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1.
AAPS J ; 23(3): 52, 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835308

RESUMO

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy is an immunotherapy that has recently become highly instrumental in the fight against life-threatening diseases. A variety of modeling and computational simulation efforts have addressed different aspects of CAR T-cell therapy, including T-cell activation, T- and malignant cell population dynamics, therapeutic cost-effectiveness strategies, and patient survival. In this article, we present a systematic review of those efforts, including mathematical, statistical, and stochastic models employing a wide range of algorithms, from differential equations to machine learning. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review of all such models studying CAR T-cell therapy. In this review, we provide a detailed summary of the strengths, limitations, methodology, data used, and data gap in currently published models. This information may help in designing and building better models for enhanced prediction and assessment of the benefit-risk balance associated with novel CAR T-cell therapies, as well as with the data need for building such models.

2.
Plant Physiol ; 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793944

RESUMO

Less than 40% of the nitrogen (N) fertilizer applied to soil is absorbed by crops. Thus, improving the N use efficiency of crops is critical for agricultural development. However, the underlying regulation of these processes remains largely unknown, particularly in woody plants. By conducting yeast two-hybrid assays, we identified one interacting protein of MdMYB88 and MdMYB124 in apple (Malus × domestica), namely BTB and TAZ domain protein 2 (MdBT2). Ubiquitination and protein stabilization analysis revealed that MdBT2 ubiquitinates and degrades MdMYB88 and MdMYB124 via the 26S proteasome pathway. MdBT2 negatively regulates nitrogen usage as revealed by the reduced fresh weight, dry weight, N concentration, and N usage index of MdBT2 overexpression calli under low-N conditions. In contrast, MdMYB88 and MdMYB124 increase nitrate absorption, allocation, and remobilization by regulating expression of MdNRT2.4, MdNRT1.8, MdNRT1.7, and MdNRT1.5 under N limitation, thereby regulating N usage. The results obtained illustrate the mechanism of a regulatory module comprising MdBT2-MdMYB88/MdMYB124-MdNRTs, through which plants modulate N usage. These data contribute to a molecular approach to improve the N usage of fruit crops under limited N acquisition.

3.
Geophys Res Lett ; 48(4): 2e020GL091265, 2021 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785972

RESUMO

Satellite HCHO data are widely used as a reliable proxy of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) to constrain underlying emissions and chemistry. Here, we examine global significant changes in HCHO columns at the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic (January-April 2020) compared with the same period in 2019 with observations from the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI). HCHO columns decline (11.0%) in the Northern China Plain (NCP) because of a combination of meteorological impacts, lower HCHO yields as NO x emission plunges (by 36.0%), and reduced NMVOC emissions (by 15.0%) resulting from the lockdown. HCHO columns change near Beijing (+8.4%) due mainly to elevated hydroxyl radical as NO x emission decreases in a NO x -saturated regime. HCHO columns change in Australia (+17.5%), Northeastern Myanmar of Southeast Asia (+14.9%), Central Africa (+7.8%), and Central America (+18.9%), consistent with fire activities. Our work also points to other changes related to temperature and meteorological variations.

4.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 529: 111221, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711334

RESUMO

As the most frequent women's cancer, breast cancer causes the second most cancer-related death in women worldwide. Majority of the breast cancers are hormone receptor-positive and commonly treated by hormone therapy. Thus, the expression levels of hormone receptors signaling pathways are pivotal in the development and therapy of breast cancer. The expression of hormone receptors signaling pathways is not only regulated at the transcription level but also at the post-transcription level by both proteins and RNAs. In addition to that, the function of hormone receptors can also be regulated by RNAs. In this review, we summarize the roles of RNAs in hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. We introduce how mRNA stability and protein function of genes in hormone receptors signaling pathways are regulated by RNA-binding proteins, miRNAs, and lncRNAs. We believe these proteins and RNAs can be potential therapeutic targets of breast cancer.

5.
Lung Cancer ; 155: 87-93, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756357

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Inconsistent findings have been reported on the link between dietary carbohydrates and lung cancer. This study aims to comprehensively evaluate the role of dietary carbohydrates on lung cancer risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The prospective study is based on the PLCO trial, which recruited 113,096 eligible participants across the United States. Participants had to have completed baseline and diet history questionnaires. The incidence of lung cancer was acquired through self-report and medical record follow-up. A multivariable logistic model adjusted for confounders was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of dietary carbohydrates, fiber, whole grains, glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) for lung cancer. Similar methods were applied in analyzing the carbohydrates and fiber from different food sources. Multinomial logistic models were used for sensitivity analysis with lung cancer subtypes as outcomes. RESULTS: Dietary carbohydrates and GL were inversely associated with lung cancer incidence in the PLCO population. Among various carbohydrates, 30-g daily consumption of dietary fiber was related to a lower risk of lung cancer (fourth vs first quartile OR: 0.62, 95 % CI: 0.54-0.72) compared with 8.8-g. Furthermore, consuming whole grains 2.3 servings per day as opposed to 0.3 servings per day was associated with a lower risk of lung cancer (OR: 0.73, 95 % CI: 0.64-0.83). A higher risk of lung cancer was seen for the consumption of high-GI food (OR: 1.19, 95 % CI: 1.05-1.35) and refined carbohydrates from soft drinks (OR: 1.23, 95 % CI: 1.04-1.46). CONCLUSION: Carbohydrates and fiber from fruits, vegetables and whole grains are associated with lower lung cancer risk. Refined carbohydrates from processed food, such as soft drinks, appear to increase risk.

6.
Anticancer Res ; 41(3): 1683-1691, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Lenvatinib is standard therapy for radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (RR-DTC), although the optimal timing for starting treatment is still controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic impact of baseline tumour size (BTS) in patients with RR-DTC treated with lenvatinib. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-one RR-DTC patients who had at least one measurable lesion and treated with lenvatinib were retrospectively analysed. BTS was defined as the sum of the longest dimensions of all measurable target lesions. RESULTS: Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in the larger BTS (≥42 mm) group were shorter than those in the smaller (<42 mm) group. This result was more significant in patients with fast-growing tumours. BTS was an independent prognostic factor for both PFS and OS. CONCLUSION: Starting lenvatinib at BTS <42 mm should be recommended to achieve good treatment outcomes in patients with RR-DTC.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos do Iodo/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675701

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To observe the proliferation and differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) on 2D and 3D scaffolds, the sodium alginate and collagen interpenetrating network hydrogel were developed to determine optimal properties for bone tissue engineering. METHODS: Three groups of scaffold materials were prepared according to the ratio of sodium alginate to collagen: A (4:1), B (2:1), and C (1:1), respectively. For each group, gel beads (3D surfaces) and freeze-dried films (2D surfaces) were respectively prepared. For gel beads, hADSCs were mixed during the preparation of the beads, and then stem cells were applied to the surface of each film after freeze-drying and sterilization during the preparation of the freeze-dried films. Cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation potential were detected by cell counting kit, viable/dead cell staining kit, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and immunofluorescent staining, respectively. RESULTS: Results showed that cell proliferation rate progressively increased with the increase of collagen ratio, with group C of 3D surfaces of gel beads achieving the highest rate. In particular, highest cell viability on the 2D surfaces was achieved in group B. Differences in BGLAP and RUNX2 expression in hADSCs on 2D or 3D surfaces of the 3 groups were statistically significant. Particularly, BGLAP and RUNX2 gene expression levels were highest in group C of freeze-dried films and were highest in group B of gel beads. Furthermore, the trend of immunofluorescence expression of RUNX2 and osteocalcin expression were consistent with the genetic testing results. CONCLUSIONS: All data indicated that sodium alginate-collagen scaffolding materials had no adverse impact on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hADSCs. Cell differentiation and proliferation of bone tissue engineering can be promoted with the use of sodium alginate and collagen interpenetrating network hydrogel, and the appropriate ratio of sodium alginate and collagen is 2:1.

8.
Plant Physiol ; 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764451

RESUMO

Nitrate acts as a vital signal molecule in the modulation of plant growth and development. The phytohormones gibberellin (GA) is also involved in this process. However, the exact molecular mechanism of how nitrate and GA signaling pathway work together in regulating plant growth remains poorly understood. In this study, we found that a nitrate-responsive BTB/TAZ protein MdBT2 participates in regulating nitrate-induced plant growth in apple (Malus × domestica). Yeast two-hybridization, protein pull-down, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays showed that MdBT2 interacts with a DELLA protein MdRGL3a, which is required for the ubiquitination and degradation of MdRGL3a proteins via a 26S proteasome-dependent pathway. Furthermore, heterologous expression of MdBT2 partially rescued growth inhibition caused by overexpression of MdRGL3a in Arabidopsis. Taken together, our findings indicate that MdBT2 promotes nitrate-induced plant growth partially through reducing the abundance of the DELLA protein MdRGL3a.

9.
Drug Metab Dispos ; 49(5): 361-368, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674270

RESUMO

The maintenance of homeostasis of cytochromes P450 enzymes (P450s) under both physiologic and xenobiotic exposure conditions is ensured by the action of positive and negative regulators. In the current study, the hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4A) antisense RNA 1 (HNF4A-AS1), an antisense long noncoding RNA of HNF4A, was found to be a negative regulator of the basal and rifampicin (RIF)-induced expression of nuclear receptors and downstream P450s. In Huh7 cells, knockdown of HNF4A-AS1 resulted in elevated expression of HNF4A, pregnane X receptor (PXR), and P450s (including CYP3A4) under both basal and RIF-induced conditions. Conversely, overexpression of HNF4A-AS1 led to decreased basal expression of constitutive androstane receptor, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, PXR, and all studied P450s. Of note, significantly diminished induction levels of PXR and CYP1A2, 2C8, 2C19, and 3A4 by RIF were also observed in HNF4A-AS1 plasmid-transfected Huh7 cells. Moreover, the negative feedback of HNF4A on HNF4A-AS1-mediated gene expression was validated using a loss-of-function experiment in this study. Strikingly, our data showed that increased enrichment levels of histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation and HNF4A in the CYP3A4 promoter contribute to the elevated CYP3A4 expression after HNF4A-AS1 knockdown. Overall, the current study reveals that histone modifications contribute to the negative regulation of nuclear receptors and P450s by HNF4A-AS1 in basal and drug-induced levels. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Utilizing loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments, the current study systematically investigated the negative regulation of HNF4A-AS1 on the expression of nuclear receptors (including HNF4A, constitutive androstane receptor, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and pregnane X receptor) and P450s (including CYP1A2, 2E1, 2B6, 2D6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, and 3A4) in both basal and rifampicin-induced levels in Huh7 cells. Notably, this study is the first to reveal the contribution of histone modification to the HNF4A-AS1-mediated expression of CYP3A4 in Huh7 cells.

10.
Adv Healthc Mater ; : e2002020, 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709499

RESUMO

Poor osteogenesis and implant-associated infection are the two leading causes of failure for dental and orthopedic implants. Surface design with enhanced osteogenesis often fails in antibacterial activity, or vice versa. Herein, a surface design strategy, which overcomes this trade-off via the synergistic effects of topographical micropatterning and a bilayered nanostructured metallic thin film is presented. A specific microgrooved pattern is fabricated on the titanium surface, followed by sequential deposition of a nanostructured copper (Cu)-containing tantalum (Ta) (TaCu) layer and a pure Ta cap layer. The microgrooved patterns coupled with the nanorough Ta cap layer shows strong contact guidance to preosteoblasts and significantly enhances the osteogenic differentiation in vitro, while the controlled local sustained release of Cu ions is responsible for high antibacterial activity. Importantly, rat calvarial defect models in vivo further confirm that the synergy of microgrooved patterns and the Ta|TaCu bilayered thin film on titanium surface could effectively promote bone regeneration. The present effective and versatile surface design strategy provides significant insight into intelligent surface engineering that can control biological response at the site of healing in dental and orthopedic implants.

11.
Cancer Biol Med ; 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710811

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Death receptor 4 (DR4; TRAIL-R1) critically mediates extrinsic apoptosis cascades via binding to TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). However, intrinsic and/or acquired resistance are observed in the clinical application of TRAIL. The aim of this study was to investigate the function and molecular mechanism of CD13 in the TRAIL/DR4 pathway against tumor cells, and provide a new strategy for improving therapeutic efficacy or overcoming TRAIL-resistance. METHODS: TRAIL protein was expressed as a secretory protein in a Pichia pastoris expression system and was isolated and purified by affinity chromatography. The cell viability and apoptosis were evaluated with MTT (thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide) assays and annexin V-FITC/PI staining with flow cytometry analysis, respectively. Western blot analysis was used to detect the levels of the indicated proteins in tumor cells. DR4 degradation or stability was examined with cycloheximide chase assays, and cell surface DR4 was assessed with flow cytometric analysis after staining with a FITC-conjugated antibody. The effects of cell migration were determined with Transwell and gelatin zymography assays. A xenograft nude mouse model was used to detect the anti-tumor effect in vivo, and the proliferation in tumor tissues was examined with immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS: CD13 inhibition potently sensitized tumor cells to TRAIL-induced killing, including proliferation inhibition, increased apoptosis, and migration suppression. In addition, the inhibition of CD13 elevated both total cellular expression and cell surface DR4 through stabilizing DR4 by suppressing its degradation. DR4 siRNA attenuated the enhanced anti-tumor effects of TRAIL plus CD13 inhibition. Interestingly, these phenomena were p-ERK1/2 independent, although p-ERK1/2 down-regulation was tightly correlated with the cooperation of TRAIL and CD13 inhibition. Moreover, a synergistic decrease in tumor growth was surprisingly achieved in the xenograft model by treatment of TRAIL with a CD13 inhibitor (**P < 0.01, CDI = 0.47). CONCLUSIONS: CD13 inhibition cooperates with TRAIL in enhancing DR4-mediated cell death, through the up-regulation and stabilization of DR4 in a p-ERK1/2-independent manner. Thus CD13 inhibition has emerged as an effective strategy for TRAIL/DR4-based therapy.

12.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(7): 1721-1729, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33746588

RESUMO

Objectives: Lymphovascular invasion (LVI) is correlated with unfavorable prognoses in several types of cancers. We aimed to identify the informative features associated with LVI and to determine its prognostic value in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 1,474 CRC patients admitted in Wuhan Union Hospital between 2013 and 2017 as the development cohort and 549 CRC patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database as the validation cohort. Logistical and Cox regression analyses were conducted to determine the oncological and prognostic significance of LVI in CRC patients. A survival nomogram based on LVI status was established using the Wuhan Union cohort and validated using TCGA cohort. Results: The LVI detection rates were 21.64% in the Wuhan Union cohort and 35.15% in TCGA cohort. LVI was closely correlated with advanced T stage, N stage, and TNM stage. LVI positivity was an independent biomarker for unfavorable overall survival (hazard ratio [HR]=2.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.70-2.96, P<0.0001) and worse disease-free survival (HR=2.34, 95% CI=1.76-3.12, P<0.0001) in CRC patients. The survival nomogram incorporating LVI exhibited good predictive performance and reliability in the Wuhan Union cohort and TCGA cohort. Conclusion: LVI is a significant indicator of advanced stage and is remarkably correlated with worse prognosis in CRC patients. The survival nomogram incorporating LVI may assist clinicians to better strategize the therapeutic options for patients with CRC.

13.
Plant J ; 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759251

RESUMO

Jasmonate (JA) induces the biosynthesis of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin. MdMYB9 is essential for the modulation of both anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin accumulation in apple, but the molecular mechanism for JA-induction of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthesis is unclear. In this study, we discovered an apple telomere-binding protein (MdTRB1) as the interacting protein of MdMYB9. A series of biological assays showed that MdTRB1 acted as a positive modulator of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin accumulation, which was dependent on MdMYB9. MdTRB1 interacted with MdMYB9 and enhanced the activation activity of MdMYB9 to its downstream genes. In addition, we found that the JA signaling repressor MdJAZ1 interacted with MdTRB1 and interfered with the interaction between MdTRB1 and MdMYB9, therefore negatively modulating MdTRB1-promoted anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthesis. These results show that the JAZ1-TRB1-MYB9 module dynamically modulates JA-mediated anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin accumulation. Taken together, our data further expands the functional study of TRB1 and provides insights for further studies on the JA modulation of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthesis.

14.
J Exp Bot ; 72(8): 3074-3090, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571997

RESUMO

Transitory starch is the portion of starch that is synthesized during the day in the chloroplast and usually used for plant growth overnight. Here, we report altered metabolism of transitory starch in the wxr1/wxr3 (weak auxin response 1/3) mutants of Arabidopsis. WXR1/WXR3 were previously reported to regulate root growth of young seedlings and affect the auxin response mediated by auxin polar transport in Arabidopsis. In this study the wxr1/wxr3 mutants accumulated transitory starch in cotyledon, young leaf, and hypocotyl at the end of night. WXR1/WXR3 expression showed diurnal variation. Grafting experiments indicated that the WXRs in root were necessary for proper starch metabolism and plant growth. We also found that photosynthesis was inhibited and the transcription level of DIN1/DIN6 (Dark-Inducible 1/6) was reduced in wxr1/wxr3. The mutants also showed a defect in the ionic equilibrium of Na+ and K+, consistent with our bioinformatics data that genes related to ionic equilibrium were misregulated in wxr1. Loss of function of WXR1 also resulted in abnormal trafficking of membrane lipids and proteins. This study reveals that the plastid proteins WXR1/WXR3 play important roles in promoting transitory starch degradation for plant growth over night, possibly through regulating ionic equilibrium in the root.

15.
Head Neck ; 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy is effective in improving disease-specific survival (DSS) in patients with follicular variant papillary thyroid cancer (FVPTC) without distant metastasis remains unclear. METHODS: Patients with FVPTC were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database between 2004 and 2015. The Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazards regression model were used to evaluate DSS. Propensity score-matched analysis was performed to reduce the influence of confounding bias. RESULTS: RAI did not improve DSS, even in patients with aggressive features such as T4 classification (p = 0.658), extrathyroidal extension (p = 0.083), lateral lymph node metastasis (p = 0.544), and ≥5 metastatic lymph nodes (p = 0.599). CONCLUSION: RAI did not affect DSS in patients with FVPTC without distant metastases in this SEER database study. Multicenter, prospective studies including recurrence and molecular information should be conducted to comprehensively evaluate the effects of RAI on FVPTC.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610681

RESUMO

FOXI1 plays a key role in the development of gastric cancer. However, the whole genome FOXI1 binding sites and its target genes are unclear. In the present study, we used ChIP-seq and RNA-seq technologies to identify the target gene of FOXI1. Firstly, ChIP-seq data showed that, 4476 unique peaks in the genome region were captured. Most of these binding peaks are located in introns or intergenic regions. We annotated all the peaks to the nearest gene and identified 404 genes as FOXI1 binding genes. KEGG and GO analysis showed that FOXI1 binding gene to be correlated with the cellular process, cell part, cell, binding, single-organism process. Further, we performed FOXI1-overexpressed RNA-seq experiment. We comprehensively analyzed the ChIP-seq and RNA-seq data and take the intersection of two databases, several genes were identified. ATF3 was selected from the intersection since ATF3 was the most enriched mRNA after FOXI1 overexpressed. ChIP-qPCR and luciferase report gene were used to validate that ATF3 was target gene of FOXI1. Intriguely, ATF3 protein was significantly downregulated after FOXI1 overexpressed. We found FOXI1 can also bind to the promoter of miR-590 and active it which directly target ATF3. The binding site between FOXI1 and miR-590 was verified by ChIP-qPCR and luciferase report gene, and the target relationship between miR-590 and ATF3 was confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter gene. In conclusion, our data identified the genome binding sites of FOXI1, and provide evidence that FOXI1 inhibits gastric cancer cell proliferation by activating miR-590/ATF3 axis.

17.
Endocr J ; 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518616

RESUMO

Cytotoxic chemotherapy, including cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine (CVD) therapy, is widely used to treat metastatic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Because these diseases are rare, studies are needed to establish treatment strategies. This was a single-center and retrospective study to analyze the efficacy of chemotherapy for patients with metastatic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma diagnosed in 1983-2020. Clinical characteristics, tumor volume response, biochemical response based on catecholamine level, overall survival, and progression-free survival were evaluated. Patients with a complete response or partial response in tumor volume or catecholamine level were classified as responders. Sixteen patients were administered chemotherapy for a median of 16.5 cycles (interquartile range, 10-42). The tumor volume response was classified as follows: partial response (N = 4), stable disease (N = 9), and progressive disease (N = 3) (disease control rate = 81%). The biochemical responses were as follows: complete response (N = 2), partial response (N = 5), no change (N = 3), and progressive disease (N = 1) (disease control rate = 91%). The 5-year survival rate was 50% (95% confidence interval [CI], 21-74%) and median overall survival was 4.4 years (95% CI, 2.4 years-not reached). Overall survival and progression-free survival between responders and nonresponders were not statistically different. One patient developed myelodysplastic syndrome during CVD therapy. In conclusion, chemotherapy achieved disease control among more than half of patients, although survival did not differ between responders and nonresponders. Further fundamental research and prospective trials are needed to analyze the efficacy of CVD therapy.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538049

RESUMO

Thyroid cancer appears in endocrine glands and specific to thyroid glands has been reported widely. This work was targeted to identify and quantify thyroglobulin by using antithyroglobulin antibody complexed silane surface on interdigitated electrode (IDE) sensing surface. (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane linker was used to make silane-coupling with antibody and attached on the hydroxylated IDE. This electroanalytical IDE revealed the dose-dependent responses with thyroglobulin concentrations. By getting increments with the thyroglobulin concentrations, the current responses were enhanced concomitantly and the thyroglobulin detection limit was noted as 1 pM on the linear curve [y = 0.1311x + 0.5386; R² = 0.9707] with the sensitivity at lower picomolar range. Moreover, the control experiments with thyroid peroxidase and nonimmune antibody cannot yield any response of current, confirming the specific detection of thyroglobulin. This research set-up is useful to determine and quantify the thyroglobulin and diagnose thyroid cancer.

19.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617633

RESUMO

Plant long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) function in diverse biological processes, and lncRNA expression is under epigenetic regulation, including by cytosine DNA methylation. However, it remains unclear whether 5-methylcytosine (5mC) play a similar role in different sequence contexts (CG, CHG, and CHH). In this study, we characterized and compared the profiles of genome-wide lncRNA profiles (including long intergenic non-coding RNAs [lincRNAs] and long noncoding natural antisense transcripts [lncNATs]) of a null mutant of the rice DNA methyltransferase 1, OsMET1-2 (designated OsMET1-2-/-) and its isogenic wild type (OsMET1-2+/+). The En/Spm transposable element (TE) family, which was heavily methylated in OsMET1-2+/+, was transcriptionally de-repressed in OsMET1-2-/- due to genome-wide erasure of CG methylation, and this led to abundant production of specific lncRNAs. In addition, RdDM-mediated CHH hypermethylation was increased in the 5'-upstream genomic regions of lncRNAs in OsMET1-2-/-. The positive correlation between the expression of lincRNAs and that of their proximal protein-coding genes was also analyzed. Our study shows that CG methylation negatively regulates the TE-related expression of lncRNA and demonstrates that CHH methylation is also involved in the regulation of lncRNA expression.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606065

RESUMO

The expression status of programmed cell death-ligand 1/programmed cell death 1 (PD-L1/PD-1) and the infiltration of CD8+ T cells in tumor tissues are considered to be related to immunotherapy efficacy and patient prognosis. The purpose of this study is to clarify the prognostic value of the PD-L1/PD-1/CD8 axis, and to develop and validate a comprehensive scoring system based on multiple immune variables to predict cancer survival of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) after radical nephroureterectomy (RNU). The immunohistochemical method was used to detect the expression of PD-L1, PD-1, and CD8 in cancer tissues of UTUC patients after RNU. Then, an immunoscore was constructed using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) Cox regression model in the training cohort (n = 120), and it was verified in the validation cohort (n = 54). We found that infiltration of PD-L1+ immune cells (ICs), stromal PD-1+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), and intratumoral CD8+ TILs was associated with poor overall survival (OS). The immunoscore based on the three immune variables further divided the patients into low- and high-risk groups, and there was a significant difference in the survival rate. A nomogram was constructed by combining tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage and immunoscore, and the area under the curve of the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) (0.78) for predicting 5-year mortality was better than that of the TNM stage (0.70) and immunoscore (0.76). Our results show that the PD-L1/PD-1/CD8 axis-based classifier have potential clinical application to predict cancer survival of UTUC patients after RNU.

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