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1.
Surg Today ; 2021 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389191

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) is associated with prolonged hospital stay and higher healthcare costs. This study aimed to investigate the risk factors for DGE after D3 radical resection for colon cancer and to build a nomogram for this complication. METHODS: We analyzed, retrospectively, 1160 consecutive patients who underwent surgery with D3 lymphadenectomy for colon cancer between January, 2012 and June, 2018. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the risk factors for DGE and to build a DGE nomogram model. RESULTS: There were ten, six and four patients with DGE classified as grades A, B and C, respectively, representing a DGE rate of 1.7%. Multivariate analysis revealed that age (P = 0.001), dissection of the gastrocolic ligament lymph nodes (GCLNs) (P = 0.001), surgical duration (P = 0.017) and preoperative hemoglobin level (P = 0.016) were independent risk factors, and were included to build a predictive model for DGE. The therapeutic index of GCLN dissection was approximately half that of D3 lymphadenectomy (2.9 vs. 5.6). CONCLUSIONS: DGE is more likely to develop in patients aged > 75 years, those with a preoperative hemoglobin < 90 g/L, those with a surgical duration > 210 min, and those who undergo GCLN dissection. The nomogram may facilitate the stratification of patients at risk for DGE following D3 lymphadenectomy for colon cancer. Assessing long-term outcomes will help to evaluate the survival benefit of GCLN dissection in the future, to avoid unnecessary dissection and reduce the incidence of DGE.

2.
Int J Colorectal Dis ; 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398511

RESUMO

AIM: To identify the optimal interval from the end of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy to surgery (CRT-surgery interval) based on long-term oncological outcome of locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). METHODS: Retrospective data analysis is reported from patients diagnosed with cT3 or T4 or TxN+ rectal cancer who underwent neoadjuvant treatment and curative-intent surgery between January 2010 and December 2018. With a priority focus on the effect of interval on oncological prognosis, we used recurrence-free survival (RFS) as the primary endpoint to determine the best cutoff point of time intervals. Then, the short-term and long-term outcomes of patients from longer and shorter interval groups were compared. RESULTS: Data from 910 patients were analyzed, with 185 patients who achieved pCR (20.3%). The trend for increased rates of pCR for groups with a prolonged time interval was not observed (P = 0.808). X-tile determined a cutoff value of 10.5 weeks, and the population was divided into longer (> 10 weeks) and shorter (≤ 10 weeks) interval groups. The shorter interval was associated with a higher wound infection rate (4.7% vs. 1.1%, P = 0.031), but other postoperative complications did not differ between the groups. The 5-year RFS rate was significantly higher in patients in a longer group than those in the shorter weeks group (86.8% vs. 77.8%, P = 0.016). The 5-year OS rates between groups were similar (84.1% vs. 82.5%, P = 0.257). Local recurrence and lung metastases rates were higher in shorter interval group than those of longer group (local recurrence rate: 1.7% vs. 5.1%, P = 0.049; lung metastases rate: 5.7% vs. 10.7%, P = 0.047). Cox multivariate regression analysis confirmed the CRT-surgery interval (HR = 0.599, P = 0.045) to be an independent prognostic factor of RFS. CONCLUSION: This study is the first, to the best of our knowledge, to define the optimal CRT-surgery interval based on RFS as the primary endpoint. Prolonging the waiting period to 10 weeks after the completion of CRT with additional chemotherapy cycles during the interval period might be a promising option to improve oncological survival in LARC patients treated with CRT and TME without compromising the surgical safety. Further randomized controlled trials investigating this are warranted to prove a clearly causality.

3.
Neuroimage ; 225: 117517, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137475

RESUMO

Macaques are the most common nonhuman primate (NHP) species used in neuroscience research. With the advancement of many neuroimaging techniques, new studies are beginning to apply multiple types of in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), such as structural imaging (sMRI) with T1 and T2 weighted contrasts alongside diffusion weighed (DW) imaging. In studies involving rhesus macaques, this approach can be used to better understand micro-structural changes that occur during development, in various disease states or with normative aging. However, many of the available rhesus brain atlases have been designed for only one imaging modality, making it difficult to consistently define the same brain regions across multiple imaging modalities in the same subject. To address this, we created a brain atlas from 18 adult rhesus macaques that includes co-registered templates constructed from images frequently used to characterize macroscopic brain structure (T2/SPACE and T1/MP-RAGE), and a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) template. The DTI template was up-sampled from 1 mm isotropic resolution to resolution match to the T1 and T2-weighted images (0.5 mm isotropic), and the parameter maps were derived for FA, AD, RD and MD.The labelmap volumes delineate 57 gray matter regions of interest (ROIs; 36 cortical regions and 21 subcortical structures), as well as 74 white matter tracts. Importantly, the labelmap overlays both the structural and diffusion templates, enabling the same regions to be consistently identified across imaging modalities. A specialized condensed version of the labelmap ROIs are also included to further extend the usefulness of this tool for imaging data with lower spatial resolution, such as functional MRI (fMRI) or positron emission tomography (PET).

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 757: 143825, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33280872

RESUMO

Due to the enhancement of human activities on the global scale, the total amount of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition and the rate keep increasing, which seriously affect the structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems. In order to study the effects of N deposition on the soil structure and function of coastal saline wetlands, we established a long-term nitrogen deposition simulation platform in 2012 in the Yellow River delta (YRD). Herein, we analyzed the composition and diversity of the soil microbial community under different N deposition treatments (LNN, MNN and HNN, which stand for 50 kg N ha-1 yr-1, 100 kg N ha-1 yr-1, and 200 kg N ha-1 yr-1) and in a water-only control (CK). The results showed that with the increasing level of N deposition, α-diversity (Shannon and Simpson indices) decreased significantly, and the composition of the microbial community changed. At the phylum level, compared with CK, the relative abundance of Chloroflexi increased significantly under the treatment of HNN (P = 0.002), but the relative abundance of Chlorobi (P = 0.013) and Verrucomicrobia (P = 0.035) decreased significantly. At the genus level, compared with CK, the relative abundance of Bacillus (P = 0.01) and Halomonas (P = 0.042) increased significantly with HNN treatment. Bacillus and Nitrococcus showed a significant correlation with soil NH4+-N. The results suggest that the response of microorganisms to N deposition treatments varied by the concentration, and the deposition of a high concentration would increase the nutrients in the soil, but reduce the diversity of soil microorganisms, causing a negative impact on the coastal wetland ecosystem of the YRD.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Áreas Alagadas , China , Humanos , Nitrogênio/análise , Rios , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
5.
Int J Colorectal Dis ; 36(2): 311-322, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975595

RESUMO

AIM: To perform a network meta-analysis of the current literature to evaluate the short-term and long-term outcomes of four operations for splenic flexure tumors. METHODS: An electronic literature search of PubMed, Baidu Scholar, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases was performed up to August 2020. A Bayesian network meta-analysis was utilized to compare the outcomes involved in subtotal colectomy (STC), extended right hemicolectomy (ERHC), standard left hemicolectomy (LHC), and splenic flexure colectomy (SFC) by using R software. RESULTS: A total of 10 non-randomized studies were included in this meta-analysis. There was no statistically significant difference among these 4 surgical techniques in terms of the utilization rate of minimally invasive surgery, reoperative surgery, anastomotic dehiscence, mortality, the proportion of patients with the number of lymph nodes harvested ≥ 12, local recurrence, distant recurrence and overall survival. Although ERHC was associated with a higher risk of postoperative ileus (ERHC vs SFC, OR = 6.4, 95% CI 1.4-45.0, P = 0.019), it has an advantage of a higher rate of primary anastomosis (ERHC vs LHC, OR = 4.2, 95% CI 1.3-18.0, P = 0.019) and a non-significant trend for lower anastomotic dehiscence when compared with more restrict resections. CONCLUSION: SFC, LHC, ERHC and STC for the curative resection of splenic flexure tumors provide similar survival. An individualized surgical plan considering both long-term and short-term outcomes is necessary to select the appropriate operations.

6.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 119: 111555, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321619

RESUMO

Thermosensitive chitosan hydrogels have been widely used in drug delivery and tissue repair, but further applications of these hydrogels have been limited by their weak mechanical strength and poor bioactivity. A thermoresponsive hydrogel formed by conjugating recombinant human collagen-peptide (RHC) with chitosan might be better suited for cell encapsulation and wound repair. RHC-chitosan hydrogels were prepared and tested, and the results showed that moderate RHC conjugation led to hydrogels with lower gelation temperature. The prepared RHC-containing hydrogels showed superior mechanical strength to chitosan-only hydrogels. Additionally, cells exhibited superior viability when cultured with RHC-modified hydrogels compared with hydrogels that had not been conjugated with RHC. Finally, RHC-chitosan hydrogels were injected onto the backs of rats with second-degree burns and promoted cell infiltration, vessel formation, and wound healing. Overall, the use of RHC-chitosan hydrogels is a promising and effective therapeutic approach for burn wound treatment.

8.
J Clin Nurs ; 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism is a severe preventable complication among orthopedic surgical patients. Integrating therapeutic guidelines into clinical practice can help improve patient safety and reduce the burden of this pathology. Improving the quality of patient care is important for bridging the gap between the prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism and therapeutic guidelines. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at evaluating the knowledge, attitudes, and venous thromboembolism and prophylaxis practices of Chinese orthopedic nurses in order to guide quality care improvements. METHODS: The data used in this study are secondary data obtained from a multicentric survey. An anonymous questionnaire was used to measure the attitude and knowledge of venous thromboembolic prophylaxis among orthopedic nurses. VTE prophylactic practices were extracted from medical records within the electronic case report form immediately after the nurses' investigations. The STROBE statement for observational studies was applied. RESULTS: Results indicated that although 94.0% of the responding nurses had attended training courses in their wards, a majority of them (68.9%) achieved a median knowledge score of 7 points or below (range 0-9). Knowledge regarding the proper use of prophylaxis, identification of risk factors, signs and symptoms for pulmonary thromboembolism was limited. Self-reported attitudes underestimate the relationships between venous thromboembolism and low-quality nursing care. Pharmacological prophylaxis was highly utilized (90.9%), while the utilization of mechanical prophylaxis and its proper use was relatively low. CONCLUSIONS: Chinese orthopedic nurses demonstrated enthusiasm for venous thromboembolism and prophylaxis. Their knowledge needs to be improved, including the proper use of prophylaxis, identification of risk factors, signs and symptoms. Mechanical prophylaxis practice for VTE prevention after THA and TKA surgical procedures is not optimistic. Further studies should analyze the causes from multiple perspectives, including the availability of resources, the knowledge and attitudes of doctors, nurses, and patients. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: The findings from this study can be used to develop and implement interventions for venous thromboembolism after orthopedic surgery.

9.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 302: 113689, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301756

RESUMO

Mitochondrial cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc), encoded by the cyp11a1 gene, initiates the first step of steroid biosynthesis. In this study, a 1554-bp open reading frame (ORF) of black rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii) cyp11a1 was cloned. The cyp11a1 gene is located on chromosome 5 and has 9 exons. The ORF encodes a putative precursor protein of 517 amino acids, and the predicted cleavable mitochondrial targeting peptide is located at amino acids 1-39. P450scc shares homology with other teleosts and tetrapods, which have relatively conserved binding regions with heme, cholesterol and adrenodoxin. Tissue distribution analysis revealed that the highest expression levels of cyp11a1 were detected in mature gonads and head kidney but that low levels were detected in gestational/regressed ovaries, regressed testes and other tissues. Immunostaining of P450scc was observed in testicular Leydig cells, ovarian theca cells, interrenal glands of head kidney, pituitary and multiple regions of brain. Particularly, two kinds of fish-specific P450scc-positive cells, including coronet cells of brain saccus vasculosus and hypophyseal somatolactin cells, were identified in black rockfish. Our results provide novel evidence for the potential role played by P450scc in reproduction behavior by mediating steroidogenesis in viviparous teleost.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347760

RESUMO

Synthetic macroscopic materials transforming from bulk solid or semisolid to a closed structure with inner cavities and distinct outer and inner microstructures are rarely reported. Here, we report an in situ method for directing spatial surface-interior separation from bulk dynamic hydrogels to closed three-dimensional (3D) hydrogel containers with inner cavities via constructing a competitively cross-linking gradient within dynamic hydrogels. The initial cross-linking of phenylboronic acid/catechol complexes is disrupted by stronger ferric ions/catechol associations, generating gradually weakened cross-linking from the outside to the inside. Both stronger cross-linking in the outer shells and sequentially weaker cross-linked interior generated during swelling closed the hydrogel container with a tunable dense outer shell, fluffy inner layer, and cavities in the core. Cellulose nanocrystals could be used to significantly improve the spatial distinction of gradient cross-linking within hydrogels, leading to an even denser outer shell with tunable shell thickness. Moreover, cavitary hydrogel containers with diverse shapes can be programmed by designing the initial shapes of dynamic hydrogels and macroscopic assembly of individual dynamic hydrogels based on their self-healing capability after subsequent surface-interior separation. These cavitary hydrogel containers demonstrate thermal-responsive gate systems with unique sustained release at higher temperature and potential reaction containers for oxygen generation on demand. This facile spatial surface-interior separation strategy for fabricating closed cavity systems has great potential for various applications.

11.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e040686, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303451

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) occurs in up to 40%-80% of patients after hip and knee arthroplasty. Clinical decision-making aided by guidelines is the most effective strategy to reduce the burden of VTE. However, the quality of guidelines is dependent on the strength of their evidence base. The objective of this article is to critically evaluate the quality of VTE prevention guidelines and the strength of their recommendations in VTE prophylaxis in patients undergoing hip and knee arthroplasty. METHODS: Relevant literature up to 16 March 2020 was systematically searched. We searched databases such as Web of Science, PubMed, EMBASE, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and WanFang and nine guidelines repositories. The identified guidelines were appraised by two reviewers using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II and appraised the strength of their recommendations independently. Following quality assessment, a predesigned data collection form was used to extract the characteristics of the included guideline. RESULTS: We finally included 15 guidelines. Ten of the included guidelines were rated as 'recommended' or 'recommended with modifications'. The standardised scores were relatively high in the domains of Clarity of Presentation, and Scope and Purpose. The lowest average standardised scores were observed in the domains of Applicability and Stakeholder Involvement. In reference to the domains of Rigour of Development and Editorial Independence, the standardised scores varied greatly between the guidelines. The agreement between the two appraisers is almost perfect (intraclass correlation coefficients higher than 0.80). A considerable proportion of the recommendations is based on low-quality or very-low-quality evidence or is even based on working group expert opinion. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, the majority of the recommendations are based on low-quality evidence, and further confirmation is needed. Furthermore, guideline developers should pay more attention to methodological quality, especially in the Stakeholder Involvement domain and the Applicability domain.

12.
Am J Cancer Res ; 10(11): 3867-3881, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33294273

RESUMO

Our study aimed to establish and validate a multi-class scoring system for preoperative gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) risk stratifications based on CT features. 150 gastric GIST patients who underwent contrast-enhanced CT examination and surgical resection from hospital 1 were retrospectively analyzed as the training cohort, and 61 patients from hospitals 2 and 3 were included as the validation cohort. A model was established by logistic regression analysis and weighted to be a scoring model. A calibration test, area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC), and cutoff points were determined for the score model. The model was also divided into three score ranges for convenient clinical evaluation. Five CT features were included in the score model, including tumor size (4 points), ill-defined margin (6 points), intratumoral enlarged vessels (5 points), heterogeneous enhancement pattern (4 points), and exophytic or mixed growth pattern (2 points). Then, based on the calibration results, performance was merely assessed as very low and high* risk. The AUCs of the score model for very low risk and high* risk were 0.973 and 0.977, and the cutoff points were 3 points (97.30%, 93.81%) and 7 points (92.19%, 94.19%), respectively. In the validation cohort, the AUCs were 0.912 and 0.972, and the cutoff values were 3 points (92.31%, 85.42%) and 5 points (100%, 87.88%), respectively. The model was stratified into 3 ranges: 0-3 points for very low risk, 4-8 points for low risk, and 9-21 points for high* risk. A concise and practical score system for gastric GISTs risk stratification was proposed.

13.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(23)2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297383

RESUMO

As an anisotropic material, the unique optoelectronic properties of black phosphorus are obviously anisotropic. Therefore, non-destructive and fast identification of its crystalline orientation is an important condition for its application in optoelectronics research field. Identifying the crystalline orientation of black phosphorus through Ag1 and Ag2 modes under the parallel polarization has high requirements on the Raman system, while in the nonanalyzer configuration, the crystalline orientation of the thick black phosphorus may not be identified through Ag1 and Ag2 modes. This work proposes a new method to identify the crystalline orientation of black phosphorus of different thicknesses. This method is conducted under the nonanalyzer configuration by B2g mode. The results show that B2g mode has a good consistency in the identification of crystalline orientations. In this paper, a theoretical model is established to study the angle-resolved Raman results of B2g mode. The new method can accurately identify the crystalline orientation with different layers of black phosphorus without misidentification.

14.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33290653

RESUMO

One-dimensional nanomaterials including cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and gold nanorods (GNRs) are widely used in optical materials due to their respective inherent features: birefringence with accompanying light retardation and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Herein, we successfully combine these properties of both nanorods to generate synergistic and readily tunable structural colors in hybrid composite polymer films. CNCs and GNRs are embedded either in the same or in separate films after unidirectional alignment in dynamic hydrogels. By synergistically leveraging CNCs and GNRs with diverse amounts in hybrid films or stacked separate films, wide-ranging structural colors are obtained, far beyond those from films solely with aligned CNCs or GNRs. Higher GNR contents enhance light absorption at 520 nm with promoted magenta colors, while more CNCs affect the overall phase retardation with light absorption between 400 and 700 nm between crossed polarizers. Moreover, adjusting the angles between films solely with CNCs or GNRs via a stacking/rotating technique successively manipulates colors with flexible film combinations. By rotating the films with aligned GNRs (0-180°), light absorption can traverse from ∼500 to 650 nm. Thus, tuning the adjustable synergism of birefringence of CNCs and SPR of GNRs provides great potential for structural colors, which enlightens inspirations for designing functional optical materials.

15.
J Int Med Res ; 48(12): 300060520976824, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284728

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer remains the most lethal gynecological malignant tumor, with relapse occurring in approximately 70% of advanced cases. Anlotinib is an oral small-molecule multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor that can resist neoangiogenesis and inhibit tumor growth. Previous research demonstrated clinical antitumor activity of anlotinib in various cancers. We report the case of an elderly woman with advanced ovarian cancer who received anlotinib after failure of multiple-line chemotherapy. A partial response was observed after six cycles of anlotinib monotherapy, with a reduction in the size of the metastases and significantly decreased serum CA125 levels from 1832.7 U/mL to 118.7 U/mL. She continued to take anlotinib, with a progression-free survival time of more than 4 months. Only mild hypertension was observed during the treatment. Anlotinib monotherapy may be a novel therapeutic option for patients with advanced ovarian cancer.

16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(11): e2021173, 2020 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206188

RESUMO

Importance: In the US, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), primarily associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, is the fastest rising cause of cancer-related death. Wider use of highly effective direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) substantially reduces the burden of chronic HCV infection, but the subsequent impacts with HCV-associated HCC remain unknown. Objective: To assess projected changes in the incidence rate of and surveillance burden for HCC in the era of DAA treatment for HCV. Design, Setting, and Participants: This decision analytical model study was performed from January 2019 to February 2020, using an individual-level state-transition simulation model to simulate disease progression, screening, and different waves of antiviral treatments for HCV in the US from 2012 to 2040. Interventions: Current clinical management for chronic HCV infection. Main Outcomes and Measures: Model outcomes were projected temporal trends and age distribution of incident HCC cases and candidates for HCC surveillance among patients with viremia and patients with virologically cured HCV. Results: The simulation model projected that the annual incidence of HCC among patients with viremia and patients with virologically cured HCV will continue increasing to 24 000 (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 18 000-31 000) cases until 2021. In patients with virologically cured HCV, incident HCC cases are projected to increase from 1000 (95% UI, 500-2100) in 2012 to the peak of 7000 (95% UI, 5000-9600) in 2031 with a subsequent decrease to 6000 (95% UI, 4300-8300) by 2040. The proportion of incident HCC cases that occur in individuals with virologically cured HCV is estimated to increase from 5.3% in 2012 to 45.8% in 2040. The number of candidates for HCC surveillance in the population with virologically cured HCV is projected to increase from 106 000 (95% UI, 70 000-178 000) in 2012 to the peak of 649 000 (95% UI, 512 000-824 000) in 2030 and decrease to 539 000 (95% UI, 421 000-687 000) by 2040, while the proportion of all candidates for surveillance who are virologically cured is estimated to increase from 8.5% to 64.6% during the same period. The average age of HCC incidence and surveillance candidates is estimated to increase from 55 in 2012 to 72 and 71, respectively, by 2040. Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this study suggest that the burden of HCC will shift from patients with viremia to patients with virologically cured HCV, and to older populations. Appropriate management may be warranted for early detection of HCC in patients who may no longer be receiving specialty care for liver conditions.

17.
Cell Metab ; 32(6): 1052-1062.e8, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186558

RESUMO

Lipid accumulation in podocytes is a major determinant of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and identification of potential therapeutic targets by mediating podocyte lipid metabolism has clinical importance. This study was to elucidate the role of JAML (junctional adhesion molecule-like protein) in the pathogenesis of DKD. We first confirmed the expression of JAML in podocytes and found that podocyte-specific deletion of Jaml ameliorated podocyte injury and proteinuria in two different models of diabetic mice. We further demonstrated a novel role of JAML in regulating podocyte lipid metabolism through SIRT1-mediated SREBP1 signaling. Similar results were also found in mice with adriamycin-induced nephropathy. Importantly, we observed a higher expression of JAML in glomeruli from subjects with DKD and other types of proteinuric kidney diseases, and the level of JAML was correlated with lipid accumulation and glomerular filtration rate, suggesting that JAML may be an attractive therapeutic target for proteinuric kidney disease.

18.
Genes Brain Behav ; : e12716, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33200539

RESUMO

The immunomodulatory function of nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) has been extensively studied. However, some behavioral abnormalities caused by its mutations have been found in a few rodent studies, of which the molecular mechanism remains elusive. In this research, we generated nos2b gene knockout zebrafish (nos2bsou2/sou2 ) using CRISPR/Cas9 approach and investigated their behavioral and molecular changes by doing a series of behavioral detections, morphological measurements, and molecular analyses. We found that, compared with nos2b+/+ zebrafish, nos2bsou2/sou2 zebrafish exhibited enhanced motor activity; additionally, nos2bsou2/sou2 zebrafish were characterized by smaller brain size, abnormal structure of optic tectum, reduced mRNA level of presynaptic synaptophysin and postsynaptic homer1, and altered response to sodium nitroprusside/methylphenidate hydrochloride treatment. These findings will likely contribute to future studies of behavioral regulation.

19.
Am J Transl Res ; 12(10): 6665-6681, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33194063

RESUMO

L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is a neutral amino acid transporter expressed in trophoblast giant cells onembryonic day 8 in mice. LAT1 is responsible for metabolism in blastocysts and cancer cells. Despite research concerning the aberrant high expression and indispensable function of LAT1 in various cancers, little is known about the role of LAT1 in regulating the behaviors of human trophoblast cells under different physiological and pathological conditions. The HTR8-SVneo human trophoblast cell line and JEG-3 and JAR choriocarcinoma cell lines are used as models for trophoblast cell biological research. The proliferation and apoptosis of these cells were assayed using the CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Transwell-chambers were used to observed migration and invasion of the cells. Immunofluorescent staining, western blot, and RT-PCR assays were used to determine the possible mechanism of LAT1 on human trophoblast cell behaviors with small interfering RNA or signal agonists and antagonist treatments. LAT1 was expressed in the trophoblast and choriocarcinoma cells. LAT1 was involved in regulating behaviors of these cells, such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion. Detailed results suggested that LAT1 modulated trophoblast cell functions by mediation of mTORC1 signaling pathways. Our results implicate LAT1 as a very important regulator in human trophoblast cell behaviors at the maternal-fetal interface.

20.
Arch Med Res ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Irisin has been considered a prognostic factor in several cardiovascular diseases. Nevertheless, no data are available on the role of irisin in cardiac remodeling. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to determine the potential role of irisin in cardiac remodeling and explore potential mechanisms. METHODS: A total of 40 rats that underwent transverse abdominal aortic constriction (TAC) surgery or sham operation were divided into four groups: sham + saline (NS), sham + irisin, TAC + NS, and TAC + irisin. After 6 weeks of treatment, echocardiography was performed to assess in vivo cardiac morphology. The left ventricular myocardium was prepared and observed by pathological examination. The effect of irisin on cardiomyocyte apoptosis and the expression of oxidative stress and cardiac hypertrophy markers were observed. Then, the effect of irisin on the Akt signaling system was also detected. RESULTS: The rats in the TAC group displayed obvious signs of cardiac dysfunction and cardiac hypertrophy, and irisin treatment could reverse these changes. Irisin could inhibit the expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 2 and xanthine oxidase in TAC rats and increase the expression of antioxidant enzymes. Furthermore, the expression of phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt), phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (p-mTOR), and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3ß (p-GSK3ß) was much higher in the cardiac remodeling groups (p <0.05 vs. sham rats). Irisin could relieve the inhibition effect and reduce the expression level of these three proteins. CONCLUSIONS: Irisin treatment could significantly improve cardiac remodeling by inhibiting oxidative stress via attenuating the Akt signaling activation.

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