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1.
Chemosphere ; 282: 131068, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107421

RESUMO

Metal organic framework (MOF) nanoparticles are recognized for their effective removal of metal ions from aqueous systems. However, the application of nanoparticles in a powder form as synthesized is not practical and recovery is not easy. We prepared a recyclable magnetic MOF nanoparticle phase and used a widely available waste biomass to generate biochar to support magnetic nanoparticles applied in the treatment of aqueous antimony pollution. A mushroom waste biochar was used to support a magnetic UIO-66-2COOH (denoted as BSMU). Adsorption of trivalent antimony (Sb (III)) onto the BSMU was evaluated. The results showed that optimum conditions for preparation of the BSMU were the mass ratio of MMOF to biochar 4:1, the temperature 70 °C, the time 4 h, and the initiator 4 mM. Under such conditions, sorption capacity reached 56.49 mg/g for treatment of Sb (III) solution at 100 mg/L and pH 9.1. Alkaline conditions (such as pH 9.1) are more favorable for adsorption than acidic conditions, and coexisting ions including NO3-, Cl-, SO42-, and PO43- had no significant negative effect in adsorption, and with the use of low dose, higher adsorption density achieved. The adsorption followed a pseudo second order kinetics model and Freundlich isotherm model. It resulted in a higher enthalpy changes (ΔHθ) and activation energy (Ea) of 97.56 and 8.772 kJ/mol, respectively, and enhanced the rate pf random contact between antimony and the BSMU, as indicated by a higher entropy change (ΔSθ) up to 360 J/mol·K. As a result, it readily absorbs antimony. These adsorption properties identified in this study would provide a valuable insights into the application of nanoparticles loaded biochar from abundant biomass in environmental remediation.

2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 257, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Roses are famous ornamental plants worldwide. Floral coloration is one of the most prominent traits in roses and is mainly regulated through the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. In this study, we investigated the key genes and metabolites of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway involved in color mutation in miniature roses. A comparative metabolome and transcriptome analysis was carried out on the Neptune King rose and its color mutant, Queen rose, at the blooming stage. Neptune King rose has light pink colored petals while Queen rose has deep pink colored petals. RESULT: A total of 190 flavonoid-related metabolites and 38,551 unique genes were identified. The contents of 45 flavonoid-related metabolites, and the expression of 15 genes participating in the flavonoid pathway, varied significantly between the two cultivars. Seven anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-O-glucosyl-malonylglucoside, cyanidin O-syringic acid, cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside, cyanidin 3-O-galactoside, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, peonidin 3-O-glucoside chloride, and pelargonidin 3-O-glucoside) were found to be the major metabolites, with higher abundance in the Queen rose. Thirteen anthocyanin biosynthetic related genes showed an upregulation trend in the mutant flower, which may favor the higher levels of anthocyanins in the mutant. Besides, eight TRANSPARENT TESTA 12 genes were found upregulated in Queen rose, probably contributing to a high vacuolar sequestration of anthocyanins. Thirty transcription factors, including two MYB and one bHLH, were differentially expressed between the two cultivars. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides important insights into major genes and metabolites of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway modulating flower coloration in miniature rose. The results will be conducive for manipulating the anthocyanin pathways in order to engineer novel miniature rose cultivars with specific colors.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Flores/metabolismo , Rosa/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Metaboloma , Pigmentação , Rosa/genética
3.
Exp Gerontol ; 152: 111439, 2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the association of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) with gait speed, but whether the NLR is predictive of slow gait speed in older adults remains unknown. The aim of this study is to examine the association of NLR levels with risk of slow gait speed development in older adults. METHODS: Overall, 1753 participants (53.11% male, aged 60-92 years, with a mean age of 77.01 ± 4.27 years) from the second wave of the Rugao Longitudinal Aging Study were included. The second wave was recognized as the baseline in this study. Gait speed was measured using a 5-m walk test at baseline and at the 3.5-year follow-up. A slow gait speed was considered a walking speed less than 0.8 m/s. The NLR was calculated based on absolute blood neutrophil and lymphocyte counts. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between NLR levels and slow gait speed. RESULTS: In the cross-sectional analysis, 394 individuals were identified as having slow gait speed. We found that increased NLR levels were associated with a higher risk of slow gait speed in older adults with and without comorbidities (P-value <0.05). During the 3.5-year follow-up period, 440 individuals had developed new-onset slowness. After confounding factors were controlled, increased NLR levels were significantly and independently associated with an increased risk of slow gait speed among older adults with (odds ratio [OR] 3.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.87-7.89) and without (OR 3.29, 95% CI: 1.54-7.10) comorbidities. CONCLUSION: The NLR is an inexpensive and easily obtainable inflammatory biomarker that robustly and independently predicts slow gait speed risk in older adults.

4.
Chin J Integr Med ; 2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060025

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To obtain the subtypes of the clinical hypertension population based on symptoms and to explore the relationship between hypertension and comorbidities. METHODS: The data set was collected from the Chinese medicine (CM) electronic medical records of 33,458 hypertension inpatients in the Affiliated Hospital of Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine between July 2014 and May 2017. Then, a hypertension disease comorbidity network (HDCN) was built to investigate the complicated associations between hypertension and their comorbidities. Moreover, a hypertension patient similarity network (HPSN) was constructed with patients' shared symptoms, and 7 main hypertension patient subgroups were identified from HPSN with a community detection method to exhibit the characteristics of clinical phenotypes and molecular mechanisms. In addition, the significant symptoms, diseases, CM syndromes and pathways of each main patient subgroup were obtained by enrichment analysis. RESULTS: The significant symptoms and diseases of these patient subgroups were associated with different damaged target organs of hypertension. Additionally, the specific phenotypic features (symptoms, diseases, and CM syndromes) were consistent with specific molecular features (pathways) in the same patient subgroup. CONCLUSION: The utility and comprehensiveness of disease classification based on community detection of patient networks using shared CM symptom phenotypes showed the importance of hypertension patient subgroups.

5.
Chemosphere ; 278: 130453, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126685

RESUMO

A method quantifying 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in wood vinegars (WVs) obtained from slow pyrolysis of biomass with ultrasonic-assisted liquid-liquid extraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (USALLE/GC-MS) was established. The recovery range was 83-128%, and the relative standard deviations (RSD%) were less than 15% except naphthalene, acenaphthylene and acenaphthene. Acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene were observed in all samples and the other 9 compounds, including benzopyrene (B[a]P), were not detected. The concentration of ∑PAHs referred to the sum total of 7 PAHs mentioned above was 22.0-498.3 µg L-1. The PAHs concentration increased with the increasing pyrolysis temperature in bamboo willow WV, pinus sylvestris WV, and corncob WV, while it increased initially, and then decreased with a maximum at 550 °C in rice husk WV. The ∑PAHs concentration increased with a higher heating rate in the white pine WV, while rice husk WV and cornstalk WV showed the opposite trend. The varied condensed aromatic ring number showed that 3-ring PAHs relatively were the main component in all kind WVs. 3-ring PAHs increased with increasing temperatures, while 4-ring PAHs showed an opposite trend in sawdust WV and corncob WVs. A higher cellulose content in sawdust enhanced the reaction of lignin leading to a higher concentration of PAHs than that in straws and leaves. Calculations of the toxicity equivalents of PAHs in WVs indicated that anthracene was the most toxic among the PAHs, and the pinus sylvestris WV had the highest risk of ∑PAHs toxicity in all WVs.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Ácido Acético , Biomassa , Metanol , Pirólise , Medição de Risco
6.
Nanomicro Lett ; 13(1): 68, 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138332

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) perovskites solar cells (PSCs) have attracted considerable attention owing to their excellent stability against humidity; however, some imperfectness of 2D perovskites, such as poor crystallinity, disordered orientation, and inferior charge transport still limit the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2D PSCs. In this work, 2D Ti3C2Tx MXene nanosheets with high electrical conductivity and mobility were employed as a nanosized additive to prepare 2D Ruddlesden-Popper perovskite films. The PCE of solar cells was increased from 13.69 (without additive) to 15.71% after incorporating the Ti3C2Tx nanosheets with an optimized concentration. This improved performance is attributed to the enhanced crystallinity, orientation, and passivated trap states in the 3D phase that result in accelerated charge transfer process in vertical direction. More importantly, the unencapsulated cells exhibited excellent stability under ambient conditions with 55 ± 5% relative humidity.

7.
Clin Interv Aging ; 16: 985-996, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34079244

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aimed to explore the current prevalence, causes, and factors associated with visual impairment in a Chinese elderly population. Methods: A random sample of 2164 candidates aged ≥70 years was selected. Among them, 1914 participants (response rate: 88.4%) underwent comprehensive eye examinations. The prevalence and causes of visual impairment were estimated, and the associated factors were identified. Results: The standardized prevalence of mild visual impairment (<6/12 to ≥6/18), moderate to severe visual impairment (MSVI) (<6/18 to ≥3/60), and blindness (<3/60) in the better eye were 20.5%, 25.8%, and 3.4%, respectively. The leading cause of visual impairment was cataract (49.7%), followed by uncorrected refractive error (26.5%), myopic maculopathy (5.8%), and posterior capsular opacification (5.5%). Optical coherence tomography revealed that vitreoretinal interface abnormalities were the third most common cause of monocular mild visual impairment (2.2%) and MSVI (4.4%) in the elderly population. A large number of patients with visual impairment (81.7%) were amenable to undergo the interventions. Visual impairment was associated with advanced age (odds ratio [OR], 1.09 per year; p<0.001), female sex (OR, 1.59; p=0.003), self-reported visual impairment (OR, 1.91; p<0.001), cognitive impairment (OR, 1.40, p=0.005), and high educational level (OR, 0.75; primary, p=0.045; and OR, 0.53, secondary or higher; p<0.001). Conclusion: Visual impairment was common in the Chinese elderly population and a severe health and social problem. Practicable policies are urgently needed to popularize eye health knowledge and promote treatments for visual impairment in elderly people in rural China.


Assuntos
Longevidade , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia , Acuidade Visual , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Cegueira/epidemiologia , Catarata/epidemiologia , Causalidade , China/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Doenças Retinianas/epidemiologia , Baixa Visão/epidemiologia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111013

RESUMO

This article focuses on the investigation of finite-time dissipative state estimation for Markov jump neural networks. First, in view of the subsistent phenomenon that the state estimator cannot capture the system modes synchronously, the hidden Markov model with partly unknown probabilities is introduced in this article to describe such asynchronization constraint. For the upper limit of network bandwidth and computing resources, a novel dynamic event-triggered transmission mechanism, whose threshold parameter is constructed as an adjustable diagonal matrix, is set between the estimator and the original system to avoid data collision and save energy. Then, with the assistance of Lyapunov techniques, an event-based asynchronous state estimator is designed to ensure that the resulting system is finite-time bounded with a prescribed dissipation performance index. Ultimately, the effectiveness of the proposed estimator design approach combining with a dynamic event-triggered transmission mechanism is demonstrated by a numerical example.

9.
Clin Pharmacokinet ; 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated plasma ammonia is central to the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. Sodium phenylacetate or glycerol phenylbutyrate is approved for urea cycle disorders, but limited clinical data are available for hepatic encephalopathy. Phenylacetic acid (PAA) plasma exposure has been reported to correlate with neurologic adverse events in patients with cancer but not in patients with urea cycle disorders or hepatic encephalopathy. Ornithine phenylacetate, an intravenous dosage form of the L-ornithine salt of phenylacetate, is under development for hepatic encephalopathy. OBJECTIVE: This analysis summarized the pharmacokinetics and safety of ornithine phenylacetate to support the dosing strategy and to assist with the monitoring and management of neurologic adverse events in a global clinical development program. METHODS: Phenylacetic acid and phenylacetylglutamine (PAGN) pharmacokinetic data and adverse events from five clinical studies were included in the analysis. Hepatic and renal dysfunction were assessed by baseline Child-Pugh score and creatinine clearance, respectively. Predicted plasma exposures of PAA at the occurrence of neurologic adverse events were used for exposures and neurologic adverse event analysis. RESULTS: Phenylacetic acid exhibited nonlinear pharmacokinetics. Phenylacetic acid exposure was 35% higher in Child-Pugh C than in Child-Pugh B. No significant pharmacokinetic difference was identified between Caucasian and Asian subjects after body weight adjustment. Phenylacetylglutamine renal clearance decreased by five-fold in severe renal impairment compared with subjects with normal renal function. Renal dysfunction significantly elevated PAGN plasma concentrations; however, elevated PAGN due to reduced excretion of PAGN did not change PAA exposure and plasma ammonia levels. No correlation was observed between PAA plasma exposure and neurologic adverse events in patients with stable cirrhosis or acute hepatic encephalopathy. CONCLUSIONS: Dose adjustment should be considered for patients with low body weight and severely impaired hepatic function. Phenylacetic acid plasma exposure was not correlated with neurologic adverse events in the ornithine phenylacetate target patient population.

10.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 204: 111803, 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964529

RESUMO

The hypoxic tumor environment prevents the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reducing the therapeutic efficiency. We construct oleylamine (OA) coated CaO2/Fe3O4 nanocomposites to realize oxygen-independent generation of ROS and high efficient treatment of cancer. In the tumor site, CaO2 reacts with water to generate H2O2, which can be catalized by Fe2+ that is produced by Fe3O4, to form highly toxic hydroxyl radicals (∙OH). To inhibit the premature reaction, CaO2/Fe3O4 nanoparticles were coated with pH sensitive OA. The nanocomposites exhibited remarkable tumor growth inhibition ability and favorable biocompatibility, holding a great potential for hypoxic tumor therapy.

11.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-21, 2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34024293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have been conducted to investigate the association of kidney function decline with the trajectories of homocysteine (Hcy) over time, using repeated measurements. We aimed to investigate the association of kidney function with changes in plasma Hcy levels over time. METHODS: Data were collected from the Rugao Longevity and Ageing Study. In detail, plasma Hcy and creatinine levels were measured in both waves (waves 2, 3 and 4) during the 3.5-year follow-up (N = 1135). Wave 2 was regarded as the baseline survey. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated based on creatinine. Subjects were categorized into four groups according to quartiles of eGFR at baseline. Linear mixed-effect models were used to investigate the association of eGFR with subsequent plasma Hcy levels. RESULTS: The mean eGFR at baseline was 90.84 (11.42) mL/min/1.73 m2. The mean plasma Hcy level was 14.09 (6.82) at baseline and increased to 16.28 (8.27) and 17.36 (10.39) µmol/L during follow-ups. In the crude model, the interaction between time and eGFR at baseline was significant (ß = -0.02, 95% CI: -0.02 to -0.01, p = 0.002). After adjusting for confounding factors, a significant relationship remained (ß = -0.02, 95% CI: -0.02 to -0.01, p = 0.003), suggesting that kidney function decline at baseline was associated with a faster increase in Hcy levels. CONCLUSION: Kidney function decline is associated with a more pronounced increase in plasma Hcy levels. Further studies with longer follow-up periods and larger sample sizes are needed to validate our findings.

12.
Psychogeriatrics ; 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33960060

RESUMO

AIM: To explore the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between social frailty (SF) and incident depressive symptoms in a Chinese population. METHODS: SF was measured with 6 questions (6 points maximum; 0-1 = non-SF, 2-3 = pre-SF, 4-6 = SF). Depressive symptoms were defined as a score of ≥6 on the Geriatric Depression Scale. Compared to baseline, participants with a ≥2-point increase in the Geriatric Depression Scale score were considered to have worsening depressive symptoms. RESULTS: At baseline, among 1764 participants, 9.9% (n = 175) had depressive symptoms, 3.6% (n = 61) were SF, and 38.2% (n = 650) were pre-SF. The percentage of depressive symptoms increased with SF status from 5.1% (non-SF) to 12.9% (pre-SF), to 41.0% (SF). In cross-sectional analysis, after adjustments for multiple covariates, depressive symptoms were significantly associated with both pre-SF (odds ratio (OR) = 2.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.01-4.32) and SF (OR = 16.70, 95% CI 8.80-31.71). During the 3-year follow-up period, 10.0% (n = 117) of the participants developed depressive symptoms. In longitudinal analyses, after multiple adjustments, SF and pre-SF were associated with a 2.31-fold (95% CI 1.10-4.88) and 1.58-fold (95% CI 1.05-2.38) increased risk of incidence of depressive symptoms, respectively. Among participants without depressive symptoms at baseline, 23.2% had worsening depressive symptoms, and SF was associated with increased risk of worsening depressive symptoms (OR = 2.07, 95% CI 1.18-3.65). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested that SF may be a predictor of depression among Chinese community-dwelling older adults. In addition, in elders with no depressive symptoms at baseline, those with SF had greater odds of worsening depressive symptoms 3 years later.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In contrast to pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), PVR index (PVRI) accounts for variations in body habitus. We tested the association of PVRI compared to PVR with clinical outcomes in lean and obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). METHODS: This retrospective study included adult patients with PAH who underwent right heart catheterization at Cleveland Clinic between February 1992 and November 2019. RESULTS: We included 644 patients (mean age, 53 ± 16 years, and 74 % females). PAH was idiopathic or heritable in 44% of patients. Cardiac output increased (p <0.0001), while PVR decreased (p <0.0001) with increasing body weight. Both PVR and PVRI were associated with markers of disease severity, with more pronounced association for PVRI. Both PVR and PVRI were risk factors for first PAH hospitalization, mortality and mortality or lung transplant in the whole cohort and the group of patients with BMI < 30 kg/m2. However, PVRI (HR (95% CI): 1.06 (1.02 -1.11)), but not PVR (HR (95% CI): 1.03 (0.99-1.07)), was a risk factor for first PAH hospitalization in obese patients. In the obese group, neither PVR nor PVRI were risk factors for mortality. CONCLUSIONS: PVRI appears to have a stronger association than PVR with disease severity markers in PAH; however, both PVR and PVRI were similarly associated with hospitalizations and survival in the overall cohort. We found no strong evidence to recommend a change from PVR to PVRI in the definition of PAH.

14.
J Biomater Appl ; : 8853282211018567, 2021 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053306

RESUMO

Natural polymer material-based hydrogels normally show inferior mechanical stability and strength to bear large deformation and cyclic loading, therefore their applications in food, biomedical and tissue engineering fields are greatly limited. In this study, gelatin-based hydrogels with remarkable stability, as well as tunable mechanical properties, were prepared via a facile method known as the Hofmeister effect. The higher concentration of potassium sulfatesolution resulted in more dehydration and molecular chain folding, thus the treated hydrogels showed significantly improved tensile and compressive modulus, and decreased equilibrium swelling ratio, as revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infraredspectroscopy (FTIR), and mechanical tests, etc. Additionally, the reinforced hydrogels were recoverable and biocompatible to modulate the proliferation behavior of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In conclusion, this paper provides a facile reference for tuning mechanical properties of gelatin-based hydrogels and cell-hydrogel interactions, which show potential capacity in tissue engineering and biomedical fields.

15.
Brain Res ; : 147519, 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991493

RESUMO

Glutamate excitotoxicity plays a role in spinal cord injury (SCI). This study aimed to explore whether electroacupuncture (EA) improved the functional recovery of spinal cord anterior horn neurons of rats with acute SCI by regulating the GluR1 AMPA subunit in the SCI area. Eighty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: sham operation, model, AMPA antagonist (DNQX), EA and DNQX+EA group (n=16/group). The models were obtained by using the modified Allen's impact method. DNQX was given by intrathecal injection 0.5 h after modeling. EA was performed at the "Dazhui" and "Mingmen" acupoints for 30 min at 0.5, 12, and 24 h. The BBB scores were evaluated before modeling and at 6, 24, and 48 h after modeling. Histopathological changes were evaluated. GluR1 expression was evaluated through immunofluorescence and western blot. Compared to the sham group, the BBB scores at 6, 24, and 48 h in the model group were all lower. The BBB scores and histopathological changes in the EA, DNQX and DNQX+EA group were between that of the sham and model group. GluR1 expression in the model group was higher than the sham group. Compared with the model group, the expression of GluR1 protein in the EA, DNQX, and DNQX+EA group was decreased, but similar among the three treatment groups, supporting the histopathological observations. In conclusion, these findings indicated that EA treatment might inhibit GluR1 expression, thus contributing to prevention of secondary nerve injury after primary acute SCI.

16.
Gerontology ; : 1-9, 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000721

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Healthy Ageing Index (HAI) has been shown not only to have wider applicability and predictive ability but also to adequately predict mortality in Western populations. There is still a lack of studies validating the applicability of the HAI in China. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the applicability of the HAI and validate whether the HAI is suitable for monitoring ageing in the elderly population in China. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Rugao Longevity and Ageing Study. The modified HAI was constructed based on systolic blood pressure, chronic pulmonary diseases, cognitive function, fasting glucose, and kidney function. It was calculated in 1719 individuals aged 70-84 years at baseline. The adverse outcomes were mortality and disability. Demographic, physiologic, and clinical data were collected. Cox proportional hazards and logistic regression models were used to analyze the relationship between the modified HAI and adverse outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 1,719 older adults were analyzed in our study. A total of 793 (46.13%) males were recruited. The mean age was 75.69 ± 3.93 years. At the 5-year follow-up, there were 266 deaths and 275 individuals with disabilities. In the multivariable models, the modified HAI was associated with mortality (hazard ratio = 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.20) and disability (odds ratio = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.05-1.18). In the sensitivity analyses, similar associations remained after imputing missing data using multiple imputation and excluding participants with major cardiovascular disease at baseline. CONCLUSION: The modified HAI was a robust and independent predictor of adverse outcomes. It is a valid and feasible tool for monitoring ageing in older adults.

17.
Br J Cancer ; 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33981015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The function of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules is to bind peptide fragments derived from genomic mutations or pathogens and display them on the cell surface for recognition by cognate T cells to initiate an immune response. METHODS: In this study, we provide a comprehensive investigation of HLA gene expression in a pan-cancer manner involving 33 cancer types. We utilised gene expression data from several databases and immune checkpoint blockade-treated patient cohorts. RESULTS: We show that MHC expression varies strongly among cancer types and is associated with several genomic and immunological features. While immune cell infiltration was generally higher in tumours with higher HLA gene expression, CD4+ T cells showed significantly different correlations among cancer types, separating them into two clusters. Furthermore, we show that increased HLA gene expression is associated with prolonged survival in the majority of cancer types. Lastly, HLA gene expression is associated with patient response to immune checkpoint blockade, which is especially prominent for HLA class II expression in tumour biopsies taken during treatment. CONCLUSION: We show that HLA gene expression is an important feature of tumour biology that has significant impact on patient prognosis.

18.
Eye (Lond) ; 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976397

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the association of plasma homocysteine levels with retinal layer thickness in a large community cohort of older adults. METHODS: The Rugao Longevity and Ageing Study is an observational, prospective and community-based cohort study. A total of 989 older adults who underwent spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) were included and analyzed. Foveal, macular retinal nerve fibre layer (mRNFL) and ganglion cell layer plus inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) thicknesses were measured by SD-OCT. Plasma homocysteine levels were measured using chemiluminescence immunoassay. Linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between plasma homocysteine and retinal layer thickness while controlling for confounding factors. RESULTS: Of the 989 participants, 500 (50.56%) were men. The mean age was 78.26 (4.58) years, and the mean plasma homocysteine level was 16.38 (8.05) µmol/L. In multivariable analyses, each unit increase in plasma homocysteine was associated with an 8.84 × 10-2 (95% CI: -16.54 × 10-2 to -1.15 × 10-2, p = 0.032) µm decrease in the average inner thickness of the GC-IPL after controlling for confounding factors. The association remained significant even in participants without major cardiovascular disease or diabetes (ß = -10.33 × 10-2, 95% CI: -18.49 × 10-2 to -2.18 × 10-2, p = 0.013). No significant associations of plasma homocysteine levels with macular thickness or mRNFL were found in primary and sensitivity analyses (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Increased plasma homocysteine levels are associated with a thinner GC-IPL. Plasma homocysteine may be a risk factor for thinner retinas in older adults.

19.
Sci Total Environ ; 788: 147787, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034180

RESUMO

Rivers are widely reported as CO2-emitting hotpots and are attracting increasing attention worldwide. However, less attention has been given to the CO2 emission from the suburban rivers which are experiencing rapid watershed urbanization and increasing anthropogenic stress. Here, two small suburban rivers in Southwest China were studied, and seasonal sampling campaigns with high spatial resolution were carried out to explore the characterization of partial pressure (pCO2) and CO2 efflux and their possible controls. The results showed that, the pCO2 and estimated CO2 fluxes from the two suburban rivers ranged from 37 to 6466 µatm (mean of 1293 ± 1126 µatm) and -72-1569 mmol·m-2·d-1 (mean of 185 ± 240 mmol·m-2·d-1), respectively. And, both of them exhibited disproportionately high variability and acted as strong CO2 emitters to the atmosphere. The pCO2 in the two suburban rivers showed significant spatial variability, with urban sections having 2-2.5 times higher values than exurban sections, and, the urban land use proportion in the basins accounted for 35%-67% of such spatial variation in pCO2. The sewage-dominated urban tributaries had much higher pCO2 and acted as an obvious exciter to the high pCO2 in urban sections of suburban rivers. Carbon and nutrients concentrations also accounted for the spatial variation in pCO2 and fCO2 in the two suburban rivers, and acted as good indicators. The seasonal variation in pCO2, with the highest values in autumn and lowest values in spring, was controlled by the precipitation dilution effect and seasonal temperature as well as the boosted primary production at several urban sites. We highlighted that small suburban rivers showed disproportionally high spatial variability in pCO2 and CO2 fluxes in their limited basin areas due to the development of urbanization, and could be used as a good model for studying the complex impacts of anthropogenic disturbances on river carbon biogeochemical processes.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34036500

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the association between ambient particulate matters (PMs) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mortality. generalized additive mixed model was employed to investigate the effects of ambient fine and coarse PMs on COPD mortality using 13,066 deaths from 2014 to 2016 among six cities in Zhejiang Province in Southeastern China. The daily average death count due to COPD was 3, varying from 1 to 7 among six cities. The daily 24-h mean concentrations were diverse among cities, from 29.7 to 56.8 µg/m3 for PM2.5, 16.7 to 30.3 µg/m3 for PM2.5-10, and 50.3 to 87.1 µg/m3 for PM10, respectively. The analysis showed that daily exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 was associated with increased mortality due to COPD and that weak effects were observed between PM2.5-10 and COPD mortality. Our results provided solid evidence that the fine particles in air pollution have stronger functions on adverse health effects other than coarser particles in Southeastern China, which may be considered as a potential clinic target in PM-associated COPD.

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