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1.
J Anim Ecol ; 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329064

RESUMO

In sexually reproducing animals, the process of mate choice by females is often mixed with the process of male-male competition. Current models of female male choice focus mainly on how females identify the higher quality of males, but neglect the effect of male-male competition on the mate choice of females. Therefore, it remains controversial what is the relative importance of two processes in forming a social bond. We propose a new 'trial marriage' model for females' mate choice. The model assumes that females unconditionally accept any male they first encounter as their mating partner, and then conditionally switch mates to a new male of higher quality than their current partner when male-male competition occurs. This model was tested in the green weevil Hypomeces squamosus by exploring how females switched mates when males' mating interference was experimentally induced. The likelihood that females switched mates, as well as their conditional acceptance criteria of a new mate, was both raised with the intensity of males' mating interference that was manipulated in an enhanced encounter rate experiment, and in male introduction or stepwise removal experiments. These experimental findings confirm that a 'trial marriage' strategy occurs during females' mate choice. Compared with other strategies, it is more beneficial for females to choose a better mate without paying the costs of identifying males as suggested by the 'trial marriage' strategy. More importantly, using the current partner quality as the conditional acceptance threshold of new mates, females can choose better males in future encounters with potential mates. In the green weevils, males' preference for larger females and the higher possibility of the largest male winning an interference are mixed together when males' mating interference reaches a higher intensity. Therefore, the consequence of a male interference will determine which male could be chosen by a female. Under this condition, conditional acceptance of the winner becomes the most beneficial strategy of females in choosing their mates. We thus suggest that the 'trial marriage' strategy would be more efficient when males' mating interference becomes the determinant factor of females' mate choice.

2.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 592, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eimeria tenella is a highly pathogenic coccidian that causes avian coccidiosis. Both nitromezuril (NZL) and ethanamizuril (EZL) are novel triazine compounds with high anticoccidial activity, but the mechanisms of their action are still unclear. This study explored the response of E. tenella to NZL and EZL by the study of changes in protein composition of the second-generation merozoites. METHODS: Label-free quantification (LFQ) proteomics of the second-generation merozoites of E. tenella following NZL and EZL treatment were studied by LC-MS/MS to explore the mechanisms of action. The identified proteins were annotated and analyzed by Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks analysis. RESULTS: A total of 1430 proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS, of which 375 were considered as differential proteins in response to drug treatment (DPs). There were 26 only found in the NZL treatment group (N-group), 63 exclusive to the EZL treatment group (E-group), and 80 proteins were present in both drug groups. In addition, among the DPs, the abundant proteins with significantly altered expression in response to drug treatment (SDPs) were found compared with the C-group, of which 49 were upregulated and 51 were downregulated in the N-group, and 66 upregulated and 79 downregulated in the E-group. Many upregulated proteins after drug treatment were involved in transcription and protein metabolism, and surface antigen proteins (SAGs) were among the largest proportion of the downregulated SDPs. Results showed the top two enriched GO terms and the top one enriched pathway treated with EZL and NZL were related, which indicated that these two compounds had similar modes of action. CONCLUSIONS: LFQ proteomic analysis is a feasible method for screening drug-related proteins. Drug treatment affected transcription and protein metabolism, and SAGs were also affected significantly. This study provided new insights into the effects of triazine anticoccidials against E. tenella.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Coccidiostáticos/administração & dosagem , Eimeria tenella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Merozoítos/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Protozoários/química , Triazinas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Galinhas , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Eimeria tenella/efeitos dos fármacos , Eimeria tenella/genética , Eimeria tenella/metabolismo , Merozoítos/genética , Merozoítos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Merozoítos/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Proteômica , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
3.
Brain Behav ; 9(9): e01369, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397082

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Interleukin-33, a newly identified member of interleukin-1 family, had been confirmed to play a crucial role in regulating inflammatory responses in various disease. However, the exact role of interleukin-33 in the disease process of acute ischemic stroke still remains unclear. This study aims to demonstrate the relationship between interleukin-33 levels and long-term functional outcome as well as ischemic stroke recurrence. METHODS: Three hundred and four first-ever acute ischemic stroke patients were recruited and basic information and history of all subjects taken within 72 hr on admission. The functional outcome was estimated by Barthel index. The multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the prognosis, while the Cox proportional hazard model was applied to assess the recurrence risk. RESULTS: Out of 304 subjects, 259 patients successfully completed scheduled two-year follow-up. We found that higher interleukin-33 levels correlated positively with better prognosis as compared with those with lower interleukin-33 levels who presented with poorer outcome (62.45 ± 20.50 ng/ml vs. 51.58 ± 19.16 ng/ml, p < .001). After adjustment of all confounders, interleukin-33 was associated with the one-year prognosis with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.956 (95% confidence interval, 0.937-0.976, p < .001). Furthermore, interleukin-33 levels were also closely related to recurrent ischemic stroke with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.979 (95% confidence interval, 0.961-0.997, p = .025). CONCLUSIONS: IL-33 can be used to predict the long-term outcomes and ischemic stroke recurrence in first-ever acute ischemic stroke patients.

4.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(1): 437-444, 2019 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30628303

RESUMO

Surface farmland soil samples were collected from 135 different sites in a 64 km2 area around a lead and zinc smelter in Jiaozuo City, China. The concentration of the selected heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd, Ni, V, and Co) was analyzed and the spatial distribution of these heavy metals in the farmland was determined using the kriging interpolation technique (ArcGis 10.1). The enrichment factor, potential ecological risk model, and potential health risk model were used to assess the contamination level and potential risk of heavy metals in farmland surface soil. The results show that the average contents of Cd, Pb, Cr, and Zn in farmland soil are higher than the background content of these metals in the Henan Province and the average content of Cd is 2.8 times higher than that of class Ⅱ of the environmental quality standard for soils in China (GB 15618-1995). The heavy metal contamination in the west of the study area is higher than that in the east and the soil around the lead and zinc smelter (within 3 km) is severely contaminated with Pb and Cd, which is consistent with the location of the industries causing the pollution. The enrichment factors show that the soil is severely contaminated with Cd; partial sampling points are seriously contaminated with Pb, Cu, and Zn; the Cr and Co pollution is small; and Ni and V are almost not affected by human activities. The results of the risk assessment indicate that Cd poses serious ecological and health risks, Pb and Cu pose serious ecological risks, and Cr poses a serious cancer risk.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Zinco , China , Cidades , Fazendas , Humanos , Metalurgia , Medição de Risco , Solo/química , Análise Espacial
5.
Opt Lett ; 43(22): 5599-5602, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30439905

RESUMO

We demonstrate a 266 nm ultraviolet (UV) picosecond laser by fourth-harmonic generation of a Nd:YAG laser with a 5.4 mm thick NaSr3Be3B3O9F4 (NSBBF) crystal. A maximum output power exceeding 1 W at 266 nm was obtained (the highest output power being 1.6 W), corresponding to a conversion efficiency of 10.3%. The stability measurements on the NSBBF crystal with a fluctuation of 3.34% at 200 mW within 1 h indicate that it is a promising UV nonlinear optical material for practical applications. In addition, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, we measured the effective nonlinear coefficient of NSBBF crystal at 266 nm and compared it with that of ß-BaB2O4 crystal.

6.
World J Gastroenterol ; 24(32): 3671-3676, 2018 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30166862

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the vascular anatomy of inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) in laparoscopic radical resection with the preservation of left colic artery (LCA) for rectal cancer. METHODS: A total of 110 patients with rectal cancer who underwent laparoscopic surgical resection with preservation of the LCA were retrospectively reviewed. A 3D vascular reconstruction was performed before each surgical procedure to assess the branches of the IMA. During surgery, the relationship among the IMA, LCA, sigmoid artery (SA) and superior rectal artery (SRA) was evaluated, and the length from the origin of the IMA to the point of branching into the LCA or common trunk of LCA and SA was measured. The relationship between inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) and LCA was also evaluated. RESULTS: Three vascular types were identified in this study. In type A, LCA arose independently from IMA (46.4%, n = 51); in type B, LCA and SA branched from a common trunk of the IMA (23.6%, n = 26); and in type C, LCA, SA, and SRA branched at the same location (30.0%, n = 33). The difference in the length from the origin of IMA to LCA was not statistically significant among the three types. LCA was located under the IMV in 61 cases and above the IMV in 49 cases. CONCLUSION: The vascular anatomy of the IMA and IMV is essential for laparoscopic radical resection with preservation of the LCA for rectal cancer. To recognize different branches of the IMA is necessary for the resection of lymph nodes and dissection of vessels.


Assuntos
Endoscopia do Sistema Digestório/métodos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Artéria Mesentérica Inferior/anatomia & histologia , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Reto/irrigação sanguínea , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Excisão de Linfonodo , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfonodos/cirurgia , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Artéria Mesentérica Inferior/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Mesentérica Inferior/cirurgia , Veias Mesentéricas/anatomia & histologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tratamentos com Preservação do Órgão/métodos , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Reto/diagnóstico por imagem , Reto/patologia , Reto/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(33): e11803, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30113469

RESUMO

Noninvasive imaging plays a pivotal role in assessing the brain structural and functional changes in presurgical mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) patients. Our goal was to study the relationship between the changes of cerebral white matter (WM) and cognitive functions in MTLE patients.Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) MRI were performed on 24 right-handed MTLE patients (12 with left MTLE and 12 with right MTLE) and 12 matching healthy controls. Gray matter (GM), WM, and whole brain (WB) volumes were measured with VBM while fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) were measured with TBSS. All patients and controls also underwent Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) before MRI.WM volume and the ratio of WM volume versus WB volume were significantly lower in MTLE patients compared with controls. WM volume in MTLE patients had a positive correlation with MoCA score (r = 0.71, P < .001) and a negative correlation with the duration of epilepsy (r = -0.693, P < .001). Volumetric differences were mainly located in the corpus callosum, uncinate fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and superior longitudinal fasciculus. FA of both left MTLE and right MTLE groups was significantly decreased, while MD, AD, and RD were significantly increased. Most left MTLE patients showed bilateral WM fiber tract changes versus ipsilateral changes for right MTLE patients.Changes in DTI parameters and WM volume were found in MTLE patients and more ipsilateral changes were seen with right-sided MTLE. Cognitive changes of MTLE patients were found to be correlated with the changes in WM structure. These findings not only provide useful information for lateralization of the seizure focus but can also be used to explain functional connectivity disorders which may be an important physiological basis for cognitive changes in patients with MTLE.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Substância Branca/patologia , Adulto , Anisotropia , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Corpo Caloso/anatomia & histologia , Corpo Caloso/diagnóstico por imagem , Corpo Caloso/patologia , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/patologia , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/anatomia & histologia , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/tendências , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Substância Branca/anatomia & histologia , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
8.
Opt Lett ; 43(11): 2563-2566, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29856430

RESUMO

We report a high-energy single-frequency deep-ultraviolet (DUV) solid-state laser at 167.079 nm by the eighth-harmonic generation of a diode-pumped Nd:LGGG laser. A maximum DUV laser output energy of 1.5 µJ at a 5 Hz repetition rate with a 200 µs pulse duration is achieved. The central wavelength of the DUV laser is located at 167.079 nm and can be finely tuned from 167.075 to 167.083 nm. The linewidth is estimated to be 0.025 pm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first Letter reporting a high-energy single-frequency solid-state DUV laser below 170 nm. The successful demonstration of the high-energy single-frequency DUV laser source with the unique wavelength is useful for direct detection of a Al+27 ion via resonance fluorescence in a multi-ion optical clock.

9.
Molecules ; 23(2)2018 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29473864

RESUMO

Five previously undescribed triterpenoid saponins (1-5), along with eight known ones (6-13), were isolated from the whole plants of Anemone rivularis var. flore-minore. Their structures were clarified by extensive spectroscopic data and chemical evidence. For the first time, the lupane-type saponins (3 and 12) were reported from the Anemone genus. The anti-proliferative activity of all isolated saponins was evaluated on hepatic stellate cells (HSC-T6). Saponins 12 and 13, which possess more monosaccharides than the others, displayed potent anti-proliferative activity, with IC50 values of 18.21 and 15.56 µM, respectively.


Assuntos
Anemone/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Saponinas/química , Saponinas/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
10.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 18(3): 666-675, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29154499

RESUMO

Species identification through DNA barcoding or metabarcoding has become a key approach for biodiversity evaluation and ecological studies. However, the rapid accumulation of barcoding data has created some difficulties: for instance, global enquiries to a large reference library can take a very long time. We here devise a two-step searching strategy to speed identification procedures of such queries. This firstly uses a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) algorithm to narrow the searching scope to genus level and then determines the corresponding species using minimum genetic distance. Moreover, using a fuzzy membership function, our approach also estimates the credibility of assignment results for each query. To perform this task, we developed a new software pipeline, FuzzyID2, using Python and C++. Performance of the new method was assessed using eight empirical data sets ranging from 70 to 234,535 barcodes. Five data sets (four animal, one plant) deployed the conventional barcode approach, one used metabarcodes, and two were eDNA-based. The results showed mean accuracies of generic and species identification of 98.60% (with a minimum of 95.00% and a maximum of 100.00%) and 94.17% (with a range of 84.40%-100.00%), respectively. Tests with simulated NGS sequences based on realistic eDNA and metabarcode data demonstrated that FuzzyID2 achieved a significantly higher identification success rate than the commonly used Blast method, and the TIPP method tends to find many fewer species than either FuzztID2 or Blast. Furthermore, data sets with tens of thousands of barcodes need only a few seconds for each query assignment using FuzzyID2. Our approach provides an efficient and accurate species identification protocol for biodiversity-related projects with large DNA sequence data sets.


Assuntos
Lógica Fuzzy , Cadeias de Markov , Software , Classificação/métodos , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico
11.
Opt Express ; 25(22): 26500-26507, 2017 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29092139

RESUMO

266 nm laser output in NaSr3Be3B3O9F4 crystal by the fourth harmonic generation process with a picosecond mode-locked Nd-based YAG laser has been done for the first time. When the input pumping energy was 870 µJ at 532 nm, a 280 µJ 266 nm UV laser was obtained and the corresponding conversion efficiency was 35.9%. Further investigations identified that NaSr3Be3B3O9F4 has a large acceptance angle width of 0.47 (mrad • cm), a small walk-off angle of 35.43 mrad and a large deff as 0.62 pm/V for the fourth harmonic generation. These results indicate that NSBBF is applicable for high-power 266 nm laser generation.

12.
Learn Mem ; 24(8): 381-384, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28716958

RESUMO

The role of δ subunit-containing GABAA receptor (GABAA(δ)R) in fear generalization is uncertain. Here, by using mice with or without genetic deletion of GABAA(δ)R and using protocols in which the conditioned tone stimuli were cross presented with different nonconditioned stimuli, we observed that when the two tone stimuli were largely similar, both genotypes froze similarly to either of them. However, when they differed markedly, the knockout mice froze much more than their wild-type littermates to the nonconditioned but not conditioned stimuli. Thus, GABAA(δ)R may prevent inappropriate fear generalization when the incoming stimuli differ clearly from the learned threat.


Assuntos
Medo/fisiologia , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo , Estimulação Acústica , Animais , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Comportamento Exploratório/fisiologia , Reação de Congelamento Cataléptica/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Receptores de GABA-A/genética
13.
Data Brief ; 10: 390-397, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28050581

RESUMO

The data in this paper are related to the research article entitled "Taxonomic status and phylogenetic relationship of tits based on mitogenomes and nuclear segments" (X.J. Li et al., 2016) [1]. The mitochondrial genomes and nuclear segments of tits were sequenced to analyze mitochondrial characteristics and phylogeny. In the data, the analyzed results are presented. The data holds the resulting files of mitochondrial characteristics, heterogeneity, best schemes, and trees.

14.
Chemosphere ; 164: 113-119, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27580265

RESUMO

Three-dimensional biofilm-electrode reactors (3D-BERs), which possess a large effective area to drive the reductive degradation of contaminants, have recently attracted attention for wastewater treatment. There have been few studies of the potential and risks of the application of this system on the removal of antibiotics. Here four 3D-BERs were designed to initially assess the potential for electrical stimulation to remove sulfamethoxazole (SMX), tetracycline (TC) and chemical oxygen demand, and to study the fate of the corresponding antibiotic resistance genes. The results indicated that the 3D-BER could significantly reduce antibiotic concentrations in wastewater, achieving removal rates of 88.9-93.5% and 89.3-95.6% for SMX and TC, respectively. The concentrations of target genes (sulI, sulII, sulIII, tetA, tetC, tetO, tetQ, and tetW) in a granular-activated carbon (GAC) cathode were higher than those in a GAC anode in the 3D-BR (reactor with biological sludge and no voltage) and 3D-BER. An obvious increasing trend in the relative abundances of all target genes was observed in the GAC. A low current density could not increase the development of sul and tet genes in the 3D-BER. The total resistance was in the following order: 3D-BER > 3D-BR > 3D-ER (reactor with 0.8 V and without biological sludge). In addition, the dehydrogenase activity of the microorganisms in the 3D-BER was significantly higher than in the 3D-BR (p < 0.05). High-throughput sequencing revealed that the microbial communities and relative abundance at the phyla level were affected by current stimulation.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Biofilmes , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Microbiota/genética , Sulfametoxazol/química , Tetraciclina/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Antibacterianos/química , Reatores Biológicos , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Resistência a Tetraciclina/genética
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 17(6)2016 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27258256

RESUMO

To better understand the architecture and evolution of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome), mitogenomes of ten specimens representing six subfamilies in Tenebrionidae were selected, and comparative analysis of these mitogenomes was carried out in this study. Ten mitogenomes in this family share a similar gene composition, gene order, nucleotide composition, and codon usage. In addition, our results show that nucleotide bias was strongly influenced by the preference of codon usage for A/T rich codons which significantly correlated with the G + C content of protein coding genes (PCGs). Evolutionary rate analyses reveal that all PCGs have been subjected to a purifying selection, whereas 13 PCGs displayed different evolution rates, among which ATPase subunit 8 (ATP8) showed the highest evolutionary rate. We inferred the secondary structure for all RNA genes of Tenebrio molitor (Te2) and used this as the basis for comparison with the same genes from other Tenebrionidae mitogenomes. Some conserved helices (stems) and loops of RNA structures were found in different domains of ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and the cloverleaf structure of transfer RNAs (tRNAs). With regard to the AT-rich region, we analyzed tandem repeat sequences located in this region and identified some essential elements including T stretches, the consensus motif at the flanking regions of T stretch, and the secondary structure formed by the motif at the 3' end of T stretch in major strand, which are highly conserved in these species. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses using mitogenomic data strongly support the relationships among six subfamilies: ((Tenebrionidae incertae sedis + (Diaperinae + Tenebrioninae)) + (Pimeliinae + Lagriinae)), which is consistent with phylogenetic results based on morphological traits.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias/genética , RNA/química , Tenebrio/classificação , Tenebrio/genética , Animais , Composição de Bases , Evolução Molecular , Ordem dos Genes , Genoma Mitocondrial , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Filogenia , RNA Mitocondrial , Seleção Genética
16.
Mol Med Rep ; 14(1): 380-6, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27175997

RESUMO

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive type of brain tumor, and is associated with a poor prognosis. Saponin 6, derived from Anemone taipaiensis, exerts potent cytotoxic effects against the human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line and the human promyelocytic leukemia HL­60 cell line; however, the effects of saponin 6 on glioblastoma remain unknown. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of saponin 6 on human U87 malignant glioblastoma (U87 MG) cells. The current study revealed that saponin 6 induced U87 MG cell death in a dose­ and time­dependent manner, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 2.83 µM after treatment for 48 h. However, saponin 6 was needed to be used at a lesser potency in HT­22 cells, with an IC50 value of 6.24 µM. Cell apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry using Annexin V­fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide double staining. DNA fragmentation and alterations in nuclear morphology were examined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase­mediated dUTP nick end labeling and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The present study demonstrated that treatment with saponin 6 induced cell apoptosis in U87 MG cells, and resulted in DNA fragmentation and nuclear morphological alterations typical of apoptosis. In addition, flow cytometric analysis revealed that saponin 6 was able to induce cell cycle arrest. The present study also demonstrated that saponin 6­induced apoptosis of U87 MG cells was attributed to increases in the protein expression levels of Fas, Fas ligand, and cleaved caspase­3, ­8 and ­9, and decreases in the levels of B­cell lymphoma 2. The current study indicated that saponin 6 may exhibit selective cytotoxicity toward U87 MG cells by activating apoptosis via the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Therefore, saponin 6 derived from A. taipaiensis may possess therapeutic potential for the treatment of GBM.


Assuntos
Anemone/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Saponinas/farmacologia , Receptor fas/metabolismo , Animais , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fragmentação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Células Piramidais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Piramidais/metabolismo , Saponinas/toxicidade , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Dalton Trans ; 45(17): 7483-91, 2016 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27046535

RESUMO

Nanostructured tellurides have attracted increasing attention in thermoelectric applications for waste heat recovery and cooling devices. Here, we report on the synthesis of wire-like SnxSb2Te3+x (x = 0, 0.02 and 0.05) nanoparticles using elemental precursors in EG. The enhanced thermoelectric performance was achieved in alloyed samples due to the increase of carrier population in heavy valence band valleys by incorporating Sn(2+) at the Sb(3+) sublattice, enabling the simultaneous realization of low electrical resistivity along with a high Seebeck coefficient as well as the decline of thermal conductivity. Thus a boosted power factor and low thermal conductivity lead to the highest ZT value of 0.58 at 150 °C in the Sn0.02Sb2Te3.02 sample. Our research offers a general wet-chemical route for the preparation of one-dimensional nanomaterials and probably promotes the practical thermoelectric applications of Sb2Te3-based materials at low temperatures.

18.
Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med ; 13(5): 132-138, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28487903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoke inhalation injury refers to airway and lung parenchyma injury and general chemical damage caused by inhaling toxic gases and substances. The aim of this study was to explore the oxidative stress mechanism of cotton smoke inhalation-induced pulmonary injury in a rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group, 6 h group, and 24 h group (six rats in each group), which duplicated previous rat cotton smoke-inhalation injury models. Rats in 6 h and 24 h groups were euthanised at 6 h and 24 h after smoke inhalation, respectively. ELISA method was used to detect indicators in the rats' lung tissue. Quantitative iNOS mRNA and γ-GCS mRNA measurements were performed using a fluorescence PCR method. RESULTS: The concentrations of MDA, NO, iNOS, γ-GCS, iNOS mRNA, and the relative expression of γ-GCS mRNA in the rats' lung tissues in 6 h and 24 h groups were higher than control group (P < 0.05), and the concentration of NO and relative expressions of iNOS mRNA and γ-GCS mRNA in 24 h group were significantly higher than 6 h group (P < 0.05). The concentrations of GSH in 24 h and 6 h groups were significantly lower than control group (P < 0.05), and that in 24 h group was even significantly lower than 6 h group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: In rats with cotton smoke inhalation-induced pulmonary injury, the increased iNOS mRNA transcription can cause increase of iNOS synthesis and promotion of NO synthesis. The increased γ-GCS mRNA transcription can cause increase of γ-GCS synthesis and but decrease of GSH concentration. The activation of the antioxidant system is insufficient to combat oxidative stress damage. So the oxidant/antioxidant system is imbalanced, leading to gradual aggravation of lung injury.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/fisiologia , Lesão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Lesão por Inalação de Fumaça/fisiopatologia , Animais , Fibra de Algodão , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glutamato-Cisteína Ligase/genética , Pulmão/metabolismo , Lesão Pulmonar/etiologia , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Lesão por Inalação de Fumaça/etiologia
19.
Mitochondrial DNA A DNA Mapp Seq Anal ; 27(3): 2008-9, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25329276

RESUMO

The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Coal Tit (Parus ater) consisted 16,783 bp, the genome harbored the same gene order with that of other birds, contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs, and 1 non-coding control region. The all tRNAs can formed typical cloverleaf secondary structures (excluding tRNA(Ser-AGY)). A total of 38 base mismatches appeared, mainly 28 for G-U mismatch, 5 for A-C mismatch, 2 for U-U mismatch. The third loci of codon existed obvious base bias. The control region was between tRNA(Glu) and tRNA(Phe), consisted 1195 bp, no repetitive sequence.


Assuntos
Genoma Mitocondrial , Passeriformes/genética , Animais , Pareamento de Bases/genética , Sequência de Bases , Ordem dos Genes , RNA de Transferência/genética
20.
Opt Lett ; 40(14): 3268-71, 2015 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26176446

RESUMO

We demonstrate a ps 167.75-nm vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) laser by cascaded second-harmonic generation (SHG). The VUV laser is produced by eighth-harmonic generation (EHG) of a mode-locked ps 1342-nm Nd:YVO4 amplifier through three stages cascaded SHG with two LiB3O5 crystals and one KBe2BO3F2 crystal, successively. The 167.75-nm laser provides up to 65-µW output power, and the corresponding photon flux and photon flux density are 5.5×10(13) s(-1) and 1.6×10(18) s(-1)·cm(-2), respectively.

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