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1.
Insect Sci ; 2021 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843147

RESUMO

Juvenile hormone (JH) absence induces photoperiod-mediated reproductive diapause, which is characterized by reproductive cessation. Although the role of methoprene-tolerant (Met)-mediated JH signaling in photoperiod-mediated female reproduction has been well documented, its role in male reproduction remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of JH in regulating photoperiod-mediated development of the male internal reproductive system (IRS) in the predatory ladybeetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas). In a previous study, we found that adult male H. axyridis reared under either a short-day (SD) or long-day (LD) photoperiod had obvious differences in IRS development, but we were unable to identify the regulators of male reproductive diapause. In this study, we found that beetles reared under an SD photoperiod had significantly lower JH titer and a relatively undeveloped male IRS compared with those reared under an LD photoperiod. Additionally, application of the JH analog (JHA) methoprene promoted IRS development. Furthermore, Met knockdown strongly blocked JH signaling in males reared under the LD photoperiod, thereby slowing IRS development. Moreover, exogenous JHA did not reverse the suppressed development of the male IRS caused by Met knockdown. These results indicate that photoperiod regulates male IRS development in H. axyridis through a conserved Met-dependent JH signaling pathway.

2.
Bioorg Chem ; 110: 104775, 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725509

RESUMO

The phytochemical investigation on the fruits of Clausena anisum-olens led to the isolation of 18 carbazole alkaloids (1-18), containing three new ones, clausenanisines A-C (1-3), and three new naturally occurring carbazole alkaloids, clausenanisines D-F (4-6), as well as 12 known analogues (7-18). The chemical structures of clausenanisines A-F (1-6) were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods. Notably, clausenanisine A (1) was a novel carbazole alkaloid with a unique five-membered cyclic ether, while clausenanisine E (5) is an unusual carbazole alkaloid owning an unprecedented naturally occurring carbon skeleton possessing 14 carbon atoms. The known carbazole alkaloids (7-18) were identified by the comparison of their spectral data with those data reported in the literature. All known carbazole alkaloids 7-18 were isolated from C. anisum-olens for the first time. Moreover, all isolated compounds 1-18 were assessed for their protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities in vitro. Compounds 1-18 exhibited remarkable PTP1B inhibitory activities with IC50 values in the range of 0.58 ± 0.05 to 38.48 ± 0.32 µM, meanwhile, compounds 1-18 displayed significant α-glucosidase inhibitory activities with IC50 values ranging from 3.28 ± 0.16 to 192.23 ± 0.78 µM. These research results imply that the separation and identification of these carbazole alkaloids showing notable PTP1B and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities from the fruits of C. anisum-olens can be very significant for discovering and developing new PTP1B inhibitors and α-glucosidase inhibitors for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

3.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; : 127898, 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684440

RESUMO

A series of target compounds 1,3-benzodioxole-based fibrate derivatives were designed and synthesized. All the target compounds were preliminarily evaluated by hyperlipidemia mice induced by Triton WR-1339, in which compound 12 displayed a greater anti-hyperlipidemia activity than other compounds as well as positive drug fenofibrate (FF). 12 showed a significant reduction of plasma lipids, such as triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterin (LDL-C), in high fat diet (HFD) induced hyperlipidemic mice. In addition, hepatic transaminases (AST and ALT) were ameliorated after administration of 12, in particular the AST, and the histopathological examination showed that 12 improved the hepatic lipid accumulation. The expression of PPAR-α involved in lipids metabolism was up-regulated in the liver tissues of 12-treated group. Other significant activity such as antioxidant, and anti-inflammation was confirmed and reinforced the effects of 12 as a potential hypolipidemia and hepatoprotective agent.

4.
PLoS Genet ; 17(2): e1009352, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529191

RESUMO

Diapause, a programmed developmental arrest primarily induced by seasonal environmental changes, is very common in the animal kingdom, and found in vertebrates and invertebrates alike. Diapause provides an adaptive advantage to animals, as it increases the odds of surviving adverse conditions. In insects, individuals perceive photoperiodic cues and modify endocrine signaling to direct reproductive diapause traits, such as ovary arrest and increased fat accumulation. However, it remains unclear as to which endocrine factors are involved in this process and how they regulate the onset of reproductive diapause. Here, we found that the long day-mediated drop in the concentration of the steroid hormone ecdysone is essential for the preparation of photoperiodic reproductive diapause in Colaphellus bowringi, an economically important cabbage beetle. The diapause-inducing long-day condition reduced the expression of ecdysone biosynthetic genes, explaining the drop in the titer of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E, the active form of ecdysone) in female adults. Application of exogenous 20E induced vitellogenesis and ovarian development but reduced fat accumulation in the diapause-destined females. Knocking down the ecdysone receptor (EcR) in females destined for reproduction blocked reproductive development and induced diapause traits. RNA-seq and hormone measurements indicated that 20E stimulates the production of juvenile hormone (JH), a key endocrine factor in reproductive diapause. To verify this, we depleted three ecdysone biosynthetic enzymes via RNAi, which confirmed that 20E is critical for JH biosynthesis and reproductive diapause. Importantly, impairing Met function, a component of the JH intracellular receptor, partially blocked the 20E-regulated reproductive diapause preparation, indicating that 20E regulates reproductive diapause in both JH-dependent and -independent manners. Finally, we found that 20E deficiency decreased ecdysis-triggering hormone signaling and reduced JH production, thereby inducing diapause. Together, these results suggest that 20E signaling is a pivotal regulator that coordinates reproductive plasticity in response to environmental inputs.

5.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e927624, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Traditional Chinese medicine has widely used Bolbostemma paniculatum to treat diseases, including cancer, but its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The present study aimed to elucidate the potential pharmacological mechanisms of "Tu Bei Mu" (TBM), the Chinese name for Bolbostemmatis Rhizoma, the dry tuber of B. paniculatum, for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). MATERIAL AND METHODS The active components and putative therapeutic targets of TBM were explored using SwissTargetPrediction, Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP), and Search Tool for Interactions of Chemicals (STITCH). The HCC-related target database was built using DrugBank, DisGeNet, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), and Therapeutic Target Database (TTD). A protein-protein interaction network of the common targets was constructed, based on the matches between TBM potential targets and HCC-related targets, using Cytoscape software. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses of the cluster networks were used to elucidate the biological functions of TBM. RESULTS Pharmacological network diagrams of the TBM compound-target network and HCC-related target network were successfully constructed. A total of 22 active components, 191 predicted biological targets of TBM, and 3775 HCC-related targets were identified. Through construction of an HCC-related target database and a protein-protein interaction network of the common targets, TBM was predicted to be effective in treating HCC mainly through the PI3K-Akt, HIF-1, p53, and PPAR signaling pathways. CONCLUSIONS The PI3K/Akt, HIF1, p53, and PPAR pathways may play vital roles in TBM treatment of HCC. Also, the potential anti-cancer effect of TBM on HCC appears to stem from the synergetic effect of multiple targets and mechanisms.

6.
Curr Neuropharmacol ; 19(3): 372-382, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33380302

RESUMO

Restless legs syndrome (RLS)/Willis-Ekbom disease is a neurologic disorder characterized by a strong desire to move when at rest (usually in the evening) and paraesthesia in their lower legs. The most widely used therapies for first-line treatment of RLS are dopaminergic drugs; however, their long-term use can lead to augmentation. α2δ Ligands, opioids, iron, glutamatergic drugs, adenosine, and sleep aids have been investigated as alternatives. The pathogenesis of RLS is not well understood. Despite the efficacy of dopaminergic drugs in the treatment of this disorder, unlike in Parkinson's disease dopaminergic cell loss in the substantia nigra has not been observed in RLS. The etiology of RLS is likely complex, involving multiple neural pathways. RLS-related genes identified in genome-wide association studies can provide insight into the mechanistic basis and pathophysiology of RLS. Here we review the current treatments and knowledge of the mechanisms underlying RLS.

7.
Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc ; 96(2): 642-672, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314677

RESUMO

During a long-duration manned spaceflight mission, such as flying to Mars and beyond, all crew members will spend a long period in an independent spacecraft with closed-loop bioregenerative life-support systems. Saving resources and reducing medical risks, particularly in mental heath, are key technology gaps hampering human expedition into deep space. In the 1960s, several scientists proposed that an induced state of suppressed metabolism in humans, which mimics 'hibernation', could be an ideal solution to cope with many issues during spaceflight. In recent years, with the introduction of specific methods, it is becoming more feasible to induce an artificial hibernation-like state (synthetic torpor) in non-hibernating species. Natural torpor is a fascinating, yet enigmatic, physiological process in which metabolic rate (MR), body core temperature (Tb ) and behavioural activity are reduced to save energy during harsh seasonal conditions. It employs a complex central neural network to orchestrate a homeostatic state of hypometabolism, hypothermia and hypoactivity in response to environmental challenges. The anatomical and functional connections within the central nervous system (CNS) lie at the heart of controlling synthetic torpor. Although progress has been made, the precise mechanisms underlying the active regulation of the torpor-arousal transition, and their profound influence on neural function and behaviour, which are critical concerns for safe and reversible human torpor, remain poorly understood. In this review, we place particular emphasis on elaborating the central nervous mechanism orchestrating the torpor-arousal transition in both non-flying hibernating mammals and non-hibernating species, and aim to provide translational insights into long-duration manned spaceflight. In addition, identifying difficulties and challenges ahead will underscore important concerns in engineering synthetic torpor in humans. We believe that synthetic torpor may not be the only option for manned long-duration spaceflight, but it is the most achievable solution in the foreseeable future. Translating the available knowledge from natural torpor research will not only benefit manned spaceflight, but also many clinical settings attempting to manipulate energy metabolism and neurobehavioural functions.

8.
Bioorg Chem ; 105: 104388, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130343

RESUMO

A phytochemical investigation on the stems and leaves of Wikstroemia chuii resulted in the isolation of three new daphnane diterpenes, wikstroechuins A-C (1-3), together with eight known analogues (4-11). The structures of new daphnane diterpenes (1-3) were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods and the known daphnane diterpenes (4-11) were identified by comparing their observable spectroscopic data with those reported spectral data in the literature. The anti-inflammatory effects as well as anti-HIV activities in vitro of all isolated daphnane diterpenes 1-11 were assessed. As a consequence, daphnane diterpenes 1-11 displayed remarkable inhibitory activities on NO (nitric oxide) production induced by lipopolysaccharide in mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells showing IC50 values in the range of 0.12 ± 0.03 to 10.58 ± 0.16 µM. Meanwhile, daphnane diterpenes 1-11 displayed significant anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) effects showing EC50 values ranging from 0.09509 to 8.62356 µM. These research results indicated that the discovery of these new daphnane diterpenes with remarkable anti-inflammatory and anti-HIV activities from W. chuii, especially these new ones, could be extremely meaningful to the discovery of new anti-inflammatory agents and anti-HIV drugs as well as their potential practical values in the health and pharmaceutical products.

9.
Stem Cell Res ; 49: 102050, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096383

RESUMO

Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line, THSJTUi001-A, was generated from a 26-year-old Chinese male patient with Wilson's disease carrying a homozygous Arg778Leu mutation in ATP7B gene, using non-integrated episomal reprogramming vectors. This cell line had normal karyotype, expressed pluripotency markers and could differentiate into the three germ layers in vivo.

10.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(13): 131806, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034473

RESUMO

The XENON1T collaboration has observed an excess in electronic recoil events below 5 keV over the known background, which could originate from beyond-the-standard-model physics. The solar axion is a well-motivated model that has been proposed to explain the excess, though it has tension with astrophysical observations. The axions traveling from the Sun can be absorbed by the electrons in the xenon atoms via the axion-electron coupling. Meanwhile, they can also scatter with the atoms through the inverse Primakoff process via the axion-photon coupling, which emits a photon and mimics the electronic recoil signals. We found that the latter process cannot be neglected. After including the keV photon produced via the inverse Primakoff process in the detection, the tension with the astrophysical constraints can be significantly reduced. We also explore scenarios involving additional new physics to further alleviate the tension with the astrophysical bounds.

11.
Front Neurosci ; 14: 573633, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041766

RESUMO

Background: Neuropathological studies have revealed copper and iron accumulation in the deep gray matter (DGM) nuclei of patients with Wilson's disease (WD). However, the association between metal accumulation and neurodegeneration in WD has not been well studied in vivo. The study was aimed to investigate whether metal accumulation in the DGM was associated with the structural and functional changes of DGM in neurological WD patients. Methods: Seventeen neurological WD patients and 20 healthy controls were recruited for the study. Mean bulk susceptibility values and volumes of DGM were obtained from quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). Regions of interest including the head of the caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen, thalamus, substantia nigra, red nucleus, and dentate nucleus were manually segmented. The susceptibility values and volumes of DGM in different groups were compared using a linear regression model. Correlations between susceptibility values and volumes of DGM and Unified Wilson's Disease Rating Scale (UWDRS) neurological subscores were investigated. Results: The susceptibility values of all examined DGM in WD patients were higher than those in healthy controls (P < 0.05). Volume reductions were observed in the head of the caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen, thalamus, and substantia nigra of WD patients (P < 0.001). Susceptibility values were negatively correlated with the volumes of the head of the caudate nucleus (r p = -0.657, P = 0.037), putamen (r p = -0.667, P = 0.037), and thalamus (r p = -0.613, P = 0.046) in WD patients. UWDRS neurological subscores were positively correlated with the susceptibility values of all examined DGM. The susceptibility values of putamen, head of the caudate nucleus, and dentate nucleus could well predict UWDRS neurological subscores. Conclusion: Our study provided in vivo evidence that paramagnetic metal accumulation in the DGM was associated with DGM atrophy and neurological impairment. The susceptibility of DGM could be used as a biomarker to assess the severity of neurodegeneration in WD.

13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(44): 12326-12335, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107299

RESUMO

Toona sinensis, popularly known as Chinese toon or Chinese mahogany, is a perennial deciduous arbor belonging to the genus Toona in the Meliaceae family, which is widely distributed and cultivated in eastern and southeastern Asia. Its fresh young leaves and buds have been consumed as a very popular nutritious vegetable in China and confirmed to display a wide variety of biological activities. To investigate the chemical constituents and their potential health benefits from the fresh young leaves and buds of T. sinensis, a phytochemical study on its fresh young leaves and buds was therefore undertaken. In our current investigation, 16 limonoids (1-16), including four new limonoids, toonasinenoids A-D (1-4), and a new naturally occurring limonoid, toonasinenoid E (5), were isolated and characterized from the fresh young leaves and buds of T. sinensis. The chemical structures and absolute configurations of limonoids 1-5 were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic data analyses. All known limonoids (6-16) were identified via comparing their experimental spectral data containing mass spectrometry data, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance data, and optical rotation values to the data reported in the literature. All known limonoids (6-16) were isolated from T. sinensis for the first time. Furthermore, the neuroprotective effects of all isolated limonoids 1-16 against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced cell death in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were assessed in vitro. Limonoids 1-16 exhibited notable neuroprotective activities, with EC50 values in the range from 0.27 ± 0.03 to 17.28 ± 0.16 µM. These results suggest that regular consumption of the fresh young leaves and buds of T. sinensis might prevent the occurrence and development of Parkinson's disease (PD). Moreover, the isolation and characterization of these limonoids that exhibit notable neuroprotective activities from the fresh young leaves and buds of T. sinensis could be very significant for researching and developing new neuroprotective drugs used for the prevention and treatment of PD.

14.
NPJ Parkinsons Dis ; 6: 25, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33015354

RESUMO

Sleep disorders are common non-motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The characteristics and impact of multiple comorbid sleep disorders remain to be elucidated. Our goal was to investigate the characteristics of various sleep disorder comorbidities, and their association with motor complications and the impact on the quality of life in PD patients. In this multicenter, observational, cross-sectional study, data concerning the clinical characteristics of complicated sleep disorders were collected from PD patients treated at 40 different hospitals in Shanghai. Sleep disorders were evaluated using the PD Sleep Scale-2, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Questionnaire-Hong Kong, and the International Restless Legs Scale. Among the 1006 subjects evaluated, 77.53% exhibited signs of sleep disorders, and most had multiple sleep disorders (n = 502, 49.9%). A smaller percentage of patients with sleep disorders had a single disorder (n = 278, 27.6%). Furthermore, an increased number of sleep disorders, including nighttime problems, excessive daytime sleepiness, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, and restless legs syndrome was a significant contributor to a poor quality of life (ß = 4.33, CI: 3.33-5.33, P for trend <0.001), even when controlling for multiple factors. Moreover, motor complications partially mediated this relationship (indirect effect: ß = 0.355, 95% boot CI: 0.134, 0.652).Our study showed that a large proportion of PD patients suffer from multiple comorbid sleep disorders, which greatly decreases the quality of life in PD patients and is partially mediated by motor complications.

15.
Pain Physician ; 23(5): E487-E496, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is one of the most intractable pain disorders and often does not respond to medication, physical, and interventional procedures. Coblation technology has been demonstrated to have potential for neuralgia, but there are rare reports of the efficacy and security of coblation for PHN. The thoracic segment is the most common predilection part of PHN, so we conducted this long-term study to investigate the results of coblation for the treatment of thoracic PHN. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and security of computed tomography (CT)-guided coblation of the thoracic nerve root for treatment of PHN. STUDY DESIGN: Self before-after controlled clinical assessment. SETTING: Department of Pain Management, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University. METHODS: Seventy-seven patients with thoracic PHN sustained for at least 6 months and refractory to conservative therapy were identified. Patients underwent CT-guided percutaneous coblation to ablate the thoracic nerve root for thoracic PHN. The therapeutic effects were evaluated using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS), medication doses, and pain-related quality of life (QoL) scale before coblation, and at 1 week, and at 1, 3, and 6 months after the procedure. Patients who achieved more than 50% pain relief were defined as responders. In addition, adverse effects were also recorded to investigate the security of this procedure. RESULTS: The VAS score significantly decreased from 7.22 ± 1.15 before the coblation to 3.51 ± 1.12 (P = 0.01), 3.02 ± 1.21 (P = 0.006), 3.11 ± 2.15 (P = 0.014), and 2.98 ± 2.35 (P = 0.008) at 1 week, and at 1, 3, and 6 months after the procedure, respectively. The number of responders were 56 (77.78%), 54 (75%), 55 (76.39%), and 54 (75%) at 1 week, and at 1, 3, and 6 months after the procedure, respectively. The doses of anticonvulsants and analgesics were decreased significantly at all time points after the procedure compared with before treatment (P < 0.05). Patient responses on the Brief Pain Inventory Short Form indicated mean scores that were significantly lower than baseline across all domains of pain interference with QoL at all evaluations (P = 0.001). Most of the patients had mild numbness and it did not affect the daily activities after the procedure. No other severe adverse events occurred during or after the procedure. LIMITATIONS: A single-center study, relatively small number of patients, short duration of review of medical record, and the retrospective study. CONCLUSIONS: CT-guided percutaneous thoracic nerve root coblation is an effective and safe method for the treatment of thoracic PHN, and the procedure can also significantly improve the QoL in patients with PHN.

16.
Front Neurol ; 11: 838, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903360

RESUMO

Background: The sequence effect (SE), referring to step-to-step reduction in amplitude, is considered to lead to freezing of gait (FOG) in Parkinson's disease (PD). Visual cues may alleviate SE and help reduce freezing episodes. FOG patients show significant SE prior to turning or toward a doorway, but the SE toward a destination has not been clearly studied. Objectives: To examine the SE when approaching a destination in PD patients with FOG, and to further explore the effects of different types of visual cues on destination SE. Methods: Thirty-five PD patients were divided into a freezing (PD+FOG, n = 15) group and a non-freezing (PD-FOG, n = 20) group. Walking trials were tested under three conditions, including without cues (no-cue condition), with wearable laser lights (laser condition), and with transverse strips placed on the floor (strip condition). Kinematic data was recorded by a portable Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) system. The destination SE and some key gait parameters were evaluated. Results: The PD+FOG group showed greater destination SE in the no-cue and laser conditions when compared to the PD-FOG group. There were no significant differences in the strip condition when comparing destination SE of the two groups. The destination SE was alleviated only by using the transverse strips on the floor. In contrast, transverse strips and wearable laser lights could increase the step length. Conclusions: The significant destination SE may explain why FOG patients are prone to freezing when heading toward their destination. Visual cues using transverse strips on the floor may be a more effective strategy for FOG rehabilitation in PD patients.

17.
Insects ; 11(6)2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512728

RESUMO

Riptortus pedestris (Heteroptera: Alydidae), an important crop pest, is capable of entering reproductive adult diapause under short-day photoperiods. Though the physiological aspects of adult diapause have been well studied in this species, little is known about its morphological development. In the present study, the adult females are discriminated as prediapause and prereproductive based on the absence and presence of mature oocytes in ovarioles, respectively. We also measured the morphological development of vitellarium and lateral oviduct in females, and the accessory gland, ejaculatory duct, and testes in males of both prereproductive and prediapause adults. Our results revealed that there is a clear significant difference in the reproductive development of prediapause and prereproductive insects. Moreover, the internal morphology of reproductive organs was suppressed in prediapausebugs compared to prereproductive bugs, and the insects developedthe reproductive parts as newly emerged adults. The above findings provide basic knowledge on the characterization of diapause and reproductive R. pedestris adults, which would be applicable to molecular investigations.

18.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 30(15): 127277, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527456

RESUMO

Nitric oxide (NO) dysfunction, oxidative stress, and dyslipidemia are main risk factors associated with the pathophysiology of diabetic complications. In this study, 3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl nitrate (HT-ONO2) was designed, synthesized and evaluated, which incorporated hydroxytyrosol (HT) and nitrate. HT-ONO2 significantly exhibited hypoglycemic activity after oral administration to diabetic mice induced by streptozocin (STZ). HT-ONO2 also potently decreased plasma triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) in hyperlipidemia mice induced by Triton WR 1339. Meanwhile, HT-ONO2 displayed NO-releasing and antioxidant activity both in diabetic and hyperlipidemia mice and in vitro. Moreover, HT-ONO2 shown definite vasodilation and α-glucosidase inhibition activity in vitro. The results suggested that the hybrid hydroxytyrosol-based nitrate with NO supplement, antioxidant, hypoglycemia and hypolipidemia provided a potential multi-target agent to ameliorate the diabetes mellitus and its complications.

19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(21): e20417, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pressure ulcers (PU) bring a considerable physical and mental burden on patients and their families, and have put families and government under tremendous pressure to cover the cost for treatment. Therefore, this protocol proposes to evaluate the quality of existing PU clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) and compare the similarities and differences between its recommendations in order to improve the treatment efficacy and reduce the PU treatment cost. METHODS: Electronic databases and specific databases of CPGs will be searched. Study selection and data collection will be performed independently by two reviewers. The Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation II (AGREE II) Instrument and Reporting Items for Practice Guidelines in Healthcare (RIGHT) will be used to assess the methodological quality and reporting quality of included CPGs. Bubble plot will be used to describe the difference of the quality, and mind mapping will be plotted to illustrate the comparison of recommendations of a guideline when needed. R software, MindMaster and Excel will be used. RESULTS: The results of this study will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal for publication. CONCLUSION: This systematic review will provide comprehensive evidence of CPGs of PU. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020149176.


Assuntos
Guias como Assunto , Lesão por Pressão/terapia , Protocolos Clínicos , Consenso , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Lesão por Pressão/complicações , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Curr Neuropharmacol ; 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32351182

RESUMO

Wilson's disease (WD) is an inherited disease caused by mutations in ATP7B and is characterized by the pathological accumulation of copper in the liver and brain. Common clinical manifestations of WD include a wide range of liver disease and neurological symptoms. In some patients, psychiatric symptom may be the only manifestation at the time of diagnosis. The clinical features of WD are highly variable and can mimic any disease of the internal medicine. Therefore, for unexplained medical diseases, the possibility of WD should not be ignored. Early diagnosis and treatment can improve the prognosis of WD patients and reduce disability and early death. Gene sequencing is becoming a valuable method to diagnose WD, and if possible, all WD patients and their siblings should be genetically sequenced. Copper chelators including Dpenicillamine, trientine, and dimercaptosuccinic acid can significantly improve the liver injury and symptoms of WD patients, but may have limited effect on neurological symptoms. Zinc salts may be more appropriate for the treatment of asymptomatic patients or for the maintenance treatment of symptomatic patients. High-quality clinical trials for the drug treatment of WD are still lacking, therefore, individualized treatment options for patients are recommended. Individualized treatment can be determined based on the clinical features of the WD patients, efficacy and adverse effects of the drugs, and the experience of the physician. Liver transplantation is the only effective method to save patients with acute liver failure or with severe liver disease who fail drug treatment.

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