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2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(14): 147401, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34652196

RESUMO

Symmetries play a major role in identifying topological phases of matter and in establishing a direct connection between protected edge states and topological bulk invariants via the bulk-boundary correspondence. One-dimensional lattices are deemed to be protected by chiral symmetry, exhibiting quantized Zak phases and protected edge states, but not for all cases. Here, we experimentally realize an extended Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model with broken chiral symmetry by engineering one-dimensional zigzag photonic lattices, where the long-range hopping breaks chiral symmetry but ensures the existence of inversion symmetry. By the averaged mean displacement method, we detect topological invariants directly in the bulk through the continuous-time quantum walk of photons. Our results demonstrate that inversion symmetry protects the quantized Zak phase but edge states can disappear in the topological nontrivial phase, thus breaking the conventional bulk-boundary correspondence. Our photonic lattice provides a useful platform to study the interplay among topological phases, symmetries, and the bulk-boundary correspondence.

3.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(11): 982, 2021 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686657

RESUMO

Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are indispensable components in foam cell formation in atherosclerosis. However, the mechanism behind foam cell formation of VSMCs has not been addressed. We found a potential association between deletion of smooth muscle (SM) 22α and deregulated nuclear receptors liver X receptors (LXRs)/retinoid X receptor (RXR) signaling in mice. Here, we investigated the roles of SM22α in LXRα-modulated cholesterol homeostasis, and explore possible mechanisms underlying this process. We identified that the depletion of SM22α was a primary event driving VSMC cholesterol accumulation and the development of atherosclerosis in mice. Proteomic and lipidomic analysis validated that downregulation of SM22α was correlated with reduced expression of LXRα and ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCA) 1 and increased cholesteryl ester in phenotypically modulated VSMCs induced by platelets-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB. Notably, LXRα was mainly distributed in the cytoplasm rather than the nucleus in the neointimal and Sm22α-/- VSMCs. Loss of SM22α inhibited the nuclear import of LXRα and reduced ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux via promoting depolymerization of actin stress fibers. Affinity purification and mass spectrometry (AP-MS) analysis, co-immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assays, confocal microscopy, and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) revealed that globular-actin (G-actin), monomeric actin, interacted with and retained LXRα in the cytoplasm in PDGF-BB-treated and Sm22α-/- VSMCs. This interaction blocked LXRα binding to Importin α, a karyopherin that mediates the trafficking of macromolecules across the nuclear envelope, and the resulting reduction of LXRα transcriptional activity. Increasing SM22α expression restored nuclear localization of LXRα and removed cholesterol accumulation via inducing actin polymerization, ameliorating atherosclerosis. Our findings highlight that LXRα is a mechanosensitive nuclear receptor and that the nuclear import of LXRα maintained by the SM22α-actin axis is a potential target for blockade of VSMC foam cell formation and development of anti-atherosclerosis.

4.
Macromol Biosci ; 21(11): e2100189, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486230

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture using hydrogel scaffolds can closely resemble the natural extracellular matrix (ECM), which offers appropriate mechanical support for cells and regulates cellular behavior. In this study, a bacterial transpeptidase sortase A (SA) is used to prepare enzymatically cross-linked methacrylated hyaluronic acid (HA) peptides (HAMA-P) hydrogel, which reveals fast gel kinetics under high SA cross-linking concentrations and can be used as an injection hydrogel for tissue repair or extrusive 3D bioprinting. Furthermore, methacrylated gelatin (GelMA) is introduced to build the hybrid hydrogel (HAMA-P-GelMA) with double cross-linking of enzyme-UV, which has shown proper physical properties (mechanical properties, swelling, degradation rate, etc.) of the hydrogel matrix, and displayed desirable effects on cell viability, adhesion, and cell spreading, when compared to GelMA or HAMA-P single-network hydrogels. The HAMA-P-GelMA hybrid hydrogels provide a favorable 3D milieu for cell growth and can be used as a 3D bio-ink or a carrier of stem cells/cytokines for injectable tissue repair and filling.

5.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359870

RESUMO

Begomoviruses cause substantial losses to agricultural production, especially in tropical and subtropical regions, and are exclusively transmitted by members of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci species complex. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the transmission of begomoviruses by their whitefly vector are not clear. In this study, we found that B. tabaci vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (BtVAMP2) interacts with the coat protein (CP) of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), an emergent begomovirus that seriously impacts tomato production globally. After infection with TYLCV, the transcription of BtVAMP2 was increased. When the BtVAMP2 protein was blocked by feeding with a specific BtVAMP2 antibody, the quantity of TYLCV in B. tabaci whole body was significantly reduced. BtVAMP2 was found to be conserved among the B. tabaci species complex and also interacts with the CP of Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus (SLCMV). When feeding with BtVAMP2 antibody, the acquisition quantity of SLCMV in whitefly whole body was also decreased significantly. Overall, our results demonstrate that BtVAMP2 interacts with the CP of begomoviruses and promotes their acquisition by whitefly.


Assuntos
Begomovirus/fisiologia , Hemípteros/metabolismo , Hemípteros/virologia , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Proteína 2 Associada à Membrana da Vesícula/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/metabolismo , Proteínas do Capsídeo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Ligação Proteica , Transcrição Genética , Proteína 2 Associada à Membrana da Vesícula/química
6.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299452

RESUMO

In recent decades, demands for novel insecticides against mosquitoes are soaring, yet candidate chemicals with desirable properties are limited. Kathon is a broad-spectrum isothiazolinone microbicide, but other applications remain uncharacterized. First, we treated larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes albopictus, two major mosquito vectors of human viral diseases, with Kathon at 15 mg/L (a concentration considered safe in cosmetic and body care products), and at lower concentrations, and found that Kathon treatment resulted in high mortality of larvae. Second, sublethal concentration of Kathon can cause significantly prolonged larval development of C. quinquefasciatus. Third, we explored the effects of two constituents of Kathon, chloromethylisothiazolinone (CMIT) and methylisothiazolinone (MIT), on the survival of larvae, and found that CMIT was the major toxic component. Further, we explored the mechanisms of action of Kathon against insect cells and found that Kathon reduces cell viability and adenosine triphosphate production but promotes the release of lactate dehydrogenase in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells. Our results indicate that Kathon is highly toxic to mosquito larvae, and we highlight its potential in the development of new larvicides for mosquito control.


Assuntos
Culicidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiazóis/química , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anopheles/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Culex/efeitos dos fármacos , Culicidae/metabolismo , Inseticidas/química , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores
8.
mSystems ; 6(3): e0058121, 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100642

RESUMO

Many viral pathogens of global importance to plant and animal health are persistently transmitted by insect vectors. Midgut of insects forms the first major barrier that these viruses encounter during their entry into the vectors. However, the vector ligand(s) involved in the movement of plant viruses across the midgut barrier remains largely uncharacterized. Begomoviruses, many of which are disease agents of some major crops worldwide, are persistently transmitted by whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci). Here, in order to identify whitefly midgut proteins that interact with a devastating begomovirus, tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), we performed midgut-specific TYLCV coat protein (CP) immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput mass spectrometry proteomic analysis. We find that vitellogenin (Vg), a critical insect reproductive protein that has been considered to be synthesized by the fat body, is also synthesized by and interacts with TYLCV CP in the whitefly midgut. TYLCV appears to be internalized into midgut epithelial cells as a complex with Vg through endocytosis. Virus-containing vesicles then deliver the virus-Vg complexes to early endosomes for intracellular transport. Systematic silencing of Vg or midgut-specific immune blocking of Vg inhibited virus movement across the midgut wall and decreased viral acquisition and transmission by whitefly. Our findings show that a functional Vg protein is synthesized in the midgut of an insect and suggest a novel Vg mechanism that facilitates virus movement across the midgut barrier of its insect vector. IMPORTANCE An essential step in the life cycle of many viruses is transmission to a new host by insect vectors, and one critical step in the transmission of persistently transmitted viruses is overcoming the midgut barrier to enter vectors and complete their cycle. Most viruses enter vector midgut epithelial cells via specific interaction between viral structural proteins and vector cell surface receptor complexes. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is persistently transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci between host plants. Here, we find that TYLCV coat protein interacts with vitellogenin (Vg) in the whitefly midgut. This interaction is required for the movement of the virus crossing the midgut wall and thus facilitates viral acquisition and transmission by whitefly. This study reveals a novel mechanism of virus overcoming the insect midgut barrier and provides new insights into the function of Vg beyond serving as nutrition for developing embryos in insects.

9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(20): e26040, 2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumor-specific DNA methylation can potentially be a useful indicator in cancer diagnostics and monitoring. Sarcomas comprise a heterogeneous group of mesenchymal neoplasms which cause life-threatening tumors occurring throughout the body. Therefore, potential molecular detection and prognostic evaluation is very important for early diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study analyzing DNA methylation of 261 patients with sarcoma from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Cox regression analyses were conducted to identify a signature associated with the overall survival (OS) of patients with sarcoma, which was validated in a validation dataset. RESULTS: Three DNA methylation signatures were identified to be significantly associated with OS. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the 3-DNA methylation signature could significantly distinguish the high- and low-risk patients in both training (first two-thirds) and validation datasets (remaining one-third). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis confirmed that the 3-DNA methylation signature exhibited high sensitivity and specificity in predicting OS of patients. Also, the Kaplan-Meier analysis and the area under curve (AUC) values indicated that the 3-DNA methylation signature was independent of clinical characteristics, including age at diagnosis, sex, anatomic location, tumor residual classification, and histological subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: The current study showed that the 3-DNA methylation model could efficiently function as a novel and independent prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for patients with sarcoma.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Sarcoma/diagnóstico , Sarcoma/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarcoma/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
10.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 258: 119790, 2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946015

RESUMO

Tropospheric aerosols are usually complex mixtures of inorganic and organic components, which show non-ideal behavior in hygroscopicity, mass transfer, and partitioning between gas and aerosols. In this study, we applied a novel approach based on a combination of a pulse RH controlling system and a rapid scan vacuum FTIR spectrometer to investigate the mass transfer limit of magnesium sulfate/glutaric acid (GA) mixture aerosol particles. The liquid water band area of the aerosols is used to reveal the mass transfer limit during the rapid pulse RH downward and upward processes. Partitioning equilibrium between the aerosol particles and water gas phase is observed at the higher RH range (73-50%). When the RH is lower than 40%, there is a hysteresis for the liquid water content changing with the RH, indicating the limited water mass transfer in the aerosols.

11.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(4)2021 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805320

RESUMO

Alkaline phosphatases (ALPs: EC 3.1.3.1) are ubiquitous enzymes and play crucial roles in the fundamental phosphate uptake and secretory processes. Although insects are regarded as the most diverse group of organisms, the current understanding of ALP roles in insects is limited. As one type of destructive agricultural pest, whitefly Bemisia tabaci, a phloem feeder and invasive species, can cause extensive crop damage through feeding and transmitting plant diseases. In this study, we retrieved five ALP genes in MEAM1 whitefly, nine ALP genes in MED whitefly via comparative genomics approaches. Compared with nine other insects, whiteflies' ALP gene family members did not undergo significant expansion during insect evolution, and whiteflies' ALP genes were dispersed. Moreover, whiteflies' ALP gene family was conserved among insects and emerged before speciation via phylogenetic analysis. Whiteflies' ALP gene expression profiles presented that most ALP genes have different expression patterns after feeding on cotton or tobacco plants. Female/male MED whiteflies possessed higher ALP activities on both cotton and tobacco plants irrespective of sex, relative to MEAM1 whiteflies. Meanwhile, adult MED whiteflies possessed higher ALP activity in both whole insect and salivary samples, relative to MEAM1 whiteflies. We also found that both MED and MEAM1 whiteflies could upregulate ALP activities after feeding on cotton compared with feeding on tobacco plants. These findings demonstrated the functions of whiteflies ALPs and will assist the further study of the genomic evolution of insect ALPs.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Gossypium/parasitologia , Hemípteros/fisiologia , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Tabaco/parasitologia , Fosfatase Alcalina/genética , Animais , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Hemípteros/enzimologia , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Masculino
12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(11): 110501, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798380

RESUMO

Quantum computation promises intrinsically parallel information processing capacity by harnessing the superposition and entanglement of quantum states. However, it is still challenging to realize universal quantum computation due that the reliability and scalability are limited by unavoidable noises on qubits. Nontrivial topological properties like quantum Hall phases are found capable of offering protection, but require stringent conditions of topological band gaps and broken time-reversal symmetry. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a symmetry-induced error filtering scheme, showing a more general role of geometry in protection mechanism and applications. We encode qubits in a superposition of two spatial modes on a photonic Lieb lattice. The geometric symmetry endows the system with topological properties featuring a flat band touching, leading to distinctive transmission behaviors of π-phase qubits and 0-phase qubits. The geometry exhibits a significant effect on filtering phase errors, which also enables it to monitor phase deviations in real time. The symmetry-induced error filtering can be a key element for encoding and protecting quantum states, suggesting an emerging field of symmetry-protected universal quantum computation and noisy intermediate-scale quantum technologies.

13.
Opt Lett ; 46(7): 1584-1587, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793493

RESUMO

The inevitable noise and decoherence in the quantum circuit hinder its scalable development, so quantum error correction and quantumness protection for multiple controllable qubits system are necessary. The flatband in the dispersion relation, based on its inherent locality and high degenerate energy band structure, shows non-diffractive transport properties in the line spectrum and has the potential possibility to protect quantum resources in special lattices. The pioneer work has proved that the topologically boundary state is robust to protect the quantumness from disorder and perturbation, which inspires that quantumness can be protected anywhere in a periodic structure, including the boundary state and bulk state. Here, we show the topological protection of quantum resources with different state combinations in a sawtooth lattice. Photons can be localized at any degenerate eigenmode, and the localized effect is determined by only one parameter, without additional modulations. We show a high violation of Cauchy-Schwarz inequality up to 35 standard deviations by measuring cross correlation and auto-correlation of correlated photons. We verify that the topological protection is robust to different wavelengths of correlated photons. Our results suggest an alternative way of exploring topological protection in flatband and bulk state, demonstrating the powerful ability of topological photonics to protect quantum resources.

14.
J Drug Target ; 29(6): 576-591, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554661

RESUMO

Mitophagy is a selective form of macroautophagy in which dysfunctional and damaged mitochondria can be efficiently degraded, removed and recycled through autophagy. Selective removal of damaged or fragmented mitochondria is critical to the functional integrity of the entire mitochondrial network and cells. In past decades, numerous studies have shown that mitophagy is involved in various diseases; however, since the dual role of mitophagy in tumour development, mitophagy role in tumour is controversial, and further elucidation is needed. That is, although mitophagy has been demonstrated to contribute to carcinogenesis, cell migration, ferroptosis inhibition, cancer stemness maintenance, tumour immune escape, drug resistance, etc. during cancer progression, many research also shows that to promote cancer cell death, mitophagy can be induced physiologically or pharmacologically to maintain normal cellular metabolism and prevent cell stress responses and genome damage by diminishing mitochondrial damage, thus suppressing tumour development accompanying these changes. Signalling pathway-specific molecular mechanisms are currently of great biological significance in the identification of potential therapeutic targets. Here, we review recent progress of molecular pathways mediating mitophagy including both canonical pathways (Parkin/PINK1- and FUNDC1-mediated mitophagy) and noncanonical pathways (FKBP8-, Nrf2-, and DRP1-mediated mitophagy); and the regulation of these pathways, and abovementioned pro-cancer and pro-death roles of mitophagy. Finally, we summarise the role of mitophagy in cancer therapy. Mitophagy can potentially be acted as the target for cancer therapy by promotion or inhibition.

15.
Microorganisms ; 9(2)2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540621

RESUMO

Cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMuV) is one of the major casual agents of cotton leaf curl disease. Previous studies show that two indigenous whitefly species of the Bemisia tabaci complex, Asia II 1 and Asia II 7, are able to transmit CLCuMuV, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the transmission are poorly known. In this study, we attempted to identify the whitefly proteins involved in CLCuMuV transmission. First, using a yeast two-hybrid system, we identified 54 candidate proteins of Asia II 1 that putatively can interact with the coat protein of CLCuMuV. Second, we examined interactions between the CLCuMuV coat protein and several whitefly proteins, including vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein (Vps) twenty associated 1 (Vta1). Third, using RNA interference, we found that Vta1 positively regulated CLCuMuV acquisition and transmission by the Asia II 1 whitefly. In addition, we showed that the interaction between the CLCuMuV coat protein and Vta1 from the whitefly Middle East-Asia Minor (MEAM1), a poor vector of CLCuMuV, was much weaker than that between Asia II 1 Vta1 and the CLCuMuV coat protein. Silencing of Vta1 in MEAM1 did not affect the quantity of CLCuMuV acquired by the whitefly. Taken together, our results suggest that Vta1 may play an important role in the transmission of CLCuMuV by the whitefly.

16.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(6): 716-724, 2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a fundamental factor in metabolic disorders such as hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, fatty liver, and atherosclerosis. However, effective preventive measures are still lacking. This study aimed to investigate different surgical protocols for removing partial adipose tissue before the onset of obesity and determine whether, and by which protocol, preliminary adipose removal could exert potent preventive effects against diet-induced metabolic disorders. METHODS: Male low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) knockout (KO) mice were randomly divided into four groups and subjected to epididymal fat removal (Epi-FR) surgery, subcutaneous fat removal (suQ-FR) surgery, both subcutaneous and epididymal fat removal (Epi + suQ-FR) surgery, or sham-operation. After 1 week of recovery, all mice were given a high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks to induce metabolic disorders. RESULTS: In the Epi-FR group and the sham-operated group, the mean numbers of the residual subcutaneous fat were 28.59 mg/g and 18.56 mg/g, respectively. The expression of relative genes such as Pparg, Cebpa, Dgat2, Fabp4 and Cd36 in the residual subcutaneous fat increased 2.62, 3.90, 3.11, 2.06, 1.78 times in the Epi-FR group compared with that in the sham-operated group. Whereas in the other fat-removal groups, the residual fat depots had no significant change in either size or gene expression, as compared with those of the sham-operated group. Plasma lipid and glucose levels and insulin sensitivity, as detected by the glucose tolerance test, were not significantly alleviated in the three fat removal groups. Liver mass or lipid content was not attenuated in any of the three fat removal groups. The atherosclerosis burdens in the entire inner aorta and aortic root did not decrease in any of the three fat removal groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that removal of epididymal adipose or subcutaneous adipose alone or in combination before the onset of obesity did not protect against hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, fatty liver, or atherosclerosis in LDL-R KO mice fed with a HFD. Hence, adipose removal possibly does not represent a potential approach in preventing obesity-related metabolic disorders in the obesity-susceptible population.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Resistência à Insulina , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fígado , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade , Gordura Subcutânea
17.
Annu Rev Entomol ; 66: 389-405, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931313

RESUMO

Of the approximately 1,200 plant virus species that have been described to date, nearly one-third are single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses, and all are transmitted by insect vectors. However, most studies of vector transmission of plant viruses have focused on RNA viruses. All known plant ssDNA viruses belong to two economically important families, Geminiviridae and Nanoviridae, and in recent years, there have been increased efforts to understand whether they have evolved similar relationships with their respective insect vectors. This review describes the current understanding of ssDNA virus-vector interactions, including how these viruses cross insect vector cellular barriers, the responses of vectors to virus circulation, the possible existence of viral replication within insect vectors, and the three-way virus-vector-plant interactions. Despite recent breakthroughs in our understanding of these viruses, many aspects of plant ssDNA virus transmission remain elusive. More effort is needed to identify insect proteins that mediate the transmission of plant ssDNA viruses and to understand the complex virus-insect-plant three-way interactions in the field during natural infection.


Assuntos
DNA de Cadeia Simples , Geminiviridae , Insetos Vetores , Insetos , Nanoviridae , Animais , Plantas/virologia
18.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(12): e1009053, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270808

RESUMO

Many circulative plant viruses transmitted by insect vectors are devastating to agriculture worldwide. The midgut wall of vector insects represents a major barrier and at the same time the key gate a circulative plant virus must cross for productive transmission. However, how these viruses enter insect midgut cells remains poorly understood. Here, we identified an endocytic receptor complex for begomoviruses in the midgut cells of their whitefly vector. Our results show that two whitefly proteins, BtCUBN and BtAMN, compose a receptor complex BtCubam, for which BtCUBN contributes a viral-binding region and BtAMN contributes to membrane anchorage. Begomoviruses appear to be internalized together with BtCubam via its interaction with the 12-19 CUB domains of BtCUBN via clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Functional analysis indicates that interruption of BtCUBN and BtAMN lead to reduction of virus acquisition and transmission by whitefly. In contrast, CUBN-begomovirus interaction was not observed in two non-competent whitefly-begomovirus combinations. These observations suggest a major role of the specific endocytic receptor in facilitating viral entry into vector midgut cells.


Assuntos
Begomovirus/metabolismo , Hemípteros/virologia , Animais , Begomovirus/patogenicidade , Proteínas do Capsídeo/metabolismo , Sistema Digestório/metabolismo , Sistema Digestório/virologia , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Endocitose/fisiologia , Hemípteros/metabolismo , Insetos Vetores/metabolismo , Insetos Vetores/virologia , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Vírus de Plantas , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Vírion/metabolismo
19.
Cancer Manag Res ; 12: 10397-10409, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116894

RESUMO

Introduction: Pyroptosis induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a dissolved form of cell death. The molecular marker gasdermin D, specifically GSDMD-N, is critically required for the induction of pyroptosis. Recently, there have been studies showing that LPS is closely related to tumor biology. Methods: Specimens from 40 patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) were collected. Eight- to twelve-week-old C57BL6 male mice (n=30) were raised. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were performed to test the expression of GSDMD. Moreover, cytotoxicity assay, IL-18 and IL-1ß ELISA, Annexin V and PI stain, and wound healing assay were also made. Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA) was used to verify the expression of GSDMD and overall survival of CRC patients with a high/low expression of GSDMD. Results: In the research, we showed that the poor prognosis in CRC patients was significantly related to the GSDMD expression and significantly down-regulated in human colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues. Treatment with LPS, but not TNF-α, induced pyroptosis via promoting the expression of GSDMD and GSDMD-N membrane translocation and enhanced chemosensitivity in response to L-OHP in HT29 cells. Furthermore, the enforced expression of GSDMD in HT29 cells reduced cell survival and induced cell death. Discussion: These results of studies suggest that the low expression of GSDMD correlates with a poor CRC prognosis, and that pyroptosis induced by LPS may improve the anti-cancer effect of L-OHP, inhibiting the tumorigenesis of CRC by activating GSDMD. Our findings lay the foundation for further development of GSDMD serving as an important prognostic biomarker and a valid CRC therapeutic target.

20.
mSystems ; 5(5)2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963100

RESUMO

Apoptosis is generally considered the first line of defense against viral infection. However, the role of apoptosis in the interactions between plant viruses and their insect vectors has rarely been investigated. By studying plant DNA viruses of the genus Begomovirus within the family Geminiviridae, which are transmitted by whiteflies of the Bemisia tabaci species complex in a persistent manner, we revealed that virus-induced apoptosis in insect vectors can facilitate viral accumulation and transmission. We found that infection with tomato yellow leaf curl virus activated the apoptosis pathway in B. tabaci Suppressing apoptosis by inhibitors or silencing caspase-3 significantly reduced viral accumulation, while the activation of apoptosis increased viral accumulation in vivo Moreover, the positive effect of whitefly apoptosis on virus accumulation and transmission was not due to its cross talk with the autophagy pathway that suppresses begomovirus infection in whiteflies. We further showed that viral replication, rather than the viral coat protein, is likely the critical factor in the activation of apoptosis by the virus. These novel findings indicate that similarly to many animal and a few plant RNA viruses, plant DNA viruses may activate apoptosis in their insect vectors leading to enhanced viral accumulation and transmission.IMPORTANCE Of the approximately 1,100 known plant viruses, about one-third are DNA viruses that are vectored by insects. Plant virus infections often induce cellular and molecular responses in their insect vectors, which can, in many cases, affect the spread of viruses. However, the mechanisms underlying vector responses that affect virus accumulation and transmission are poorly understood. Here, we examined the role of virus-induced apoptosis in the transmission of begomoviruses, a group of single-stranded plant DNA viruses that are transmitted by whiteflies and cause extensive damage to many crops worldwide. We demonstrated that virus infection can induce apoptosis in the insect vector conferring protection to the virions from degradation, leading to enhanced viral accumulation and transmission to host plants. Our findings provide valuable clues for designing new strategies to block the transmission of insect-vectored plant viruses, particularly plant DNA viruses.

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