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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 250: 112465, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821851

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Curcumae Rhizoma and Sparganii Rhizoma (CR-SR) are the classical herbal couple for activating blood circulation and treating tumor in clinics. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the anti-tumor activity and to clarify the bioactive ingredients of herbal couple CR-SR and the single herbs Curcumae Rhizoma (CR) and Sparganii Rhizoma (SR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The active fractions of CR-SR decoction were fractioned by column chromatography. And isolated compounds were characterized by IR, ESI-MS, 1D and 2D-NMR techniques. Detecting linear-diarylheptanoids in CR-SR, CR and SR was realized through UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MSn, based on the fragmentation pathways established in this study, comparison with MS data of isolated compounds and references. The anti-tumor activities of different solvent fractions from CR-SR, CR and SR, as well as isolated ingredients were tested by CCK-8 method. RESULTS: Ultimately, a new compound (1), having a sulfonic acid group at C-3, named demethoxyshogasulfonic acid, along with another structurally similar 17 known linear-diarylheptanoids were isolated. These linear-diarylheptanoids (1-18) were divided into 12 categories based on the differences of substituents at C-3 and C-5 on the straight chain of seven carbons. Six fragmentation pathways were established by summarizing MS data of the 18 isolated compounds collected from UPLC-MS. Based on that, and retention times and MS fragmentation ions, 47 linear-diarylheptanoids were identified in CR-SR and CR, in which 12 linear-diarylheptanoids were also detected in SR. Most importantly, 5 sulfonated linear-diarylheptanoids were new compounds detected in CR and CR-SR. And the biological assay indicated that compounds 1-4 and 12-15 significantly reduced the proliferation and inhibited colony formation of MCF-7 and HepG2 cells. CONCLUSION: The new compound (1) exhibited good anti-cancer activity, which suggests that a great effort has to be paid to investigate the bioactivity of sulfonated compounds. The fractions of CR-SR decoction exhibited stronger anti-tumor activities than that of CR and SR against 5 different cancer cells. As for chemical composition, it is the first time to report that diarylheptanoids are in Sparganiaceae and the sulfonated compounds in Zingiberaceae. Moreover, the linear-diarylheptanoids found in SR which being tested to possess good anti-tumor activity, plus those compounds in CR enhance the capacity of CR-SR. It shows importance of TCM compatibility.

2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112284, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604137

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Herb pair, the most fundamental and simplest form of herb compatibility, serves as the basic building block of traditional Chinese medicine formulae. The Danshen-Honghua herb pair (DH), composed of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (Danshen in Chinese) and Carthami Flos (Honghua in Chinese), has remarkable clinical efficacy to cure cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. This study was designed to investigate the pharmacodynamics of DH in comparison with single herbs and pharmacokinetics of DH relative to Danshen in acute myocardial ischemic injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty male Wistar rats were divided into control, model and drug treated groups. The acute myocardial ischemia rat model was induced by administering 85 mg/kg/d isoproterenol (ISO) subcutaneously for two consecutive days. For pharmacodynamic study, histopathological and biochemical analysis were performed to assess the anti-myocardial ischemic effects. While for pharmacokinetic study, a UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for determination of nine main active ingredients, namely danshensu, protocatechuic acid, protocatechualdehyde, caffeic acid, lithospermic acid, rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B, salvianolic acid A and salvianolic acid C in rat plasma. RESULTS: The histopathological and biochemical analysis revealed that DH exerted enhanced anti-myocardial ischemic effects against the ISO-induced myocardial ischemia compared with single herbs. The pharmacokinetic study indicated that DH could significantly increase the t1/2z of danshensu, Tmax, AUC0-∞ and MRT0-t of protocatechuic acid in comparison with Danshen alone in normal rats, but more importantly elevate systemic exposure level and prolong t1/2z of protocatechualdehyde, caffeic acid, Tmax of danshensu in acute myocardial ischemia rats. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrated the greater effects of DH after the compatibility in ISO-induced acute myocardial ischemia rats at pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic levels and provided valuable information for clinical application of herb pairs.

3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(19): 4129-4133, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872689

RESUMO

Traditional Chinese medicine is planted in mountainous areas with suitable natural conditions. The planting area is complex in terrain,and the planting plots are mostly irregularly shaped. It is difficult to accurately calculate the planting area by traditional survey methods. The method of extracting Chinese herbal medicine planting area combined with remote sensing and GIS technology is of great significance for the rational development and utilization of traditional Chinese medicine resources. Taking Bletilla striata planting in Ningshan county of Shaanxi province as an example,the extraction method of planting area of traditional Chinese medicine in county was studied. High-resolution ZY-3 and GF-1 multi-spectral multi-temporal remote sensing images were used as data sources. Through field sampling,samples such as B. striata,cultivated land,forest land,water body,artificial surface,alpine meadow,etc. are collected. The spectral features,texture features and shape features of remotely identifiable objects in different planting areas and cultivated land,vegetable sheds were analyzed,confusing ground objects were eliminated and interpretation marks were establish. The method of visual interpretation is used to realize the extraction of B. striata planting areas,and the B. striata planting area are calculated by combining GIS technology. The results showed that the method of visual interpretation,using high-resolution ZY-3 and GF-1 multi-spectral multi-temporal remote sensing image data extracted the planting area of 403.05 mu. It can effectively extract the B. striata planting area in research region.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Orchidaceae , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Florestas
4.
J Insect Physiol ; 119: 103967, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634472

RESUMO

The absence of juvenile hormone (JH) induces reproductive diapause in many insects. Downregulated JH biosynthesis is considered the critical factor that decreases the JH level. However, whether upregulated JH degradation could also contribute to JH deficiency and then induce reproductive diapause remains poorly known. In this work, we used the cabbage beetle, Colaphellus bowringi, as the model and investigated the function of JH degradation genes in reproductive diapause preparation via RNAi-mediated loss-of-function. Three JH degradation genes, including JH epoxide hydrolase 1 (JHEH1), JHEH2, and JH diol kinase (JHDK), were cloned, and the deduced proteins contained the conserved domains and motifs well-identified in the same proteins of other insects. JHEH1, JHEH2, and JHDK were all highly expressed in the diapause-destined (DD) females compared to the non-diapause-destined (NDD) females. Knocking down these JH degradation genes in DD females elevated JH signaling, indicated by increased expressions of JH-inducible genes and vitellogenin genes, but did not induce ovary development. Meanwhile, the knockdown of JH degradation genes significantly suppressed diapause-associated phenotypic traits, including fat storage, and the expression of genes related to fat storage and stress tolerance. A photoperiodic transfer experiment suggested that high expression of JHEH2 in DD female was preprogrammed by long day during the larval stage. Knockdown of JH signaling through Methoprene-tolerant and Krüppel homolog 1 induced high expression of JHEH2 in DD females. Considering that RNAi of JH degradation genes affected some diapause-related traits in DD females but failed to induce the non-diapause phenotype in full, we conclude that JH degradation pathways play limited regulatory roles in the reproductive diapause preparation of C. bowringi.

5.
Bioorg Chem ; 92: 103278, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541802

RESUMO

Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels is an evergreen small tree or shrub with great economic value, which belongs to the genus Clausena of the Rutaceae family. C. lansium is indigenous to Southern China, while currently widely cultivated in subtropical and tropical regions not only for the nutritional value and pharmacological uses of its fruits but also as a medicinal and ornamental plant. In this study, a systematic phytochemical study on the stems and leaves of C. lansium caused the separation and identification of two new geranylated carbazole alkaloids, clauselansiumines A (1) and B (2), as well as 10 known geranylated carbazole alkaloids (3-12). The chemical structures of these isolated geranylated carbazole alkaloids (1-12) were unambiguously determined based on comprehensive spectral data analyses. All these isolated geranylated carbazole alkaloids were tested for their neuroprotective effects against 6-hydroxydopamine induced cell death in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells in vitro. Compounds 1-12 displayed remarkable neuroprotective effects holding the EC50 values ranging from 0.48 ±â€¯0.04 to 12.36 ±â€¯0.16 µM. These research results disclosed that the separation and purification of these geranylated carbazole alkaloids possessing remarkable neuroprotective effects separated from C. lansium could be extremely important to the discovery of new agents for the treatment and prevention for Parkinson's disease.

6.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 118: 109268, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545239

RESUMO

Danshen (salvia miltiorrhiza) and honghua(Carthamus tinctorius) were traditional herb pair with promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis actions, in China. Both were widely used to treat cardiovascular diseases (CVD) for hundreds years, especially shown definite advantage in the treatment of ischemic heart disease (IHD). However, the mechanism of danshen-honghua herb pair (DHHP) in the treatment of IHD was still unclear. This study was focused on examining the effects and possible mechanisms of DHHP in rats with acute myocardial ischemia induced by isoproterenol (ISO). The results suggested that DHHP significantly ameliorated the myocardial tissue abnormalities, notablely inhibited the elevation of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinekinase isoenzyme (CK-MB) and cardiac troponin T (CTn-T) in plasma, obviously decreased the plasma levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNF-α), outstandingly inhibited the reduction of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) caused by ISO, significantly inhibited the high expression of Bcl-2 assaciated X protein (Bax) and nuclear transcriptionfactor-κBP65 (NF-κBP65) protein, significantly induced the low expression of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) protein in acute myocardial ischemia rats. DHHP can obviously ameliorate hemodynamic parameters. In summary, DHHP can significantly improve myocardial ischemia in acute myocardial ischemia model rats caused by ISO. Anti-free radicals, anti-peroxidation, inhibition of cell apoptosis and anti- inflammation maybe are the potential mechanisms of DHHP anti-myocardial ischemia in acute myocardial ischemia rats in duced by ISO.

7.
Molecules ; 24(18)2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533325

RESUMO

In the present study, a new strategy including the combination of external appearance, chemical detection, and biological analysis was proposed for the comprehensive evaluation of safflowers in different producing areas. Firstly, 40 batches of safflower samples were classified into class I and II based on color measurements and K-means clustering analysis. Secondly, a rapid and sensitive analytical method was developed for simultaneous quantification of 16 chromaticity-related characteristic components (including characteristic components hydroxysafflor yellow A, anhydrosafflor yellow B, safflomin C, and another 13 flavonoid glycosides) in safflowers by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole linear ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTRAP®/MS2). The results of the quantification indicate that hydroxysafflor yellow A, anhydrosafflor yellow B, kaempferol, quercetin, and safflomin C had significant differences between the two types of safflower, and class I of safflower had a higher content of hydroxysafflor yellow A, anhydrosafflor yellow B, and safflomin C as the main anti-thrombotic components in safflower. Thirdly, chemometrics methods were employed to illustrate the relationship in multivariate data of color measurements and chromaticity-related characteristic components. As a result, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and 6-hydroxykaempferol-3-O-ß-d-glucoside were strongly associated with the color indicators. Finally, anti-thrombotic analysis was used to evaluate activity and verify the suitability of the classification basis of safflower based on the color measurements. It was shown that brighter, redder, yellower, more orange-yellow, and more vivid safflowers divided into class I had a higher content of characteristic components and better anti-thrombotic activity. In summary, the presented strategy has potential for quality evaluation of other flower medicinal materials.

8.
PeerJ ; 7: e7349, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31534834

RESUMO

Background: Previous studies reported that reduced gray matter volume (GMV) was associated with violent-related behaviors. However, the previous studies were conducted on adults and no study has studied the association between GMV and violent behaviors on adolescents. The purpose of the study was to investigate GMV's effects in adolescent violent offenders based on a Chinese Han population, which can address the problem of possible confounding factors in adult studies. Methods: We recruited 30 male adolescent violent offenders and 29 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs). Differences in both whole-brain and GMV were evaluated using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). We assessed the accuracy of VBM using the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) and discriminant analysis. Results: Compared with HCs, the male adolescent offenders showed significantly reduced GMV in five cortical and subcortical brain regions, including the olfactory cortex, amygdala, middle temporal gyrus and inferior parietal lobe in the left hemisphere, as well as the right superior temporal gyrus. Both ROC curve and discriminate analyses showed that these regions had relatively high sensitivities (58.6%-89.7%) and specificities (58.1%-74.2%) with 76.7% classification accuracy. Conclusions: Our results indicated that reduced volume in the frontal-temporal-parietal-subcortical circuit may be closely related to violent behaviors in male adolescents, which might be an important biomarker for detecting violent behaviors in male adolescents.

9.
Infect Genet Evol ; 75: 104012, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446137

RESUMO

Although most of Arvicolinae associated hantaviruses can not cause disease in humans, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) cases caused by Tula virus (TULV) have been described in Europe since 2002. In addition to Europe, TULV was also identified in the Microtus arvalis obscurus voles sampled from Kazakhstan, which shares borders with China. To gain more insight into the molecular epidemiology of TULV, a total of 365 rodents representing 7 species of 4 subfamily (Arvicolinae, Murinae, Gerbillinae, and Cricetinae) were captured in Qapqal county, Xinjiang, northwest China. Hantavirus RNA was recovered from 40 lung tissue samples of M. arvalis obscurus, with the prevalence of 10.96%. Genetic analysis revealed that all recovered viral sequences were most closely related to those of TULV, but exhibited >11% nucleotide differences from all currently known TULV, suggesting that they may represent a new subtype of TULV. In the S tree, the newly identified viruses formed a distinct lineage and showed a close evolutionary relationship with those sampled from Southwestern Siberia and Kazakhstan. However, they exhibited a different clustering pattern in both the M and the L trees, suggesting the possibility of genetic reassortment. Finally, the recombination event was also observed in Xinjiang TULV viruses. In sum, all these data reveal a complex evolutionary history of TULV in Central Asia.

10.
Insects ; 10(8)2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390796

RESUMO

Diapause control is one of the successful methods for long-term cold storage of biological control organisms without decreasing their fitness. Sufficient preparation before diapause is essential for successful diapause initiation and maintenance. Harmonia axyridis, an important biocontrol agent in its native place, can enter reproductive diapause for overwintering. However, the key preparatory events before diapause in H. axyridis, such as specific developmental trajectory, timing, and physiological changes, remain unclear. We compared differences in the development of internal reproductive organs, feeding amount and nutrient storage between pre-diapause and pre-reproductive adult H. axyridis which had been reared at 20 °C under a short-day (10L:14D) and long-day (14L:10D) condition, respectively. The results showed that there were obvious morphological differences in internal reproductive organs of diapause and reproductive H. axyridis. The development of internal reproductive organs was suppressed at early adult stage in pre-diapause beetles compared to pre-reproductive beetles. Feeding amount in both pre-diapause and pre-reproductive beetles increased for more than ten days after eclosion. The feeding amount of pre-diapause beetles sharply decreased from the 15th day after eclosion in females and the 14th day after eclosion in males, which implied the initiation of diapause. During the pre-diapause stage, carbohydrates and lipids were mainly accumulated by females, whereas males mainly accumulated carbohydrates. Our results not only provide basic information about the diapause process of pre-diapause stage, but also give tips to better utilization of diapause strategy during mass production and storage of H. axyridis.

11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10211, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308474

RESUMO

Optical spectrometers play a key role in acquiring rich photonic information in both scientific research and a wide variety of applications. In this work, we present a new spectrometer with an ultrahigh resolution of better than 0.012 nm/pixel in the 170-600 nm spectral region using a grating-integrated module that consists of 19 subgratings without any moving parts. By using two-dimensional (2D) backsideilluminated complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (BSI-CMOS) array detector technology with 2048 × 2048 pixels, a high data acquisition speed of approximately 25 spectra per second is achieved. The physical photon-sensing size of the detector along the one-dimensional wavelength direction is enhanced by a factor of 19 to approximately 428 mm, or 38912 pixels, to satisfy the requirement of seamless connection between two neighboring subspectral regions without any missing wavelengths throughout the entire spectral region. As tested with a mercury lamp, the system has advanced performance capabilities characterized by the highest k parameter reported to date, being approximately 3.58 × 104, where k = (working wavelength region)/(pixel resolution). Data calibration and analysis as well as a method of reducing background noise more efficiently are also discussed. The results presented in this work will stimulate further research on precision spectrometers based on advanced BSI-CMOS array detectors in the future.

12.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219406, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283774

RESUMO

Postoperative shed autologous blood reinfusion techniques have been used for decades in total knee arthroplasty (TKA), but the effectiveness of this procedure is still a matter of debate. This multicenter retrospective study investigated the medical records of patients who underwent unilateral and bilateral TKA from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2017 in three hospitals. According to whether postoperative shed autologous blood reinfusion was used, the patients were divided into the control group and the shed autologous blood reinfusion group. The volume of perioperative infusion of red blood cells and plasma, the blood transfusion-related costs, and the postoperative hospital stay were compared between the two groups of patients. A total of 200 unilateral and 74 bilateral TKA were included after successful matching. Among the patients who underwent unilateral TKA, the control group and the shed autologous blood reinfusion group had 95 and 91 patients, respectively, who received allogeneic blood infusion (P = 0.268). There was no significant difference in the number of units of allogeneic red blood cells infused (P = 0.154), while the transfusion-related cost was increased (P<0.001). The same phenomena were observed over the patients underwent bilateral TKA. Shed autologous blood reinfusion does not reduce the need for infusing allogeneic red blood cells. In addition, the procedure increases patient expense and may also lead to an extended postoperative hospital stay.

13.
Chronobiol Int ; 36(7): 969-978, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043079

RESUMO

The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker, is one of the most important global agricultural pests. C. suppressalis has distinct rice and water-oat host populations. Asynchrony in sexual activity is thought to be the main factor maintaining reproductive segregation between these populations, particularly the obvious difference in the circadian rhythm of female calling activity between populations. However, the mechanism responsible for this difference in the timing of female calling is poorly understood. The circadian clock is an essential regulator of daily behavioral rhythms in insects, including female calling. We investigated the variation in circadian clock genes of the rice and water-oat populations of C. suppressalis. We did this by comparing deduced amino acid sequences and the expression patterns of seven circadian clock genes (clock, cycle, period, timeless, timeout, cryptochrome1, and cryptochrome2) between females from each population. We found that the two populations had different variants of the timeout and cryptochrome1 genes and differed in the expression of period, timeless and timeout. This suggests that population-related variation in the circadian clock genes period, timeless, timeout and cryptochrome1 could be responsible for the different circadian rhythms of female calling in these host population of C. suppressalis. These results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying asynchronous sexual activity in insect populations and suggest new topics for future research on the origins and maintenance of population differentiation in insects.

14.
Cell Stress Chaperones ; 24(3): 609-619, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989612

RESUMO

Artesunate (ARS) induced significant reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in HepG2, HeLa, and A549 lines. However, ARS induced ROS-dependent apoptosis in HeLa and A549 cell lines but ROS-independent apoptosis in HepG2 cells. A total of 200 µM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) significantly induced cytotoxicity in HeLa cells, while H2O2 up to 300 µM did not induce cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells, further demonstrating the strong resistance of HepG2 cells to ROS. HeLa cells had much higher basic total glutathione (T-GSH) level than HepG2 cells, while the ratio of basic reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) in HepG2 cells was nearly twice than that in HeLa and A549 cells. Inhibition of glutathione markedly enhanced H2O2- or ARS-induced cytotoxicity in HeLa and A549 cell lines but modestly enhanced the cytotoxicity of H2O2 and even did not affect the cytotoxicity of ARS in HepG2 cells. Moreover, addition of GSH remarkably prevented H2O2- or ARS-induced cytotoxicity in HeLa and A549 cell lines, further indicating the involvement of GSH in scavenging ROS in the two cell lines. HepG2 cells exhibited higher catalase activity than HeLa cells, and inhibiting catalase activity by using 3-aminotriazole (3-AT, a specific inhibition of catalase) or catalase siRNA remarkably reduced the resistance of HepG2 cells to ROS, demonstrating the key roles of catalase for the strong resistance of HepG2 cells to ROS. Collectively, catalase activity instead of glutathione level dominates the resistance of cells to ROS.

15.
Front Behav Neurosci ; 13: 21, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873013

RESUMO

Objective: No study has comprehensively evaluated the effect of postweaning isolation on the social and sexual behaviors of a certain strain of rodents in ethology. The present study aims to explore how and to what extent isolation rearing after postweaning affects the social and sexual behaviors of male CD-1 mice in adulthood systematically. Methods: Male CD-1 mice were randomly assigned to two groups: isolation reared (IS, one mouse per cage, n = 30) and group housed (GH, five mice per cage, n = 15). The mice underwent isolation rearing from postnatal day 23 to day 93. Then, social affiliation, recognition and memory were measured through selection task experiments. Social interaction under a home cage and novel environment were measured via resident-intruder and social interaction test, respectively. Furthermore, sexual preference, homosexual and heterosexual behaviors were measured. Results: Our study found that postweaning isolation increased the social affiliation for conspecifics (p = 0.001), reduced social recognition (p = 0.042) and impaired social memory. As for social interaction, isolated mice showed a remarkably increased aggression toward the intruder male in a home cage or novelty environment. For instance, isolated mice presented a short attack latency (p < 0.001), high attack frequency (p < 0.001) and long attack duration (p < 0.001). In addition, isolated mice exhibited further social avoidance. Contrastingly, isolated mice displayed a reduced sexual preference for female (IS: 61.47 ± 13.80%, GH: 70.33 ± 10.06%, p = 0.038). As for heterosexual behavior, isolated mice have a short mating duration (p = 0.002), long mounting latency (p = 0.002), and long intromission latency (p = 0.015). However, no association was observed between postweaning isolation and homosexual behavior in male CD-1 mouse. Conclusion: Postweaning isolation increased the social affiliation, impaired the social cognition and considerably increased the aggression in social interaction of adult male CD-1 mice. Postweaning isolation induced a decreased sexual preference for female in adulthood. Postweaning isolation extended the latency to mate, thereby reducing mating behavior. No association was observed between isolation and homosexual behavior.

16.
Psychiatry Res ; 271: 124-130, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30472507

RESUMO

This study aimed to understand the demographic, clinical and criminological characteristics of Chinese homicide offenders with schizophrenia from a gender-based perspective. Information on all homicide offenders with schizophrenia who received forensic psychiatric assessment between 2010 and 2016 in Hunan Province, China, was systematically retrieved (n = 669). Gender differences in the above characteristics were analyzed, and independent correlates of homicide were explored. The male to female ratio of homicide offenders was about 4:1. Proportionally more males were single, unemployed and younger when committing their first crime than was apparent in females. Male perpetrators were more often influenced by delusions. Females were more likely to target their close family members. For males, living in rural areas and having a family history of mental disorder were positively associated with homicide, while having a criminal history and being unemployed were negatively associated. For females, younger age was positively, while being unmarried and unemployment were negatively associated with homicide. Our results indicate significant gender differences among Chinese homicide offenders with schizophrenia in demographic, clinical and criminological characteristics and in independent correlates of homicide. Further research in this field, especially aims at determining risk factors for crime in this population, should take the gender differences into account.


Assuntos
Criminosos/psicologia , Homicídio/psicologia , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Delusões , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
17.
Curr Neuropharmacol ; 17(6): 539-549, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29737252

RESUMO

Ceruloplasmin (CP) is the major copper transport protein in plasma, mainly produced by the liver. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked CP (GPI-CP) is the predominant form expressed in astrocytes of the brain. A growing body of evidence has demonstrated that CP is an essential protein in the body with multiple functions such as regulating the homeostasis of copper and iron ions, ferroxidase activity, oxidizing organic amines, and preventing the formation of free radicals. In addition, as an acute-phase protein, CP is induced during inflammation and infection. The fact that patients with genetic disorder aceruloplasminemia do not suffer from tissue copper deficiency, but rather from disruptions in iron metabolism shows essential roles of CP in iron metabolism rather than copper. Furthermore, abnormal metabolism of metal ions and oxidative stress are found in other neurodegenerative diseases, such as Wilson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Brain iron accumulation and decreased activity of CP have been shown to be associated with neurodegeneration. We hypothesize that CP may play a protective role in neurodegenerative diseases. However, whether iron accumulation is a cause or a result of neurodegeneration remains unclear. Further research on molecular mechanisms is required before a consensus can be reached regarding a neuroprotective role for CP in neurodegeneration. This review article summarizes the main physiological functions of CP and the current knowledge of its role in neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Ceruloplasmina/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Animais , Ceruloplasmina/química , Ceruloplasmina/deficiência , Humanos , Neuroproteção/fisiologia
18.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol ; 104: 1-10, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30423421

RESUMO

Many organisms have evolved a series of adaptions, such as dormancy or diapause in insects that enable them to withstand seasonally adverse conditions. In insects, photoperiodic signals received during the diapause induction phase have irreversible effect on diapause initiation. Insects continue to be exposed to diapause-inducing photoperiod after the diapause induction phase during diapause preparation before they enter diapause. However, how photoperiodic signals experienced during the diapause preparation phase (DPP) regulate diapause remains largely unclear. In this paper, we investigate this in the cabbage beetle Colaphellus bowringi. The cabbage beetle is in many respects an ideal experimental model in which to investigate the effect of photoperiodic signals on the DPP because it has facultative reproductive diapause induced by long-day length and has differentiable diapause induction and preparation phases. We found that the lipid content of female cabbage beetles decreased after diapause-destined (DD) individuals were exposed to a diapause-inhibiting photoperiod during the DPP. Two circadian clock negative regulators, per and tim, were probably involved in the photoperiodic response of beetles during the DPP. Per and tim presented obvious oscillation of circadian rhythm and photoperiodic response during the DPP in DD females and knock-down of these genes in DD females caused their lipid content to decrease. Per and tim probably promote lipid accumulation by regulating the expression of genes that regulate lipogenesis and lipolysis. Moreover, decreased lipid accumulation caused by exposure to different photoperiods during the DPP was independent of juvenile hormone. In summary, these results suggest that photoperiodic signals received during the DPP influence lipid accumulation in DD insects. DD insects still have some ability to monitor photoperiodic changes during the DPP and per and tim are probably involved in regulating physiological responses to photoperiodic signals during diapause preparation. These results shed light on the relationship between photoperiodic signals and diapause preparation, and may provide new insights on both how to better utilize insects as resources and for pest management.


Assuntos
Relógios Circadianos/fisiologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Besouros , Diapausa de Inseto/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Fotoperíodo , Animais , Besouros/genética , Besouros/metabolismo , Feminino , Estações do Ano
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30553881

RESUMO

The vitellogenin receptor (VgR) is highly expressed in the ovaries where it is responsible for vitellogenin (Vg) deposition during oogenesis in insects. Therefore, identifying the VgR of insect pests, and understanding the mechanism regulating its expression, could lead to the development of pest management strategies based on disrupting reproduction. We cloned and identified VgR in the cabbage beetle, Colaphellus bowringi, which is a serious pest of cruciferous vegetables in Asia. The regulation of VgR transcription by juvenile hormone (JH) was also investigated. The results show that C. bowringi VgR cDNA contains an open reading frame of 5310 bp encoding 1769 amino acid residues. Protein domain prediction indicates that C. bowringi VgR belongs to the LDLR gene superfamily, having the same group of structural domains that has been well characterized in other insects. VgR mRNA was highly expressed in the ovaries of reproductive female cabbage beetles. Knockdown of VgR reduced yolk deposition in the ovaries, increased the accumulation of Vg proteins in the hemolymph and decreased the transcription of Vg1 and Vg2 in the fat body. RNA interference and hormone challenge experiments showed that JH induced VgR transcription via the JH intracellular receptor methoprene-tolerant (Met) and the JH-responsive transcription factor Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1). Our results suggest that there is a feedback loop between VgR transcription in the ovaries and Vg transcription in the fat body. JH acting through Met-Kr-h1 pathway induces the transcription of the VgR that is essential for Vg uptake and reproductive development. These findings not only reveal the potential JH signaling mechanism regulating VgR transcription, but may also contribute to the development of pest control strategies based on disrupting endocrine-regulated reproduction.


Assuntos
Besouros/genética , Proteínas do Ovo/genética , Hormônios Juvenis/fisiologia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Transcrição Genética/fisiologia , Animais , Clonagem Molecular , Diapausa , Proteínas do Ovo/metabolismo , Feminino , Ovário/metabolismo , Filogenia , Interferência de RNA , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo
20.
J Affect Disord ; 246: 285-289, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30594041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the demographic and clinical features of the atypical subtype of major depressive disorder (MDD) patients in China. This study set out to investigate the prevalence of atypical depression in MDD patients in China, and identify its demographic and clinical features. METHODS: The study was conducted in 13 major psychiatric hospitals or in the psychiatric units of general hospitals in China, and recruited a sample of 1172 patients diagnosed with MDD. The patients' demographic and clinical features and prescriptions of psychotropic drugs were collected using a standardized questionnaire designed for the study. RESULTS: The prevalence of atypical depression was 15.3%. In multiple logistic regression analyses, compared to the non-atypical depression patients, the atypical depression patients were more likely to have depressive episodes with suicide ideation and attempts (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.06, 2.10, P = 0.023), depressive episodes with psychotic features (OR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.43, 3.22, P < 0.001), seasonal depressive episodes (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.12, 2.78, P = 0.014), an earlier age of onset (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.96, 0.99, P = 0.001), and lifetime depressive episodes (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.13, P = 0.020). LIMITATIONS: The assessment of atypical features was not based on a validated rating scale. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that atypical depression is common in Chinese patients with MDD. MDD with atypical features may be more severe and debilitating than patients with non-atypical features.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idade de Início , China/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Feminino , Hospitais Psiquiátricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Ideação Suicida , Inquéritos e Questionários
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