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1.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol ; 77(2): 170-181, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538532

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), and inflammation are some of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. The aim of this study is to examine the protective effect of the chronic administration of astaxanthin, which is extracted from the shell of crabs and shrimps, into hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Animals were randomly assigned to 2 groups and treated with bilateral PVN infusion of astaxanthin or vehicle (artificial cerebrospinal fluid) through osmotic minipumps (Alzet Osmotic Pumps, Model 2004, 0.25 µL/h) for 4 weeks. Spontaneously hypertensive rats had higher mean arterial pressure and plasma level of norepinephrine and proinflammatory cytokine; higher PVN levels of reactive oxygen species, NOX2, NOX4, IL-1ß, IL-6, ACE, and AT1-R; and lower PVN levels of IL-10 and Cu/Zn SOD, Mn SOD, ACE2, and Mas receptors than Wistar-Kyoto rats. Our data showed that chronic administration of astaxanthin into PVN attenuated the overexpression of reactive oxygen species, NOX2, NOX4, inflammatory cytokines, and components of RAS within the PVN and suppressed hypertension. The present results revealed that astaxanthin played a role in the brain. Our findings demonstrated that astaxanthin had protective effect on hypertension by improving the balance between inflammatory cytokines and components of RAS.

2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 266: 113430, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011366

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Astragalus mongholicus, Solanum nigrum Linn, Lotus plumule, Ligusticum are widely used traditional herbal medicines for cancer treatment in China. They were typical drugs selected from Gubenyiliu II and series of formula (GYII), which were developed on the foundation of YIQIHUOXUEJIEDU theory. In the present study, four active ingredients (Astragaloside IV, α-solanine, neferine, and 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine) derived from medicines above were applied in combination as SANT. AIM OF THE STUDY: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a serious threat to women's health worldwide. Heparanase (HPSE) is often up-regulated in breast cancer with the properties of facilitating tumorigenesis and influencing the autophagy process in cancer cells. This study aimed at evaluating the anti-tumor potential of SANT in treating HPSE related TNBC both in-vitro and in-vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we explored the correlation between HPSE expression and survival of breast cancer patients in databases. We performed MTS, trans-well and wound scratch assays to assess the impact of SANT on cell proliferation and migration. Confocal microscopy observation and western blots were applied to verify the autophagy flux induced by SANT. Mice models were employed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SANT in-vivo by tumor weights and volumes or serum index, respectively. To analyze the underlying mechanisms of SANT, we conducted human autophagy PCR array and angiogenesis proteome profiler on tumor tissues. RESULTS: Patients with elevated HPSE expression were associated with a poor outcome in both RFS (P = 1.7e-12) and OS (P = 0.00016). SANT administration significantly inhibited cancer cells' proliferation and migration, enhanced autophagy flux, and slightly reduced the active form of HPSE in-vitro. SANT also suppressed tumor growth and angiogenesis in-vivo. Human autophagy PCR array results indicated that SANT increased the ATG16L1, ATG9B, ATG4D gene expressions while decreased TMEM74 and TNF gene expressions.Angiogenesis proteome profiler results showed SANT reduced protein level of HB-EGF, thrombospondin-2, amphiregulin, leptin, IGFBP-9, EGF, coagulation factor III, and MMP-9 (pro and active form) in tumor, raised the protein expression of serpin E1 and platelet factor 4. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicated that herbal compounds SANT may be a promising candidate in anti-cancer drug discovery. It also provides novel strategies for using natural compounds to achieve optimized effect.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/administração & dosagem , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucuronidase/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
3.
Gut Microbes ; 13(1): 1-24, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382364

RESUMO

Exercise (Ex) has long been recognized to produce beneficial effects on hypertension (HTN). This coupled with evidence of gut dysbiosis and an impaired gut-brain axis led us to hypothesize that reshaping of gut microbiota and improvement in impaired gut-brain axis would, in part, be associated with beneficial influence of exercise. Male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were randomized into sedentary, trained, and detrained groups. Trained rats underwent moderate-intensity exercise for 12 weeks, whereas, detrained groups underwent 8 weeks of moderate-intensity exercise followed by 4 weeks of detraining. Fecal microbiota, gut pathology, intestinal inflammation, and permeability, brain microglia and neuroinflammation were analyzed. We observed that exercise training resulted in a persistent decrease in systolic blood pressure in the SHR. This was associated with increase in microbial α diversity, altered ß diversity, and enrichment of beneficial bacterial genera. Furthermore, decrease in the number of activated microglia, neuroinflammation in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, improved gut pathology, inflammation, and permeability were also observed in the SHR following exercise. Interestingly, short-term detraining did not abolish these exercise-mediated improvements. Finally, fecal microbiota transplantation from exercised SHR into sedentary SHR resulted in attenuated SBP and an improved gut-brain axis. These observations support our concept that an impaired gut-brain axis is linked to HTN and exercise ameliorates this impairment to induce antihypertensive effects.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33241616

RESUMO

The current study compared the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of the new compound pharmaceutical preparation tazarotene clindamycin cream, and 2 single pharmaceutical preparations, tazarotene cream and clindamycin phosphate gel. Twelve healthy volunteers were enrolled in this single-center, single-blind, 3-treatment, 3-period crossover, single-dose randomized study. An 800-cm2 area on volunteers' backs was evenly smeared with 1.6 g of the test preparation to form a film. Blood samples were collected at predetermined time points for pharmacokinetic analysis. Safety and tolerability were assessed via skin reaction evaluation and clinical laboratory tests. The incidences of skin reactions were 18.2% for tazarotene clindamycin cream, 25.0% for tazarotene cream, and 18.2% for clindamycin phosphate gel. There were no significant differences in safety or tolerability among the 3 groups. Erythema, desquamation, and pruritus occurred in 7 volunteers, but no burning or tingling occurred. All adverse events were mild and resolved spontaneously, and there were no severe adverse events. The respective maximum plasma concentrations of tazarotenic acid after local administration of tazarotene clindamycin cream and tazarotene cream were 11 ± 5 pg/mL and 18 ± 12 pg/mL, and the areas under the curve within 72 hours were 444 ± 341 pg · h/mL and 692 ± 462 pg · h/mL.

5.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 416, 2020 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apathy is one of the most common symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD), however, correlations of apathy with demographic variables, cognitive functions, neuropsychiatric symptoms, activity of daily living and olfactory functions in AD patients are still lacking comprehensive investigations. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study. Total 124 typical AD patients were consecutively recruited from April 2014 to April 2017. In 124 AD patients, 47 cases (37.9%) were male and 77 cases were female; patients' age were 43-93 years with an average of 68 years. Patients were divided into AD with apathy (AD-A) and AD with no apathy (AD-NA) groups according to the score of Modified Apathy Evaluation Scale, then were evaluated cognitive functions, neuropsychiatric symptoms and activity of daily living, and tested olfactory functions. Above variables were compared between AD-A and AD-NA groups. Further correlation analyses and linear regression analysis were performed between apathy and above variables. RESULTS: Compared with AD-NA group, global cognitive level, verbal memory, verbal fluency and activity of daily living were significantly compromised in AD-A group (P < 0.002); depression and agitation were severely displayed in AD-A group (P < 0.002). Apathy was negatively correlated with global cognitive function, verbal memory, verbal fluency and activity of daily living (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference of olfactory functions between the two groups (P > 0.002), and correlations between apathy and olfactory threshold, olfactory identification and global olfactory function were significant (P < 0.05) but quite weak (|r| < 0.3). Further linear regression analysis showed that only verbal fluency and instrumental activities of daily living were independently associated with apathy. CONCLUSIONS: Independent correlations among apathy, verbal fluency and instrumental activities of daily living in AD patients might be related to the common brain area involved in their pathogeneses.

6.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 12: 574776, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33192466

RESUMO

Background: To explore the changes of neuroinflammatory factors in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and their correlation with monoamine neurotransmitters in Parkinson's disease (PD) with depression (PD-D) patients. Methods: Neuroinflammatory factors and neurotransmitters in CSF were measured and compared between PD with no depression (PD-ND) and PD-D groups. The relationship between PD-D and neuroinflammatory factors was studied by binary logistic regression equation, and the related factors of PD-D were adjusted. The correlations of the levels of neuroinflammatory factors and neurotransmitters in PD-D group were analyzed. Results: The levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in CSF from PD-D group were significantly higher and there were no significant differences in the levels of interleukin-1ß, prostaglandin (PG) E2, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and nitric oxide (NO). The 24-item Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD-24) score was positively correlated with the level of TNF-α in CSF. Binary logistic regression showed that the OR of CSF TNF-α level was 1.035 (95% CI 1.002-1.069). The level of dopamine (DA) in CSF of PD-D group was significantly lower than that in PD-ND group. TNF-α level was negatively correlated with DA level in CSF from PD patients (r = -0.320, P = 0.003). Conclusions: Neuroinflammatory factors, especially TNF-α, may play an important role in PD-D. It may cause damage to DA neurons and lead to the depletion of DA, which is related to the occurrence and development of PD-D.

7.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(19): 19083-19094, 2020 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apathy is common in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. However, its relation with other clinical symptoms in AD and brain structural changes in magnetic resonance imaging is unclear. RESULTS: Compared with AD with no apathy group, cognitive function and activities of daily living were significantly impaired and neuropsychiatric symptoms were obviously presented in AD with apathy group (P<0.05). The frequency of Apolipoprotein E genotypes was not significantly different (P>0.05). Correlation analyses and multiple linear analyses revealed that thickness of left temporal pole and volume of posterior corpus callosum were significantly and negatively correlated with Modified Apathy Estimation Scale score in AD patients (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Apathy with AD is positively correlated with cognitive impairment, neuropsychiatric symptoms and poor activities of daily living. Atrophy of left temporal pole and posterior corpus callosum presented by MRI is positively related with apathy of AD. METHODS: In this study, 137 AD patients were recruited and divided into AD with apathy group and AD with no apathy group according to Modified Apathy Estimation Scale score. We evaluated patients' cognitive function, neuropsychiatric symptoms and activities of daily living, detected the frequency of Apolipoprotein E genotypes and measured cortical thickness and volume by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

8.
Int J Oncol ; 57(4): 890-904, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32945393

RESUMO

Triple­negative breast cancer (TNBC), which is characterized by inherently aggressive behavior and lack of recognized molecular targets for therapy, poses a serious threat to women's health worldwide. However, targeted treatments have yet to be made available. A crosstalk between tumor cells and platelets (PLT) contributing to growth, angiogenesis and metastasis has been reported in numerous cancers. Heparanase (Hpa), the only mammalian endoglycosidase that cleaves heparan sulfate, has been demonstrated to contribute to the growth, angiogenesis and metastasis of numerous cancers. Hypoxia affects the growth, angiogenesis and metastasis of nearly all solid tumors, and the ability of Hpa to promote invasion is enhanced in hypoxia. However, whether Hpa can strengthen the crosstalk between tumor cells and PLT, and whether enhancing the biological function of Hpa in TNBC promotes malignant progression, have yet to be fully elucidated. The present study, based on bioinformatics analysis and experimental studies in vivo and in vitro, demonstrated that Hpa enhanced the crosstalk between TNBC cells and PLT to increase the supply of oxygen and nutrients, while also conferring tolerance of TNBC cells to oxygen and nutrient shortage, both of which are important for overcoming the stress of hypoxia and nutritional deprivation in the tumor microenvironment, thereby promoting malignant progression, including growth, angiogenesis and metastasis in TNBC. In addition, the hypoxia­inducible factor­1a (HIF-1a)/vascular endothelial growth factor­a (VEGF- a)/phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-)Akt axis may be the key pathway involved in the effects of Hpa on the biological processes mentioned above. Therefore, improving local hypoxia, anti­Hpa treatment and inhibiting PLT activation may improve the prognosis of TNBC.

9.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(35): 19992-19998, 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869797

RESUMO

Tremendous effort has been devoted to develop durable electrode materials for sodium ion batteries. This work focuses on enhancing the reversibility of a cathode material Na0.5Ni0.25Mn0.75O2 by adopting the titanium cation doping strategy. The obtained P2-Na0.5Ni0.25Mn0.60Ti0.15O2 material shows smooth charge-discharge curves upon suppressing the Na+/vacancy ordering effect via the partial substitution of Mn4+ for Ti4+, and enhanced cycling performance. It exhibits a reversible capacity of 138 mA h g-1 at 0.5C, as well as a high rate capacity of 81 mA h g-1 at 5C between a cut-off voltage of 2 and 4 V, while long-term cycling stability is demonstrated with a capacity retention of 84% over 200 cycles. An enhanced cycling stability is also observed when the voltage is between 2 and 4.2 V. The feasibility of constructing a symmetrical Na-ion full cell with Na0.5Ni0.25Mn0.60Ti0.15O2 as cathode and anode electrodes is also demonstrated. The titanium cation doping results in reduced charge transfer impedance and an enhanced sodium cation diffusion coefficient, thus suggesting an efficient strategy to obtain a durable cathode material for sodium ion batteries.

10.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 19(10): 2196-2209, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847971

RESUMO

Effective treatments for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) remain unavailable. Given the significance of spinal cord glutamate transporters in neuronal plasticity and central sensitization, this study investigated the role of excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) and vesicular-glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) in the development of paclitaxel-induced painful neuropathy. Paclitaxel (2 mg/kg, i.p., cumulative dose 8 mg/kg) induced long-lasting mechanical allodynia (>28 days) with increased glutamate concentration and decreased EAAT2 expression with no changes in GABA/glycine or VGAT (vesicular GABA transporter) in rat spinal dorsal horn. VGLUT2 expression was upregulated and coexpressed with enhanced synaptophysin, characterizing nociceptive afferent sprouting and new synapse formation of glutamatergic neurons in the spinal cord dorsal horn. HDAC2 and transcription factor YY1 were also upregulated, and their interaction and colocalization were confirmed following paclitaxel treatment using co-immunoprecipitation. Inhibition or knockdown of HDAC2 expression by valproic acid, BRD6688, or HDAC2 siRNA not only attenuated paclitaxel-induced mechanical allodynia but also suppressed HDAC2 upregulation, glutamate accumulation, and the corresponding changes in EAAT2/VGLUT/synaptophysin expression and HDAC2/YY1 interaction. These findings indicate that loss of the balance between glutamate release and reuptake due to dysregulation EAAT2/VGLUT2/synaptophysin cascade in the spinal dorsal horn plays an important role in the development of paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain. HDAC2/YY1 interaction as a complex appears essential in regulating this pathway, which can potentially be a therapeutic target to relieve CIPN by reversing central sensitization of spinal nociceptive neurons.

11.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(6): 794-799, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696872

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES HOXB2 is a new prognostic indicator for lung cancer. But it is unclear whether HOXB2 holds an effect in glioblastoma (GBM) progression. The purpose of this article was to probe the influences of HOXB2 on GBM pathogenesis. METHODS HOXB2 expression level and prognostic power in GBM patients were analyzed. Then the mRNA and protein expression levels of HOXB2 in GBM cell lines were tested by qRT-PCR and western blotting. Cell proliferation, invasion, and migration were determined by CCK8 and transwell assay, severally. The protein levels of PI3K/AKT-pathway associated proteins were analyzed by western blotting. RESULTS The results indicated that HOXB2 was distinctly overexpressed in GBM patients and high expression of HOXB2 was related to a poor prognosis. Moreover, the expression of HOXB2 was higher in all GBM cell lines U251, U-87MG, GOS-3 than that in HEB cells (normal control). Meanwhile, decreased expression of p-PI3K and p-AKT were identified after HOXB2 knockdown. CONCLUSIONS These data demonstrated that HOXB2 had a vital role in GBM progression and could serve as a promising target for GBM treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Genes Homeobox/fisiologia , Glioblastoma/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Prognóstico
12.
Onco Targets Ther ; 13: 5807-5817, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606791

RESUMO

Purpose: Accumulating studies have explored the potential diagnostic value of lncRNA MALAT1 in various cancers. However, there are still inconsistent results in diagnostic accuracy and reliability in individual studies. The aim of this pooled study was to summarize the overall diagnostic capacity of lncRNA MALAT1 in cancer detection and diagnosis. Methods: Eligible studies satisfying the inclusion criteria were screened and selected from the online database. All statistical analyses were performed using Stata 14.0. Results: A total of 17 eligible studies were included in this pooled analysis, with 1777 cases and 1478 controls. The overall results were shown as follows: sensitivity, 0.74 (95% CI=0.65-0.81), specificity, 0.79 (95% CI=0.73-0.84), positive likelihood ratio (PLR), 3.48 (95% CI=2.79-4.32), negative likelihood, 0.33 (95% CI=0.25-0.44), diagnostic score, 2.34 (95% CI=1.99-2.69), diagnostic odds ratio, 10.41 (95% CI=7.33-14.78) and area under the curve, 0.83 (95% CI=0.80-0.86). Deeks' funnel plot asymmetry test (p = 0.66) suggested no potential publication bias. Conclusion: All these results indicate that lncRNA MALAT1 achieves a relatively moderate accuracy in cancer detection and diagnosis, and could serve as a diagnostic biomarker for cancers.

13.
Stem Cell Reports ; 14(6): 1093-1106, 2020 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521248

RESUMO

Active neural stem cells (aNSCs) and quiescent neural stem cells (qNSCs) are two distinct subpopulations found in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). However, to date, no cell surface marker has been established to identify and profile qNSCs in the adult hippocampus. Here, we identified expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1) on the cell surface of NSCs, through which we identified a previously unrecognized subpopulation of NSCs in the adult mouse DG. Interestingly, most VCAM1-expressing NSCs were largely quiescent. By injecting virus into Ai14 reporter mice to conduct lineage tracing in the adult DG, we confirmed that VCAM1-expressing cells were multipotent and capable of generating neurons and astrocytes. Furthermore, depletion of Vcam1 during the embryonic or adult stage impaired spatial learning and memory in mice, accompanied by a reduced number of radial glial-like cells and proliferating NSCs in the subgranular zone of Vcam1 knockout mice.

14.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 28(3): 808-814, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552940

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression level of miR-181b in CD19+ B lymphocytes of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), to analyze the relationship between its expression and the prognosis of CLL patients, and to predict the potential target gene of miR-181b in CLL by using bioinformatics. METHODS: Eight-four patients with CLL treated in People's Hospital of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region from June 2013 to June 2018 were selected. and 20 healthy people were selected as control group. RNA was extracted from CD19+B lymphocytes of peripheral blood by magnetic bead sorting, the expression level of miR-181b was detected, and it's expression differences in different IPI groups were analyzed. The correlation between the expression level of miR-181b and PFS of CLL patients also was analyzed. miR-181b target genes were predicted by online database and literatures, and gene annotation analysis and relevant signal pathway analysis were performed for candidate target genes. RESULTS: The expression level of miR-181b in CLL patients was significantly lower than that in control group (P<0.01); The expression level of miR-181b in the low-risk group was higher than that in high-risk group and extremely high-risk group (P<0.05), but there was no statistical difference between low-risk group and medium-risk group (P=1.00). The expression level of miR-181b in medium-risk group was higher than that in high-risk group and extremely high-risk group (P<0.05), but there was no difference between high-risk group and extremely high-risk group (P=1.00). ROC curve results showed that the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.792 (P<0.01).When the expression level of miR-181b was at the threshold value of 0.279, it showed a better sensitivity (62.9%) and specificity (91.8%). Survival analysis results suggested that compared with the high expression group, the miR-181b low expression group had poor PFS (log rank: P=0.047). Prediction of miR-181b by using the starBase, targetscan and picTar database and its combination with literature reports indicated that CARD11, ZFP36L1, RUNX1, NR4A3, ATP1B1, PUM1 and PLAG1 related with blood diseases, and up-regulated CARD11 and ZFP36L1 participated in lymphoid tumor formation by promoting cell proliferation and inhibiting cell aging. CONCLUSION: The expression level of miR-181b in CLL group are significantly lower than that in the controls group, and the low expression of miR-181b relates with poor prognosis of CLL patients. Through bioinformatics prediction and combined with literature reports, it is speculated that CARD11 and ZFP36L1 as target genes of miR-181b may be participated in the occurrence and development of CLL. Further experiments are needed to verify this result.


Assuntos
Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , MicroRNAs , Prognóstico
15.
Chin Med ; 15: 57, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514290

RESUMO

Background: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a common and distressing side effect. We conducted this clinical trial to compare the effectiveness of true acupuncture vs. sham acupuncture in controlling chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) among patients with advanced cancer. Methods: A total of 134 participants were randomly allocated into true acupuncture (TA) (n = 68) and sham acupuncture (SA) (n = 66) groups. Participants in both groups received acupuncture session twice on the first day of chemotherapy, and once consecutively on the following 4 days. The primary outcome was using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) to assess CINV. The secondary outcome measures were the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score (ECOG), Simplified Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire (SNAQ), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS). Results: Compared to the SA group, the TA group didn't show significant improvement in complete response rates of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (all P > 0.05). However, the TA group could modestly reduce the severity of nausea (from day-3 to day-21, P < 0.05) or vomiting (from day-4 to day-21, P < 0.05), which is notably superior to the control group. Besides, TA promoted the nutritional status of patients with a significantly higher score comparing to the SA group on day 14 (21.82 vs.20.12, P = 0.003) and day 21 (22.39 vs. 20.43, P = 0.001). No apparent differences were found in anxiety and depression assessment between these groups. Participants in both groups were well tolerant of acupuncture therapy. There was no adverse event occurs in our study. Conclusion: Acupuncture as an adjunctive approach could alleviate the severity of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting compared to the sham control, even though the effect of acupuncture in preventing CINV occurring is relatively modest.

16.
Matrix Biol ; 93: 25-42, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534153

RESUMO

Heparanase, the sole heparan sulfate degrading endoglycosidase, regulates multiple biological activities that enhance tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Much of the impact of heparanase on tumor progression is related to its function in mediating tumor-host crosstalk, priming the tumor microenvironment to better support tumor growth and metastasis. We have utilized mice over-expressing (Hpa-tg) heparanase to reveal the role of host heparanase in tumor initiation, growth and metastasis. While in wild type mice tumor development in response to DMBA carcinogenesis was restricted to the mammary gland, Hpa-tg mice developed tumors also in their lungs and liver, associating with reduced survival of the tumor-bearing mice. Consistently, xenograft tumors (lymphoma, melanoma, lung carcinoma, pancreatic carcinoma) transplanted in Hpa-tg mice exhibited accelerated tumor growth and shorter survival of the tumor-bearing mice compared with wild type mice. Hpa-tg mice were also more prone to the development of metastases following intravenous or subcutaneous injection of tumor cells. In some models, the growth advantage was associated with infiltration of heparanase-high host cells into the tumors. However, in other models, heparanase-high host cells were not detected in the primary tumor, implying that the growth advantage in Hpa-tg mice is due to systemic factors. Indeed, we found that plasma from Hpa-tg mice enhanced tumor cell migration and invasion attributed to increased levels of pro-tumorigenic factors (i.e., RANKL, SPARC, MIP-2) in the plasma of Hpa-Tg vs. wild type mice. Furthermore, tumor aggressiveness and short survival time were demonstrated in wild type mice transplanted with bone marrow derived from Hpa-tg but not wild type mice. These results were attributed, among other factors, to upregulation of pro-tumorigenic (i.e., IL35+) and downregulation of anti-tumorigenic (i.e., IFN-γ+) T-cell subpopulations in the spleen, lymph nodes and blood of Hpa-tg vs. wild type mice and their increased infiltration into the primary tumor. Collectively, our results emphasize the significance of host heparanase in mediating the pro-tumorigenic and pro-metastatic interactions between the tumor cells and the host tumor microenvironment, immune cells and systemic factors.

17.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(6): 794-799, June 2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1136287

RESUMO

SUMMARY OBJECTIVES HOXB2 is a new prognostic indicator for lung cancer. But it is unclear whether HOXB2 holds an effect in glioblastoma (GBM) progression. The purpose of this article was to probe the influences of HOXB2 on GBM pathogenesis. METHODS HOXB2 expression level and prognostic power in GBM patients were analyzed. Then the mRNA and protein expression levels of HOXB2 in GBM cell lines were tested by qRT-PCR and western blotting. Cell proliferation, invasion, and migration were determined by CCK8 and transwell assay, severally. The protein levels of PI3K/AKT-pathway associated proteins were analyzed by western blotting. RESULTS The results indicated that HOXB2 was distinctly overexpressed in GBM patients and high expression of HOXB2 was related to a poor prognosis. Moreover, the expression of HOXB2 was higher in all GBM cell lines U251, U-87MG, GOS-3 than that in HEB cells (normal control). Meanwhile, decreased expression of p-PI3K and p-AKT were identified after HOXB2 knockdown. CONCLUSIONS These data demonstrated that HOXB2 had a vital role in GBM progression and could serve as a promising target for GBM treatment.


RESUMO OBJETIVOS A HOXB2 é um novo indicador prognóstico para o câncer de pulmão. Mas não está claro se a HOXB2 tem algum efeito na progressão do glioblastoma (GBM). O objetivo deste artigo foi sondar as influências da HOXB2 na patogênese do GBM. MÉTODOS Foram analisados o nível de expressão e o poder prognóstico da HOXB2 em pacientes com GBM. Em seguida, os níveis de expressão proteica e mRNA da HOXB2 em linhagens de células de GBM foram testados por qRT-PCR e western blotting. A proliferação, a invasão e migração celular foram determinadas por CCK8 e ensaios transwell, várias vezes. Os níveis proteicos das proteínas associadas à via PI3K/AKT foram analisados pelo método western blotting. RESULTADOS Os resultados indicaram que havia uma clara superrexpressão da HOXB2 em pacientes com GBM e que a alta expressão da HOXB2 estava relacionada a um prognóstico negativo. Além disso, a expressão da HOXB2 foi mais elevada em todas as linhagens de células do GBM U251, U-87MG, GOS-3 do que nas células HEB (controle normal). Entretanto, a diminuição da expressão de P-PI3K e p-AKT foi identificada após a redução da expressão da HOXB2. CONCLUSÕES Esses dados demonstram que a HOXB2 desempenha um papel vital na progressão do GBM, podendo ser um alvo promissor para o tratamento do GBM.

18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 259: 112929, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416245

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The Scutellaria barbata and Hedyotis diffusa (SH) herb pair is extensively used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for efficacy enhancement in cancer treatment in China and Asian countries. Superior clinical efficacy observations based on high dosages (≥60 g) motivated us to explore appropriate dosages and the underlying mechanisms of action. AIM OF THE STUDY: To explore the efficacy and potential mechanisms of actions of SH through in vitro and in vivo experiments and network pharmacology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SH lyophilized powder (SHLP) was prepared from decoctions and the active ingredients were identified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Proliferation and migration experiments in vitro and tumor growth in vivo were performed to evaluate the effects of SHLP on breast cancer. Corresponding potential target genes for SHLP components and breast cancer were extracted from established databases and the Protein-Protein Internetwork of shared genes were constructed using STRING database. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) functional annotation clusters were acquired and the top 30 pathways were presented. At last, as one of pathways indicated by enriched results, apoptosis was validated with flow cytometric analysis and caspase-3, 8, 9 activities. RESULTS: Seventy-five ingredients were identified from SHLP by HPLC. High SHLP doses inhibited proliferation and migration of three types of breast cancer cells in vitro and tumor growth in nude mice. After target genes extraction and intersection, the top 30 KEGG clusters were enriched, including PI3K-Akt, cell cycle and other related pathways like VEGF, Micro-RNAs and NF-κB, besides, key genes in apoptosis were mapped. In the last, apoptosis was validated by flow cytometric analysis and caspase-3, 8, 9 activities after SHLP treatment. CONCLUSION: High SHLP dosages inhibited breast cancer in vitro and in vivo, enriched by network pharmacology and confirmed by flow cytometric analysis and caspase activation, with apoptosis was identified as one of the mechanisms of action of SHLP. SHLP administration with higher doses is recommended for clinical usage.

19.
Mol Cell ; 78(6): 1192-1206.e10, 2020 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470318

RESUMO

Tumor-derived extracellular vesicles are important mediators of cell-to-cell communication during tumorigenesis. Here, we demonstrated that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-derived ectosomes remodel the tumor microenvironment to facilitate HCC progression in an ectosomal PKM2-dependent manner. HCC-derived ectosomal PKM2 induced not only metabolic reprogramming in monocytes but also STAT3 phosphorylation in the nucleus to upregulate differentiation-associated transcription factors, leading to monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation and tumor microenvironment remodeling. In HCC cells, sumoylation of PKM2 induced its plasma membrane targeting and subsequent ectosomal excretion via interactions with ARRDC1. The PKM2-ARRDC1 association in HCC was reinforced by macrophage-secreted cytokines/chemokines in a CCL1-CCR8 axis-dependent manner, further facilitating PKM2 excretion from HCC cells to form a feedforward regulatory loop for tumorigenesis. In the clinic, ectosomal PKM2 was clearly detected in the plasma of HCC patients. This study highlights a mechanism by which ectosomal PKM2 remodels the tumor microenvironment and reveals ectosomal PKM2 as a potential diagnostic marker for HCC.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/genética , Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/patologia , Quimiocina CCL1/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Hormônios Tireóideos/genética , Microambiente Tumoral
20.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 28(2): 470-475, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32319381

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the value of CpG-oligonucleotide(CpG-ODN) immunostimulatory method in chromosome culture of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells and to compare the differences between related studies at home and abroad, so as to improve the success rate of CLL karyotype culture and the detection rate of abnormal karyo-types. METHODS: Bone marrow samples from 82 CLL patients were collected and cultured with phytohemagglutinin (PHA), CpG-oligonucleotide plus interleukin-2 (CpG-ODN DSP30+IL-2) for 72 hours. Chromosomes were prepared and analyzed by conventional cytogenetics (CC). Meanwhile, D13S25, Rb1, ATM, p53 and CSP12 probes were used for interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH) test. The differences of chromosome culture and iFISH test results between two cell stimulants were compared. RESULTS: The success rate of karyotype culture in PHA and CpG-ODN DSP30+IL-2 immunostimuli (analyzable mitotic t >20) was 90.2% (74 cases), 68.3% (56 cases) respectively, and the detection rate of abnormal karyotype was 13.5% (10 cases) and 46.4% (26 cases), respectively. The success rate of karyotype culture in PHA group was significantly higher than that in CpG-ODN DSP30+IL-2 group (P=0.01). The detection rate of abnormal karyotypes in CpG-ODN DSP30+IL-2 group was significantly higher than that in PHA group, and the difference was statistically significant (P=0.003). The detection rate of abnormal karyotypes in iFISH group was 74.4% (61 cases), which was significantly higher than that in CpG-ODN DSP30+IL-2 group (P=0.000). iFISH detection could verify the abnormalities detected by CC analysis. CONCLUSION: Application of CpG-ODN DSP30+IL-2 immunostimulation method in culture of CLL cells can enhance the detection rate of abnormal karyotypes, especially the detection of various translocations suggesting poor prognosis.


Assuntos
Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Humanos , Imunização , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos
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