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1.
Future Oncol ; 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643088

RESUMO

Background: Chemoresistance usually occurs in ovarian cancer. We aimed to explore the mechanisms of chemoresistance. Methods: Western blotting assay was used to detect the expression of GALNT14. Further cell function experiments were performed to investigate the effect of GALNT14 in ovarian cancer. Results: GALNT14 is significantly upregulated in ovarian cancer. Downregulation of GALNT14 significantly inhibits both apoptosis and ferroptosis of ovarian cancer cells. A further mechanism assay illustrated that downregulation of GALNT14 suppresses the activity of the mTOR pathway through modifying O-glycosylation of EGFR. Finally, an additive effect promoting cell death occurs with a combination of an mTOR inhibitor and cisplatin. Conclusion: Our study might provide a promising method to overcome cisplatin resistance for patients with ovarian cancer.

2.
Glia ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498776

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder characterized primarily by impaired social communication and rigid, repetitive, and stereotyped behaviors. Many studies implicate abnormal synapse development and the resultant abnormalities in synaptic excitatory-inhibitory (E/I) balance may underlie many features of the disease, suggesting aberrant neuronal connections and networks are prone to occur in the developing autistic brain. Astrocytes are crucial for synaptic formation and function, and defects in astrocytic activation and function during a critical developmental period may also contribute to the pathogenesis of ASD. Here, we report that increasing hippocampal astrogenesis during development induces autistic-like behavior in mice and a concurrent decreased E/I ratio in the hippocampus that results from enhanced GABAergic transmission in CA1 pyramidal neurons. Suppressing the aberrantly elevated GABAergic synaptic transmission in hippocampal CA1 area rescues autistic-like behavior and restores the E/I balance. Thus, we provide direct evidence for a developmental role of astrocytes in driving the behavioral phenotypes of ASD, and our results support that targeting the altered GABAergic neurotransmission may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for ASD.

3.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 501, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperpigmentation of skin is caused by an imbalance between the melanosome/melanin synthesis in melanocytes and the melanosome/melanin degradation in keratinocytes. Although studies showed that stem cells play a role in hypopigmentation, the underlying mechanisms are far not elucidated. Human amniotic stem cells (hASCs) including human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) and human amniotic epithelial stem cells (hAESCs) were considered to be a promising cell source for stem cells-based therapy of many diseases clinically due to their pluripotent potential, no tumorigenesis and immunogenicity, no ethical issues, and potent paracrine effects. Here, we reported that both hASCs and their conditional medium (CM) had a potent anti-hyperpigmentation in skin in vivo and in vitro. METHODS: hAESCs and hAMSCs were identified by RT-PCR, flow cytometric analysis and immunofluorescence. Effects of hASCs and hASC-CM on pigmentation were evaluated in B16F10 cells stimulated with α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), and mouse ears or human skin substitutes treated with ultraviolet radiation B (UVB). Expressions of the key proteins related with melanogenesis and autophagic flux were detected by western blot in B16F10 cells for further exploring the effects and the underlying mechanisms of hAESC-CM and hAMSC-CM on melanogenesis and melanosome degradation. The hAMSCs exosomes-derived miRNAs were determined by sequencing. RT-PCR, western blot, melanin content analysis and luciferase activity assay were used to determine the hypopigmentation of miR-181a-5p and miR-199a. RESULTS: In our study, we observed that both hASCs and their CM significantly alleviated the α-MSH in B16F10 cells or UVB-induced hyperpigmentation in mouse ears or human skin substitutes by suppressing melanin synthesis and promoting melanosome degradation in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, we demonstrated that miR-181a-5p and miR-199a derived from hASCs exosomes remarkably inhibited melanogenesis by suppressing MITF (microphthalmia-associated transcription factor) which is a master regulator for governing melanogenesis and promoting melanosome degradation through activating autophagy, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our studies provided strong evidence that the conditional medium and exosomes derived from hAMSCs inhibit skin hyperpigmentation by suppressing melanogenesis and promoting melanosome degradation, indicating that the hASCs exosomes or their released microRNAs might be as reagents for cell-free therapy in hyperpigmented disorders clinically.

4.
Neurochem Int ; 150: 105180, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509561

RESUMO

The identity of the mechanism that controls aggressive behavior in rodents is unclear. Serotonin (5-HT) and GABA are associated with aggressive behavior in rodents. However, the regulatory relationship between these chemicals in the different brain regions of rats has not been fully defined. This study aimed to clarify the role of GABABR1 in DRN-mediated GABA to regulate 5-HT expression in multiple brain regions in male rats with high and low aggressive behavior. Rat models of highly and less aggressive behavior were established through social isolation plus resident intruder. On this basis, GABA content in the DRN and 5-HT contents in the PFC, hypothalamus, hippocampus and DRN were detected using ELISA. Co-expression of 5-HT and GB1 in the DRN was detected by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy at the tissue and subcellular levels, respectively. GB1-specific agonist baclofen and GB1-specific inhibitor CGP35348 were injected into the DRN by stereotaxic injection. Changes in 5-HT levels in the PFC, hypothalamus and hippocampus were detected afterward. After modeling, rats with highly aggressive behavior exhibited higher aggressive behavior scores, shorter latencies of aggression, and higher total distances in the open field test than rats with less aggressive behavior. The contents of 5-HT in the PFC, hypothalamus and hippocampus of rats with high and low aggressive behavior (no difference between the two groups) were significantly decreased, but the change in GABA content in the DRN was the opposite. GB1 granules could be found on synaptic membranes containing 5-HT granules, which indicated that 5-HT neurons in the DRN co-expressed with GB1, which also occurred in double immunofluorescence results. At the same time, we found that the expression of GB1 in the DRN of rats with high and low aggressive behavior was significantly increased, and the expression of GB1 in the DRN of rats with low aggressive behavior was significantly higher than that in rats with high aggressive behavior. Nevertheless, the expression of 5-HT in DRN was opposite in these two groups. After microinjection of baclofen into the DRN, the 5-HT contents in the PFC, hypothalamus and hippocampus of rats in each group decreased significantly. In contrast, the 5-HT contents in the PFC, hypothalamus and hippocampus of rats in each group increased significantly after injection with CGP35348. The significant increase in GABA in the DRN combined with the significant increase in GB1 in the DRN further mediated the synaptic inhibition effect, which reduced the 5-HT level of 5-HT neurons in the DRN, resulting in a significant decrease in 5-HT levels in the PFC, hypothalamus and hippocampus. Therefore, GB1-mediated GABA regulation of 5-HT levels in the PFC, hypothalamus and hippocampus is one of the mechanisms of highly and less aggressive behavior originating in the DRN. The increased GB1 level in the DRN of LA-behavior rats exhibited a greater degree of change than in the HA-group rats, which indicated that differently decreased 5-HT levels in the DRN may be the internal mechanisms of high and low aggression behaviors.

5.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(9): 4390-4398, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414738

RESUMO

As an intermediate form of microbial denitrification, nitrite serves as a key substrate for anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX). This study investigated the partial dentification (PD) characteristics and the coupling feasibility of PD+ANAMMOX in the biofilm system, using a moving bed biofilm reactor which was operated for 120 days. After 40 days of operation with a C/N ratio of 3.0 and filling fraction of 20%, the nitrate-to-nitrite transformation ratio (NTR) reached (69.38±3.53)%, and enzymatic assays indicated that the activities of nitrate reductase (NAR) had increased from 0.03 to 0.45 µmol·(min·mg)-1 while the activities of nitrite reductase (NIR) had decreased from 0.18 to 0.02 µmol·(min·mg)-1. Illumina high-throughput sequencing analysis revealed that the proportion of genus of Thauera bacteria to total microorganism increased from 0.3% (d1) to 37.27% (d64). Finally, the effluent had a total nitrogen (TN) concentration of (6.41±1.50) mg·L-1, indicating a total nitrogen removal ratio of (88.16±2.71)% and confirming the feasibility of PD+ANAMMOX in the biofilm system.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Desnitrificação , Biofilmes , Nitrogênio , Oxirredução
6.
Mar Drugs ; 19(8)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436300

RESUMO

Sea cucumbers are a class of marine invertebrates and a source of food and drug. Numerous microorganisms are associated with sea cucumbers. Seventy-eight genera of bacteria belonging to 47 families in four phyla, and 29 genera of fungi belonging to 24 families in the phylum Ascomycota have been cultured from sea cucumbers. Sea-cucumber-associated microorganisms produce diverse secondary metabolites with various biological activities, including cytotoxic, antimicrobial, enzyme-inhibiting, and antiangiogenic activities. In this review, we present the current list of the 145 natural products from microorganisms associated with sea cucumbers, which include primarily polyketides, as well as alkaloids and terpenoids. These results indicate the potential of the microorganisms associated with sea cucumbers as sources of bioactive natural products.

7.
Eye (Lond) ; 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341484

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe a new algorithm to measure corneal densitometry based on images obtained by swept source anterior segment ocular coherence tomography (SS-AS-OCT) and establish standard densitometry values in a group of normal eyes. METHODS: A total of 111 healthy participants (195 eyes) were enrolled in this study. Using a MATLAB designed algorithm, the cornea was segmented into three layers: anterior, posterior and mid-stroma, and it was divided into two concentric areas, 0-2 and 2-4 mm, resulting in nine areas for the analysis. The mean corneal densitometry values were calculated and expressed as grayscale units (GSU). RESULTS: The mean age was 57 years (range 22-87), with 100 (51.3%) right eyes and 95 (48.7%) left eyes. The total corneal densitometry was 86.9 ± 12.1 GSU. The mid-stroma layer had the highest densitometry values, 87.4 ± 12.1 GSU, and the anterior layer had the lowest values, 81.9 ± 14.2 GSU. Densitometry differences between the anterior layer and the mid-stroma layer (P < 0.001), as well as the anterior layer and the posterior layer (P < 0.05) were statistically significant. The 0-2 mm concentric area had higher mean densitometry values, 97.8 ± 12.7 GSU, and the differences were significant compared to the 2-4 mm concentric area (P < 0.001). No correlation was found between the corneal densitometry values and gender or age. CONCLUSIONS: The new MATLAB segmentation algorithm for the analysis of corneal SS-AS-OCT images is capable to objectively assess corneal densitometry. We provide standard and normal data for better clinical and research approach.

8.
Inorg Chem ; 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337951

RESUMO

We report the construction of a porphyrin and imidazolium-ionic liquid (IL)-decorated and quinoline-linked covalent organic framework (COF, abbreviated as COF-P1-1) via a three-component one-pot Povarov reaction. After post-synthetic metallization of COF-P1-1 with Co(II) ions, the metallized COF-PI-2 is generated. COF-PI-2 is chemically stable and displays highly selective CO2 adsorption and good visible-light-induced photothermal conversion ability (ΔT = 26 °C). Furthermore, the coexistence of Co(II)-porphyrin and imidazolium-IL within COF-PI-2 has guaranteed its highly efficient activity for CO2 cycloaddition. Of note, the needed thermal energy for the reactions is derived from the photothermal conversion of the Co(II)-porphyrin COF upon visible-light irradiation. More importantly, the CO2 cycloaddition herein is a "window ledge" reaction, and it can proceed smoothly upon natural sunlight irradiation. In addition, a scaled-up CO2 cycloaddition can be readily achieved using a COF-PI-2@chitosan aerogel-based fixed-bed model reactor. Our research provides a new avenue for COF-based greenhouse gas disposal in an eco-friendly and energy- and source-saving way.

9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 222: 112476, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214772

RESUMO

The neonicotinoid pesticide, imidacloprid (IMI), is frequently detected in the environment and in foods. It is absorbed and metabolized by the intestine; however, its effects on intestinal barrier integrity are not well studied. We investigated whether IMI disrupts the permeability of the intestinal epithelial barrier via in vivo tests on male Wistar rats, in vitro assays using the human intestinal epithelial cell line, Caco-2, and in silico analyses. A repeated oral dose 90-day toxicity study was performed (0.06 mg/kg body weight/day). IMI exposure significantly increased intestinal permeability, which led to significantly elevated serum levels of endotoxin and inflammatory biomarkers (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta) without any variation in body weight. Decreased transepithelial electrical resistance with increased permeability was also observed in 100 nM and 100 µM IMI-treated Caco-2 cell monolayers. Amounts of tight junction proteins in IMI-treated colon tissues and between IMI-treated Caco-2 cells were significantly lower than those of controls. Increased levels of myosin light chain phosphorylation, myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), and p65 subunit of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB p65) phosphorylation were found in IMI-exposed cells compared with control cells. Furthermore, the barrier loss caused by IMI was rescued by the MLCK inhibitor, ML-7, and cycloheximide. Pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) was inhibited by low-dose IMI treatment. In silico analysis indicated potent binding sites between PXR and IMI. Together, these data illustrate that IMI induces intestinal epithelial barrier disruption and produces an inflammatory response, involving the down-regulation of tight junctions and disturbance of the PXR-NF-κB p65-MLCK signaling pathway. The intestinal barrier disruption caused by IMI deserves attention in assessing the safety of this neonicotinoid pesticide.


Assuntos
Mucosa Intestinal , Junções Íntimas , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Humanos , Intestinos , Masculino , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Nitrocompostos , Permeabilidade , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
10.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(7): 799-804, 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259416

RESUMO

The survey is conducted prior to the development of international standard, Guideline for Clinical Practice of Acupuncture-Moxibustion: Migraine (Guideline) to determine the international demand. The survey includes 5 aspects, i.e. the application status of acupuncture and moxibustion abroad and the demand for the development of international standards, the priority of diseases developed by international standards, the necessity of the transformation of international standards from domestic standards, the key clinical problems to be solved by international standards, and the correlation between professional level and demand intention. The survey results show that the international demand of the Guideline is definite. Regarding the application range of acupuncture-moxibustion and the key clinical questions, the special consideration should be taken to the differences in the demands of the practitioners from different countries during the development of standard.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Acupuntura , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Moxibustão , Humanos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Opt Lett ; 46(13): 3183-3186, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197411

RESUMO

Due to a high Raman threshold and serious thermal effect, a challenge is to achieve efficient continuous-wave (CW) operation of a crystalline Raman laser at 1.5 µm. Based on effective thermal management and the self-Raman effect, we demonstrate, to our knowledge, the first efficient CW operation of a Nd:YVO4 Raman laser at 1.5 µm. We achieve 685 mW of CW eye-safe emission at 1524.5 nm by the use of a 20-mm-long composite Nd:YVO4 and 300-µm pump beam radius, with a diode-to-Stokes conversion efficiency of 4.8%. Lasers operating at ∼1.5µm have found many important applications in various areas such as optical communication, laser radar, laser ranging, remote sensing, and spectral research.

12.
Pharmacy (Basel) ; 9(3)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287334

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study are to describe opioid stewardship practices in hospitals being implemented globally, in addition to investigating the attitudes and perceptions of health professionals regarding opioid stewardship in the hospital setting. METHODS: A survey was developed by the research team to ask about participants' attitudes and perceptions regarding opioid stewardship practices. The survey was piloted for performance by five independent third-party healthcare professionals prior to being made available online, being hosted using Research Electronic Data Capture software, with invitations distributed by the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP). Descriptive analyses were used to describe the features of the study, and responses obtained from the survey were further categorised into subgroups separating answers relating to attitudes and perceptions, and policies and regulations. RESULTS: Overall, there were 50 respondents from 18 countries, representing an 8% response rate from the FIP hospital pharmacy section mailing list. In total, 33/50 (66%) participants agreed opioids are overused nationally, with 22/49 (45%) agreeing they are overused at their workplace. Furthermore, 32/50 (64%) agreed the opioid crisis is a significant problem nationally, and 44/50 (88%) agreed opioid stewardship would reduce problems associated with the opioid crisis. Policies to educate providers about safe opioid prescribing were uncommon, not exhibited in 26/46 (57%) of hospitals, with all EMR and SE Asia hospitals not displaying this policy. Policy for investigation of narcotic discrepancies was present in 34/46 (74%) of hospitals, and there was a policy for reporting discrepancies at 33/46 (72%) hospitals. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, healthcare professionals in the American region are more likely to perceive the opioid crisis as a problem, as opposed to those from the European region. Regardless of the presence or absence of a crisis, the implementation of further opioid education and stewardship practices are necessary globally and will contribute to safer prescribing and utilisation practices in hospitals.

13.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 46(5): 404-10, 2021 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085464

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) and transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) of skin and muscle layers of "Liangqiu" (ST34) area on inflammatory muscular pain in rats, so as to study the role of different-layer afferent nerve fibers in acupuncture analgesia. METHODS: A total of 120 male SD rats were used in the present study, including 8 rats used for determining the excitatory threshold of Aδ(Ta) and C (Tc) afferent nerve fibers, 48 employed for comparing the analgesic effect of EA and TEAS at intensities of Ta and Tc, and 64 for observing the effect of EA and TAES stimulation of ipsilateral (Ipsi), contralateral (Contra) ST34 and ipsilateral LI4 at Ta and Tc intensities. Inflammatory muscle pain was induced by injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into the right biceps femoris muscle. In the second part of the present study, 48 rats were randomly and equally divided into control, model, TEAS-Ta, TEAS-Tc, EA-Ta and EA-Tc groups, while in the 3rd part, 64 rats were randomly and equally divided into control, model, Ipsi-ST34-TEAS, Contra-ST34-TEAS, Ipsi-ST34-EA, Contra-ST34-EA, Ipsi-LI4-TEAS and Ipsi-LI4-EA groups. TEAS or EA was applied to the skin and muscle layers, respectively. Before and after modeling, the animal was forced to stand on a bipedal equilibrator, the difference in body mass distribution of both feet (bearing difference) was used to assess the pain severity. The frequency of myoelectrical discharges of the right bicep femoris muscle in responding to electrical stimulation of the spot between the 4th and 5th toes of the ipsilateral hindlimb at an intensity of two-folds of C-fiber excitatory threshold was recorded. RESULTS: 1) The bearing difference between the bilateral hindlimbs was markedly higher in the model group than in the control group (P<0.01), and significantly lower at the 2nd and 3rd day in the EA-Ta and EA-Tc, and TEAS-Tc groups relevant to the model group (P<0.05, P<0.01). 2) The frequency of C-fiber reflex induced electromyogram (EMG) activities were significantly decreased at 0 and 1 min after TEAS of both ipsilateral ST34 at Tc, and 0 min after TEAS of the contralateral ST34 at Tc (rather than at Ta and not LI4 even at Tc) in comparison with pre-TEAS, and 0, 1 and 2 min after TEAS of ipsilateral ST34 at Tc, and 0 min after TEAS of contra-ST34 at Tc compared with the model group, respectively (P<0.01, P<0.05). In comparison with pre-EA, the frequency of C-fiber reflex induced EMG activities were significantly decreased at 0 and 1 min after EA of the ipsilateral ST34 at Ta, and 0 min after EA of the contra-ST34 at Ta. In addition, the frequency of C-fiber reflex induced EMG activities were decreased at 0, 1 and 2 min after EA of the ipsilateral ST34 at Tc, and 0 and 1 min after EA of the contra-ST34 at Tc, as well as 0 min after EA of LI4 at Tc (P<0.01, P<0.05).In comparison with the model group, the frequency of C-fiber reflex induced EMG activities are significantly decreased at 0, and 1 min after EA of the ipsilateral ST34 at Ta, and 0 min after EA of the contra-ST34 at Ta. In addition, the frequency of C-fiber reflex induced EMG activities were decreased at 0, 1 ,2,and 3 min after EA of the ipsilateral ST34 at Tc, and 0 and 1 min after EA of the contra-ST34 at Tc, as well as 0 min after EA of LI4 at Tc, respectively (P<0.01, P<0.05). CONCLUSION: TEAS-ST34 at Tc and EA-ST34 at both Ta and Tc can alleviate pain behavior in inflammatory pain rats, which may be related to its effect in activating the afferent nerve fiber in different layers of ST34 area.


Assuntos
Eletroacupuntura , Pontos de Acupuntura , Animais , Masculino , Mialgia , Fibras Nervosas , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
14.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(6): 615-20, 2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085477

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of five-element acupuncture on the cognitive function repair of migraine patients with depression/anxiety disorder. METHODS: The migraine patients with depression/anxiety disorder (19 cases, 5 cases dropped off) were taken as the observation group, and received five-element acupuncture twice a week for 8 weeks. Healthy subjects (19 cases) were selected by demographic data matching as the control group. The cognitive function was evaluated with the event related potential (ERP) technique, and the latency and amplitude of visual evoked potential P300 were adopted as the observation indexes. The headache days (every 4 weeks), headache intensity [visual analogue scale(VAS) score], and headache impact test-6 (HIT-6) score, Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) score and Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA) score were used as the observation indexes for curative effect. RESULTS: Before the treatment, latency of target stimulus at Fz [ (417.5±34.3) ms] in the observation group was extended compared with the healthy subjects of the control group [(388.6±42.1) ms, P<0.05]. In the observation group, the latency of each point target stimulus [Fz: (376.1±36.2) ms, F3: (374.8±37.6) ms, F4: (372.0±37.6) ms] after treatment were shorter than those [Fz: (417.5±34.3) ms, F3: (417.4±33.8) ms, F4: (416.0±36.6) ms] before treatment (P<0.05). Before and after treatment, there was no significant difference in the amplitude of each point between the observation group and the control group (P>0.05). In the observation group, the headache days was shorter than that before treatment (P<0.01), and the VAS score, HIT-6 score, HAMD score and HAMA score were all lower than before treatment (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: There are some cognitive impairments in migraine patients with depression/anxiety disorder. Five-element acupuncture not only relieves headache, anxiety and depression effectively, but also improves the activation level of the frontal lobe. It significantly repairs the impaired cognitive function.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Pontos de Acupuntura , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Cognição , Depressão/terapia , Potenciais Evocados Visuais , Humanos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 364, 2021 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a metabolic disorder syndrome characterized by excessive fat accumulation that is related to many diseases. Human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) have a great potential for cell-based therapy due to their characteristics such as pluripotency, low immunogenicity, no tumorigenicity, potent paracrine effects, and no ethical concern. Recently, we observed that both hAMSCs and their conditioned medium (hAMSCs-CM) efficiently repaired skin injury, inhibited hepatocellular carcinoma, and alleviated high-fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetes. However, the effects and the underlying mechanisms of hAMSCs-CM on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity were not explored. METHODS: The characteristics of hAMSCs were confirmed by flow cytometry, RT-PCR, and immunofluorescence. Obese mice were induced by administrating HFD for 15 weeks and simultaneously, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with hAMSCs-CM weekly to evaluate the effects of hAMSCs-CM on HFD-induced obesity. GTT and ITT assays were used to assess the effects of hAMSCs-CM on HFD-induced glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. The lipid accumulation and adipocytes hypertrophy in mouse adipose tissues were determined by histological staining, in which the alterations of blood lipid, liver, and kidney function were also examined. The role of hAMSCs-CM in energy homeostasis was monitored by examining the oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), and food and water intake in mice. Furthermore, the expressions of the genes related to glucose metabolism, fatty acid ß oxidation, thermogenesis, adipogenesis, and inflammation were determined by western blot analysis, RT-PCR, and immunofluorescence staining. The roles of hAMSCs-CM in adipogenesis and M1/M2 macrophage polarization were investigated with 3T3-L1 preadipocytes or RAW264.7 cells in vitro. RESULTS: hAMSCs-CM significantly restrained HFD-induced obesity in mice by inhibiting adipogenesis and lipogenesis, promoting energy expenditure, and reducing inflammation. The underlying mechanisms of the anti-obesity of hAMSCs-CM might be involved in inhibiting PPARγ and C/EBPα-mediated lipid synthesis and adipogenesis, promoting GLUT4-mediated glucose metabolism, elevating UCP1/PPARα/PGC1α-regulated energy expenditure, and enhancing STAT3-ARG1-mediated M2-type macrophage polarization. CONCLUSION: Our studies demonstrated that hAMSCs significantly alleviated HFD-induced obesity through their paracrine effects. Obviously, our results open up an attractive therapeutic modality for the prevention and treatment of obesity and other metabolic disorders clinically. The cytokines, exosomes, or micro-vesicles secreted from hAMSCs significantly inhibited HFD-induced obesity in mice by inhibiting lipid production and adipogenesis, promoting energy consumption, and reducing inflammation.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipogenia , Animais , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/terapia
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11297, 2021 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34050229

RESUMO

Artemisinin (ART) is the most effective component in malaria treatment, however, the extremely low content restricts its clinical application. Therefore, it is urgent to increase the yield of ART. ART gradually accumulates with aging, small RNA (sRNA) and transcriptome analysis were applied on the leaves of 2-week-old (2 w) and 3-month-old (3 m) A. annua respectively. Among all the annotated sRNAs, 125 were upregulated and 128 downregulated in the 3 m sample compared to the 2 w one. Whereas 2183 genes were upregulated and 2156 downregulated. Notably, the level of miR156 and several annotated miRNAs gradually decreased while SPLs increased. In addition, the genes on ART biosynthesis pathway were significantly upregulated including ADS, CYP71AV1, ADH1, DBR2 and ALDH1, and so were the positive transcription factors like AaERF1, AaORA and AaWRKY1 indicating that age influences the ART biosynthesis by activating the expression of the synthesizing genes as well as positive transcription factors. This study contributes to reveal the regulatory effects of age on ART biosynthesis both in sRNA and transcription levels.

18.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(5): 549-52, 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34002572

RESUMO

This paper analyzes the development necessity of a series of international technical specification of acupuncture-moxibustion from three aspects, the development status of global Technical Specification of Acupuncture-Moxibustion, providing technical support for acupuncture-moxibustion legislation and assisting standardized acupuncture-moxibustion research. The necessity of giving priority to the development of WFAS's Technical Specification of Acupuncture-Moxibustion: General Rules of Drafting (General Rules for short) in the series of standards is discussed from filling the field gap and following the international practice. The key points should be paid attention to in the development process of General Rules are summarized,such as improving practicality based on international perspective, enhancing authority by following international rules, improving international applicability by forming a professional team and ensuring high quality and objective neutrality of the General Rules.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Acupuntura , Moxibustão , Pontos de Acupuntura , Internacionalidade , Padrões de Referência
19.
Bioelectrochemistry ; 140: 107802, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794412

RESUMO

Procalcitonin (PCT) is a sensitive and specific biomarker for sepsis diagnosis. In this study, a novel ratio-typed electrochemical immunosensor was constructed for reliable and sensitive assay of PCT based on hierarchical PtCoIr nanowires/polyethylene polyamine-grafted-ferrocene (PtCoIr HNWs/PEPA-Fc) and porous SiO2@Ag nanoparticles-toluidine blue (porous SiO2@Ag NPs-TB). Importantly, the PtCoIr HNWs/PEPA-Fc was first modified on the sensing interface, which harvested stable and strong electrochemical signals for readout of Fc due to the enriched anchoring sites created by the PtCoIr HNWs. Meanwhile, porous SiO2@Ag NPs-TB behaved as the label to conjugate with secondary antibody (Ab2), which also provided another strong detection signals originated from TB confined in such porous structures. The resulting immunosensor displayed a measurable output of procalcitonin (PCT) in the dynamic scope of 0.001 ~ 100 ng mL-1 with a low limit of detection (LOD) of 0.46 pg mL-1 (S/N = 3). Moreover, we exploited this strategy for PCT assay in a diluted human serum sample with acceptable results, exhibiting promising applications in the clinical analysis.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Imunoensaio/métodos , Indóis/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Polímeros/química , Sepse/sangue , Dióxido de Silício/química , Prata/química , Biomarcadores/sangue , Eletroquímica , Compostos Ferrosos/química , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Metalocenos/química , Nanofios/química , Porosidade
20.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(5): 2502-2511, 2021 May 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884821

RESUMO

The use of heavy metal passivators to prevent vegetables from absorbing heavy metals is an important measure to control heavy metal-polluted vegetable fields and to ensure the safe production of vegetables. A pot experiment of planting three times in succession was conducted to study the effects of Bacillus megaterium N3 (N3), rice husk biochar (BC), sheep manure organic fertilizer (SM), strain N3 combined with biochar (BC+N3), and strain N3 combined with sheep manure (SM+N3) on Cd uptake and the functional stability of lettuce using a heavy metal passivator only at the first planting. The comprehensive applicability of the passivation materials was evaluated by the dynamic weighted comprehensive function. The results showed that when lettuce was planted for the first time, compared with the control, all the heavy metal passivators could significantly reduce (61.2%-81%) the Cd content in the edible part of the lettuce. However, in the third cultivation of lettuce, only SM+N3 could significantly reduce the Cd uptake by lettuce, which indicated that SM+N3 had the best functional stability. The dynamic weighted comprehensive function was used to evaluate the Cd content in the edible part of fresh lettuce, available Cd content in the soil, yield, and remediation cost. The results showed that the comprehensive applicability of SM+N3 was the best, followed by that of SM, BC+N3, and BC, and the comprehensive evaluation effect of strain N3 was the worst. The results of this study provide a theoretical basis and technical support for remediation of heavy metal-contaminated vegetable fields.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Cádmio/análise , Carvão Vegetal , Alface , Metais Pesados/análise , Ovinos , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
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