. OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between OD and clinical symptoms and the potential mechanisms of OD in AD patients. METHODS: We evaluated OD using the Hyposmia Rating Scale (HRS), classified patients into AD with OD (AD-OD) and AD with no OD (AD-NOD) groups, and detected the levels of free radicals and inflammatory factors, including hydroxyl radical (•OH), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric oxide, interleukin-1ß, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and prostaglandin E2 in serum from AD patients. RESULTS: It was shown that the scores of the Mini-Mental State Examination, Animal Fluency Test, Boston Naming Test (BNT), and Auditory Verbal Learning Test-delayed recall were all significantly lower and the score of overall activity of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL were significantly higher in AD-OD group than those in AD-NOD group. Compared with AD-NOD group, •OH level in serum was prominently elevated, and H2O2 level was dramatically declined in AD-OD group. In the correlation analysis, HRS score was significantly and positively correlated with the score of BNT, and negatively correlated with •OH level in serum. CONCLUSIONS: AD-OD patients suffered from severe cognitive impairment in the domain of language. Oxidative stress might be correlated with AD-OD featured by the drastically increased •OH level in serum.

9.
Neuropsychiatry (London) ; 8(4): 1249-1262, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30364895

RESUMO

Fatigue, the most common side effect of cancer treatments, is observed to intensify during external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT). The underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. This study investigated the differentially expressed genes/proteins and their association with fatigue intensification during EBRT. Fatigue scores measured by FACT-F and peripheral blood were collected prior to treatment (baseline D0), at midpoint (days 19-21, D21) and endpoint (days 38-42, D42) from men (n=30) with non-metastatic prostate cancer undergoing EBRT. RNA extracted from peripheral blood was used for gene expression analysis. Plasma arginase I and arginine were examined using ELISA and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Differences in fatigue scores, gene and protein expression between times points following EBRT were analyzed by one way ANOVA followed by Post Hoc t-test. Fatigue scores decreased significantly from baseline (44.6 ± 8.1) to midpoint (37.3 ± 10.6, p=0.000, low scores indicating high fatigue) and to endpoint (37.4 ± 10.1, p=0.001) during EBRT. ARG1 (encoding arginase type 1) was significantly up regulated from baseline to midpoint of EBRT (fold change =2.41, p<0.05) whereas genes associated with the adaptive immune functional pathway (CD28, CD27, CCR7, CD3D, CD8A and HLA-DOB) were significantly downregulated >2-fold between the study time points. The changes in gene expression were associated with patient reported fatigue intensity. Moreover, the upregulation of ARG1 was negatively correlated with the absolute lymphocyte count (R2=0.561, p=0.01) only in the high level of fatigue group (n=17) during EBRT. Increased ARG1 expression is known to result in arginine deficiency, which leads to immunosuppression by impairing lymphocyte proliferation and activation. EBRT-induced ARG1 upregulation may play an essential role in fatigue intensification via the arginine deficiency and suppression of T-cell proliferation pathways. These findings may provide novel insights into the molecular-genetic mechanisms underlying the development and intensification of cancer treatment-related fatigue.

10.
Neurosci Res ; 2018 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30125610

RESUMO

Electrical stimulation could enhance nerve regeneration and functional recovery. The objective of this study was to evaluate the regenerative effects of implanted electrodes with different contacts in resected sciatic nerve. Sciatic nerve resection and microsurgical repair models were established and randomly divided into four groups (point contact, 1/4 circle contact; whole-circle contact; no electrodes as control). Electrical stimulation was performed and electrophysiological, morphological and histological exams (of the sciatic nerve and muscle) were conducted at 4 and 10 weeks post-implantation. Point and 1/4 circle contact groups showed significantly higher scores in the sciatic functional index (SFI), increased amplitude of compound muscle action potential (AMP) and motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) compared to the control group at both 4 and 10 weeks post-implantation. Point and 1/4 circle contact morphologically promoted sciatic nerve regeneration and reduced muscular atrophy with less mechanical injury to the nerve trunk observed compared with the whole-circle contact group at both 4 and 10 weeks post-implantation. Electrodes with point and 1/4 circle contacts represented an alternatively portable and effective method of electrical stimulation to facilitate injured sciatic nerve regeneration and reduce subsequent muscular atrophy, which might offer a promising approach for treating peripheral nerve injuries.

11.
J Neurosurg Spine ; : 1-9, 2018 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30074443

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE Contralateral C7 (CC7) nerve root has been used as a donor nerve for targeted neurotization in the treatment of total brachial plexus palsy (TBPP). The authors aimed to study the contribution of C7 to the innervation of specific upper-limb muscles and to explore the utility of C7 nerve root as a recipient nerve in the management of TBPP. METHODS This was a 2-part investigation. 1) Anatomical study: the C7 nerve root was dissected and its individual branches were traced to the muscles in 5 embalmed adult cadavers bilaterally. 2) Clinical series: 6 patients with TBPP underwent CC7 nerve transfer to the middle trunk of the injured side. Outcomes were evaluated with the modified Medical Research Council scale and electromyography studies. RESULTS In the anatomical study there were consistent and predominantly C7-derived nerve fibers in the lateral pectoral, thoracodorsal, and radial nerves. There was a minor contribution from C7 to the long thoracic nerve. The average distance from the C7 nerve root to the lateral pectoral nerve entry point of the pectoralis major was the shortest, at 10.3 ± 1.4 cm. In the clinical series the patients had been followed for a mean time of 30.8 ± 5.3 months postoperatively. At the latest follow-up, 5 of 6 patients regained M3 or higher power for shoulder adduction and elbow extension. Two patients regained M3 wrist extension. All regained some wrist and finger extension, but muscle strength was poor. Compound muscle action potentials were recorded from the pectoralis major at a mean follow-up of 6.7 ± 0.8 months; from the latissimus dorsi at 9.3 ± 1.4 months; from the triceps at 11.5 ± 1.4 months; from the wrist extensors at 17.2 ± 1.5 months; from the flexor carpi radialis at 17.0 ± 1.1 months; and from the digital extensors at 22.8 ± 2.0 months. The average sensory recovery of the index finger was S2. Transient paresthesia in the hand on the donor side, which resolved within 6 months postoperatively, was reported by all patients. CONCLUSIONS The C7 nerve root contributes consistently to the lateral pectoral nerve, the thoracodorsal nerve, and long head of the triceps branch of the radial nerve. CC7 to C7 nerve transfer is a reconstructive option in the overall management plan for TBPP. It was safe and effective in restoring shoulder adduction and elbow extension in this patient series. However, recoveries of wrist and finger extensions are poor.

12.
Chin J Integr Med ; 24(11): 867-872, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30062634

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of Yishen Jiangu Granules (, YSJGG) on aromatase inhibitor-associated musculoskeletal symptoms (AIMSS). METHODS: A single-arm, open-label study was conducted in 34 postmenopausal women with breast cancer who experienced AIMSS. Patients were treated with YSJGG for 12 weeks (12.4 g orally twice daily). The primary outcome was a change in the mean worst pain score of Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-SF) over 12 weeks, and the second outcomes included changes in pain severity and pain-related interference of BPI-SF and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Modified Score for the Assessment of Chronic Rheumatoid Affections of the Hands (M-SACRAH), the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B), bone mineral density (BMD) and blood indices such as calcium (Ca), phosphate (P), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). RESULTS: Of 37 women recruited, 30 initiated the therapy and 24 were evaluable at 12 weeks. The primary outcome (BPI-SF worst pain scores) achieved a 2.17-point reduction compared with baseline (5.75±1.87 vs 3.58±2.15, P<0.01). There were reductions in pain severity (decreased 1.65, P<0.01) and pain-related interference (decreased 2.55, P<0.01). The changes in WOMAC and M-SACRAH scores were similar to BPI-SF (P<0.05). In the FACT-B, only physical well-being and functional well-being were improved compared with baseline (P<0.05). No clinical differences were found in BMD, Ca, P and ALP. CONCLUSION: YSJGG is an effective and well-tolerated agent to reduce AIMSS.

13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(33): 27972-27978, 2018 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30040377

RESUMO

Carbon dioxide capture and conversion have attracted extreme enthusiasm from the scientific community owing to global warming and environmental problems. However, conversion of CO2 under atmospheric pressure is of great challenge because of the inertness of CO2. Herein, we present a novel covalent triazine framework (CTF-DCE) prepared via ZnCl2-catalyzed ionothermal trimerization reaction of di(4-cyanophenyl)ethyne, which displays a high Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of 1355 m2 g-1 and an excellent CO2 capture capacity of 191 mg/g at 273 K/1 bar. More importantly, silver species can be successfully fixed on the CTF matrix to produce a stable CTF-DCE-Ag heterogeneous catalyst for outstanding catalysis in the terminal alkyne carboxylation reactions under atmospheric pressure. CTF-DCE-Ag exhibited over sixfold higher turnover numbers than Ag@MIL-101. The recyclability test of the CTF-DCE-Ag catalyst demonstrated a great potential application in various environmental and energy-related applications.

14.
Mol Neurobiol ; 2018 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30008071

RESUMO

Chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment, often referred to as "chemobrain," is a common side effect. In this study, mice received three intraperitoneal injections of a combination of docetaxel, adriamycin, and cyclophosphamide (DAC) at 2-day intervals. A water maze test was used to examine cognitive performance, and manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) was used to examine hippocampal neuronal activity. The whole brain, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and blood samples were then collected for cytokine measurement. The DAC-treated mice displayed a significantly shorter duration spent in and fewer entries into the target quadrant of the water maze than the control mice and a pronounced decrease in MEMRI signal intensity in the hippocampal subregions. In a separate experiment using in vivo transcranial two-photon imaging, DAC markedly eliminated dendritic spines without changing the rate of spine formation, leading to a striking loss of spines in the medial prefrontal cortex. DAC treatment resulted in significant elevations in the levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and in significant decreases in the levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 in most of the sera and brain tissues examined. The IL-6 and TNF-α levels of several sera and brain tissues showed strong inverse correlations with the duration and number of entries in the target quadrant of the water maze and with the hippocampal MEMRI signal intensity, but also showed striking positive correlations with spine elimination and loss. These results indicate that chemobrain is associated with cytokine dysregulation and disrupted neuroplasticity of the brain.

15.
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 36(3): 308-313, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29984934

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the clinical visiting and prognosis of schoolchildren in Xi'an after immature permanent tooth trauma and explore the prognostic factors associated with this type of trauma. METHODS: Through cluster and simple random sampling surveys, 4 013 pupils in schools from nine districts and four counties in Xi'an were sampled, respectively. All pupils and their parents were requested to complete a questionnaire, and children who had immature permanent tooth trauma answered a separate questionnaire and underwent oral examinations. The data of the survey were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: The amount of valid questionnaire was 3 641. Clinical visiting rate related to immature permanent tooth trauma of Xi'an schoolchildren was low (38.2%). Gender and trauma type were the factors related to clinical visiting for dental trauma concerns. The incidence of poor prognosis was 29.7%. The incidence of poor prognosis of patients with clinical visiting (35.4%) was higher than that of patients without clinical visiting (20.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Clinical visiting rate related to immature permanent tooth trauma in Xi'an schoolchildren is extremely low, and incidence of poor prognosis is high.

16.
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 36(2): 194-198, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29779283

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The prevalence rate, distribution, and reasons of immature permanent-tooth trauma in Xi'an were investigated and described, and a scientific basis was provided for the decision-making of health-administration departments. METHODS: Through cluster and simple random sampling survey, 4 013 pupils in schools from nine districts and four counties in Xi'an were sampled. All pupils and their parents were requested to complete a questionnaire. Oral examinations were conducted for children who had immature permanent teeth trauma. The number of trauma teeth and teeth were recorded. Survey data were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: The prevalence rate of immature permanent dental trauma was 10.5% in Xi'an. No significant differences were observed between districts and counties (P>0.05). The peak age of permanent dental trauma was at 7-9 years old, and the most was at 8 years old (31.5%). The first reason of trauma was falling down (50.9%), and the second reason was crash (36.0%). The most common trauma teeth were maxillary incisors (75.4%). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence rate of immature permanent teeth trauma in Xi'an was in the middle of all international levels. Children, who are vulnerable to dental trauma at their age, should be provided with appropriate prevention measures to reduce the incidence of dental trauma.

17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(21): e10605, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29794735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-based methods for detecting steatosis and fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Data were extracted from research articles obtained after a literature search from multiple electronic databases. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed to obtain overall effect size of the area of operator receiver curve (AUROC), sensitivity and specificity of MR imaging, MR elastography, and MR spectroscopy in detecting or grading steatosis/fibrosis. Meta-analysis of correlation coefficients was performed to have an overall effect size of correlation between MR-based diagnosis and histological diagnosis. RESULTS: Twenty-one studies (1658 subjects; 45.32 years [95% CI: 35.94, 54.71] of age, 53.67% [45.39, 61.95] males, and 29.98 kg/m [21.93, 38.04] BMI) were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled analyses of the AUROC, specificity, and sensitivity values reported in the individual studies revealed an overall effect sizes of 0.90 (0.88, 0.92), 82.27% (77.74, 86.80), and 86.94% (84.18, 95.28) in the use of any MR-based technique for the diagnosis of NAFLD or its severity. The correlation coefficient between MR-based detection of liver steatosis and histologically measured steatosis was 0.748 (0.706, 0.789) (P < .00001). CONCLUSION: MRI-based diagnostic methods are valuable additions in detecting NAFLD or determining the severity of the NAFLD.


Assuntos
Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
18.
Int J Hematol ; 107(6): 615-623, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29619624

RESUMO

Primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a bleeding disorder commonly encountered in clinical practice. The International Working Group (IWG) on ITP has published several landmark papers on terminology, definitions, outcome criteria, bleeding assessment, diagnosis, and management of ITP. The Chinese consensus reports for diagnosis and management of adult ITP have been updated to the 4th edition. Based on current consensus positions and new emerging clinical evidence, the thrombosis and hemostasis group of the Chinese Society of Hematology issued Chinese guidelines for management of adult ITP, which aim to provide evidence-based recommendations for clinical decision making.


Assuntos
Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Hematologia/organização & administração , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/diagnóstico , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/tratamento farmacológico , Sociedades Médicas/organização & administração , Idoso , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
19.
Brain Behav Immun ; 71: 93-107, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29649522

RESUMO

Metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGlu)5 regulates microglia activation, which contributes to inflammation. However, the role of mGlu5 in neuroinflammation associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) remains unclear. Triptolide (T10) exerts potent immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory effects and protects neurons by inhibiting microglia activation. In this study, we investigated the role of mGlu5 in the anti-inflammatory effect of T10 in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced PD model. In cultured BV2 cells and primary microglia, blocking mGlu5 activity or knocking down its expression abolished T10-inhibited release of proinflammatory cytokines induced by LPS. Moreover, T10 up-regulated mGlu5 expression decreased by LPS through enhancing mRNA expression and protein stability. T10 also reversed the reduction in mGlu5 membrane localization and modulated receptor-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase activity induced by LPS. Pharmacological inhibition of signaling molecules increased nitric oxide level and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin (IL)-1ß and -6 transcript levels that were downregulated by treatment with T10. Consistent with these in vitro findings, blocking mGlu5 attenuated the anti-inflammatory effects of T10 in an LPS-induced PD model and blocked the decreases in the number and morphology of ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1-positive microglia and LPS-induced iNOS protein expression caused by T10 treatment. Besides, mGlu5 mediated the effect of T10 on microglia-induced astrocyte activation in vitro and in vivo. The findings provide evidence for a novel mechanism by which mGlu5 regulates T10-inhibited microglia activation via modulating protein expression of the receptor and its intracellular signaling. The study might contribute to the biological effects of Chinese herbs as an approach for protecting against neurotoxicity in PD.

20.
Oncol Lett ; 15(5): 6233-6240, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29616105

RESUMO

A number of murine models are used to mimic the pathology of breast cancer. Tissue inoculation and cell inoculation using orthotopic implantation (OS) and subcutaneous implantation (SQ) are commonly used to generate murine models to investigate cancer. However, limited information is available in regard to the variations of these methods. The present study compared growth, metastasis, survival and histopathology of tumors produced using OS and SQ to characterize features of the tumors produced by the two distinct methods. Additionally, the present study aimed at providing increased options for investigators when designing experiments. 4T1-luc2 cell suspension or 4T1-luc2 tissue suspension was inoculated using either OS or SQ into BALB/c mice. Tumor growth and metastasis were detected using an in vivo imaging system and calipers. Excised tumors and lung were assessed by tissue staining with hematoxylin and eosin, and the vessel marker cluster of differentiation 31. The results of the present study revealed that the cell suspension generated breast tumors of increased size, which was visualized and determined, following inoculation, using calipers at an earlier time point compared with tumors produced by tissue suspension. The increasing bioluminescent trend of OS tumors was more marked compared with that of SQ tumors. The volume of OS tumor was increased with decreased variation, compared with that of SQ tumors. In addition, the OS tumor exhibited increased microvessel density. Bioluminescent signals and histological results in regard to metastasis were consistent: OS implantation produced increased lung metastasis compared with that of SQ implantation, although they exhibited similar survival times. The results of the present study indicated that the inocula from distinct sources (tissue or cell) affected tumor growth. Furthermore, breast tumor progression and histopathological characteristics were distinct between OS and SQ, whereas OS exhibited increased malignant behavior. Understanding the characteristics of murine breast cancer models established by diverse methods may aid investigators to select appropriate animal models, according to the requirements of the study.

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