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1.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0224038, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644545

RESUMO

Spathiphyllum is a very important tropical plant used as a small, potted, ornamental plant in South China, with an annual output value of hundreds of millions of yuan. In this study, we sequenced and analyzed the complete nucleotide sequence of the Spathiphyllum 'Parrish' chloroplast genome. The whole chloroplast genome is 168,493 bp in length, and includes a pair of inverted repeat (IR) regions (IRa and IRb, each 31,600 bp), separated by a small single-copy (SSC, 15,799 bp) region and a large single-copy (LSC, 89,494 bp) region. Our annotation revealed that the S. 'Parrish' chloroplast genome contained 132 genes, including 87 protein coding genes, 37 transfer RNA genes, and 8 ribosomal RNA genes. In the repeat structure analysis, we detected 281 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) which included mononucleotides (223), dinucleotides (28), trinucleotides (12), tetranucleotides (11), pentanucleotides (6), and hexanucleotides (1), in the S. 'Parrish' chloroplast genome. In addition, we identified 50 long repeats, comprising 18 forward repeats, 13 reverse repeats, 17 palindromic repeats, and 2 complementary repeats. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and insertion/deletion (indel) analyses of the chloroplast genome of the S. 'Parrish' relative S. cannifolium revealed 962 SNPs in S. 'Parrish'. There were 158 indels (90 insertions and 68 deletions) in the S. 'Parrish' chloroplast genome relative to the S. cannifolium chloroplast genome. Phylogenetic analysis of five species found S. 'Parrish' to be more closely related to S. kochii than to S. cannifolium. This study identified the characteristics of the S. 'Parrish' chloroplast genome, which will facilitate species identification and phylogenetic analysis within the genus Spathiphyllum.

2.
Lab Invest ; 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641227

RESUMO

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in the progression of renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis, a common mechanism leading to end-stage renal failure. V-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 2 (ETS2), a transcription factor, exhibits diverse roles in pathogenesis; however, its role in renal fibrosis is not yet fully understood. In this study, we detected the expression of ETS2 in an animal model of renal fibrosis and evaluated the potential role of ETS2 in tubular EMT induced by TGF-ß1. We found that ETS2 and profibrogenic factors, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and fibronectin (FN), were significantly increased in the unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced renal fibrosis model in mice. In vitro, TGF-ß1 induced a high expression of ETS2 dependent on Smad3 and ERK signaling pathway in human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK2). Knockdown of ETS2 abrogated TGF-ß1-mediated expression of profibrogenic factors vimentin, α-SMA, collagen I, and FN in HK2 cells. Mechanistically, ETS2 promoted JUNB expression in HK2 cells after TGF-ß1 stimulation. Furthermore, luciferase and Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays revealed that the binding of ETS2 to three EBS motifs on the promoter of JUNB triggered its transcription. Notably, silencing JUNB reversed the ETS2-induced upregulation of the profibrogenic factors in HK2 cells after TGF-ß1 stimulation. These findings suggest that ETS2 mediates TGF-ß1-induced EMT in renal tubular cells through JUNB, a novel pathway for preventing renal fibrosis.

3.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568643

RESUMO

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a heterogeneous histological disease and it is one of the most common kidney cancer. The treatment of RCC has been improved for the past few years, but its mortality still remains high. Chelerythrine (CHE) is a natural benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloid and a widely used broad-range protein kinase C inhibitor which has anti-cancer effect on various types of human cancer cells. However, its effect on RCC has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we evaluated the effect and mechanism of CHE on RCC cells. Our study showed that CHE induced colony formation inhibition and G2/M cell cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner in RCC cells. In addition, CHE increased cellular ROS level, leading to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, inactivating STAT3 activities and inducing apoptosis in RCC cells which were suppressed by NAC, a special ROS inhibitor. We further found that both knockdown of ATF4 protein and overexpression of STAT3 protein could reduce CHE-induced apoptosis in Caki cells. These results demonstrated that the apoptosis induced by CHE was mediated by ROS-caused ER stress and STAT3 inactivation. Collectively, our studies provided support for CHE as a potential new therapeutic agent for the management of RCC.

4.
Org Biomol Chem ; 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657418

RESUMO

Nucleophilic addition of Grignard reagents to tetrahydro-ß-carboline (THC) N-sulfonyl N,S-acetal generates exclusively cis-1,3-disubstituted THCs with a unique 1,3-diaxial conformation. The stereochemical relationship of the 1,3-substituents was confirmed by 2-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. The mechanism of the reaction is proposed based on crystal structures and molecular orbital calculations.

5.
Oral Oncol ; 98: 118-124, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586893

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe differences in cancer stem cell (CSC) presence and behavior associated with their intratumor compartment of origin using a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four HPV-negative OCSCC PDX cases were selected (CUHN004, CUHN013, CUHN096, CUHN111) and the percentage of CSCs (ALDH+CD44high) was measured in the tumor Leading Edge (LE) and Core compartments of each PDX tumor case via fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). The fraction of cells in the proliferative phase was measured by Ki-67 labelling index of paraffin embedded tissue. The proliferation and invasion of LE versus Core CSCs were compared using sphere and Matrigel invasion assays, respectively. RESULTS: Both CUHN111 and CUHN004 demonstrate CSC enrichment in their LE compartments while CUHN013 and CUHN096 show no intratumor difference. Cases with LE CSC enrichment demonstrate greater Ki-67 labelling at the LE. CSC proliferative potential, assessed by sphere formation, reveals greater sphere formation in CUHN111 LE CSCs, but no difference between CUHN013 LE and Core CSCs. CUHN111 CSCs do not demonstrate an intratumor difference in invasiveness while CUHN013 LE CSCs are more invasive than Core CSCs. CONCLUSION: A discrete intratumor CSC niche is present in a subset of OCSCC PDX tumors. The CSC functional phenotype with regard to proliferation and invasion is associated with the intratumor compartment of origin of the CSC: LE or Core. These individual functional characteristics appear to be modulated independently of one another and independently of the presence of an intratumor CSC niche.

6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3969, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481671

RESUMO

Analyses of idealized feedforward networks suggest that several conditions have to be satisfied in order for activity to propagate faithfully across layers. Verifying these concepts experimentally has been difficult owing to the vast number of variables that must be controlled. Here, we cultured cortical neurons in a chamber with sequentially connected compartments, optogenetically stimulated individual neurons in the first layer with high spatiotemporal resolution, and then monitored the subthreshold and suprathreshold potentials in subsequent layers. Brief stimuli delivered to the first layer evoked a short-latency transient response followed by sustained activity. Rate signals, carried by the sustained component, propagated reliably through 4 layers, unlike idealized feedforward networks, which tended strongly towards synchrony. Moreover, temporal jitter in the stimulus was transformed into a rate code and transmitted to the last layer. This novel mode of propagation occurred in the balanced excitatory-inhibitory regime and is mediated by NMDA-mediated receptors and recurrent activity.

7.
Exp Cell Res ; 383(2): 111552, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415760

RESUMO

Elevated plasma free fatty acids level has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction in diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. However, the underlying mechanisms still remain to be defined. Herein, we investigated the effect of palmitic acid (PA), the most abundant saturated fatty acid in the human body, on small-conductance Ca2+-activated potassium channels (KCa2.3)-mediated relaxation in rodent resistance arteries and the underlying molecular mechanism. The effect of PA on KCa2.3 in endothelium was evaluated using real-time PCR, Western blotting, whole-cell patch voltage-clamp, wire and pressure myograph system, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by using dihydroethidium and 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate. KCa2.3-mediated vasodilatation responses to acetylcholine and NS309 (agonist of KCa2.3 and KCa3.1) were impaired by incubation of normal mesenteric arteries with 100 µM PA for 24 h. In cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), PA decreased KCa2.3 current and expression at mRNA and protein levels. Incubation with the NADPH oxidase (Nox) inhibitor dibenziodolium (DPI) partly inhibited the PA-induced ROS production and restored KCa2.3 expression. Inhibition of either p38-MAPK or NF-κB using specific inhibitors (SB203580, SB202190 or Bay11-7082, pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate) attenuated PA-induced downregulation of KCa2.3 and inhibition of p38-MAPK also attenuated PA-induced phosphorylation of NF-κB p65. Furthermore, DPI reversed the increment of phospho-p38-MAPK by PA. These results demonstrated that PA downregulated KCa2.3 expressions via Nox/ROS/p38-MAPK/NF-κB signaling leading to endothelial vasodilatory dysfunction.

8.
Theranostics ; 9(16): 4688-4703, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367250

RESUMO

Deciphering the molecular and cellular processes involved in foam cell formation is critical to understanding the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) was first identified as a transcriptional regulator of type-I interferons (IFNs) and IFN inducible genes. Our study aims to explore the role of IRF1 in atherosclerotic foam cell formation and understand the functional diversity of IRF1 in various cell types contributing to atherosclerosis. Methods: We induced experimental atherosclerosis in ApoE-/-IRF1-/- mice and evaluated the effect of IRF1 on disease progression and foam cell formation. Results: IRF1 expression was increased in human and mouse atherosclerotic lesions. IRF1 deficiency inhibited modified lipoprotein uptake and promoted cholesterol efflux, along with altered expression of genes implicated in lipid metabolism. Gene expression analysis identified scavenger receptor (SR)-AI as a regulated target of IRF1, and SR-AI silencing completely abrogated the increased uptake of modified lipoprotein induced by IRF1. Our data also explain a mechanism underlying endotoxemia-complicated atherogenesis as follows: two likely pro-inflammatory agents, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), exert cooperative effects on foam cell formation, which is partly attributable to a shift of IRF1-Ubc9 complex to IRF1- myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (Myd88) complex and subsequent IRF1 nuclear translocation. Additionally, it seems that improved function of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) also accounts for the diminished and more stable atherosclerotic plaques observed in ApoE-/-IRF1-/- mice. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate an unanticipated role of IRF1 in the regulation of gene expression implicated in foam cell formation and identify IRF1 activation as a new risk factor in the development, progression and instability of atherosclerotic lesions.

9.
Bioorg Chem ; 91: 103113, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374525

RESUMO

Five new compounds (1-5), including three hexalactone derivatives (1-3) and a pair of new oxaspiro-carbon epimeric glycosides (4 and 5), and six known compounds (6-11) were obtained from the fruits of Illicium lanceolatum. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated using extensive spectroscopic data. The absolute configurations of compounds 1-3 were determined by an analysis of their CD spectra. It was determined that compounds 4 and 5, which are epimeric at C-5, possess the same 1-oxaspiro[4,5]decane-7α,8α,9ß-triol moiety. Plausible biogenetic pathways for 4 and 5 derived from the key precursor shikimic acid were proposed. Compounds 1-11 were all assayed on monosodium glutamate-induced human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell damage. The results demonstrated that compounds 4, 5, and 8-10 possess potential neuroprotective effects. The anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and cytotoxic activities of 1-11 were also evaluated.

10.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 518(1): 19-25, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405563

RESUMO

INMAP was first identified as a spindle protein that plays important roles in cell-cycle progression, and previous studies have revealed that its abnormal expression leads to mitotic disorder and the growth inhibition of human tumor xenografts, but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we knocked out INMAP in HEK293T cells, a strain of human embryonic renal cells, through CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing technology, resulting in obvious cell growth inhibition. In this system, the deletion of INMAP caused obviously apoptosis. And we also found that knockout of INMAP caused micronuclei formation, chromosome aberration, and γH2AX expression upregulation, suggesting DNA damage induction and genomic stability impairment. As a principal component of spindle, the expression of ß-tubulin, detected through Western blot, is obviously upregulated in HEK293T-INMAP-/-. Meanwhile, the level of Cyclin B is also upregulated, whereas, that of Cyclin E, downregulated, with the postponement of mitotic exit and the assembly anomaly of spindle. These results suggest that the deletion of INMAP block the formation of spindle, leading to arrest of cell cycle and DNA damage, finally blocking cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis. Therefore, INMAP is an indispensable factor for genomic integrity and normal mitotic exit.

11.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(42): 15076-15081, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404487

RESUMO

Piezocatalysis, converting mechanical vibration into chemical energy, has emerged as a promising candidate for water-splitting technology. However, the efficiency of the hydrogen production is quite limited. We herein report well-defined 10 nm BaTiO3 nanoparticles (NPs) characterized by a large electro-mechanical coefficient which induces a high piezoelectric effect. Atomic-resolution high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) and scanning probe microscopy (SPM) suggests that piezoelectric BaTiO3 NPs display a coexistence of multiple phases with low energy barriers and polarization anisotropy which results in a high electro-mechanical coefficient. Landau free energy modeling also confirms that the greatly reduced polarization anisotropy facilitates polarization rotation. Employing the high piezoelectric properties of BaTiO3 NPs, we demonstrate an overall water-splitting process with the highest hydrogen production efficiency hitherto reported, with a H2 production rate of 655 µmol g-1 h-1 , which could rival excellent photocatalysis system. This study highlights the potential of piezoelectric catalysis for overall water splitting.

12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 140: 225-233, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437495

RESUMO

Wheat bran is an abundant source of cellulose and is still going to waste because of the lack of knowledge about its further exploitation and comprehensive utilisation. Here, cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) were prepared from wheat bran via sulfuric acid hydrolysis. The effects of hydrolysis time on the morphology, surface charge, yield, structure, thermal stability, physicochemical properties, and cytotoxicity of CNC were investigated. Results showed that non-cellulosic components were extensively removed by the purification process. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the obtained CNC displayed a needle-like shape with various dimensions. Zeta potential values of the CNC suspensions ranged from -36.5 to -39.8 mV. A hydrolysis time of 60 min resulted in CNC with the highest crystallinity (70.32%). The thermal stability of CNC shifted to lower temperature with increasing hydrolysis time. In addition, the obtained CNC exhibited interesting physicochemical properties (the water/oil retention capacities and the adsorption capacities to heavy metals) and good biocompatibility, suggesting their great potential as reinforcement for the manufacture of nanocomposites.

13.
Gastrointest Endosc ; 90(4): 591-601, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hypoxia is one of the most frequent adverse events with sedated GI endoscopy and can lead to serious consequences. No modalities have been found previously to prevent hypoxia. High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) supportive oxygen therapy provides heated and humidified oxygen up to 60 L/minute. Because of its ability to improve respiratory function and good tolerance, we aimed to evaluate the validity and safety of HFNC supportive oxygen therapy in preventing the incidence of hypoxia in patients undergoing gastroscopy with propofol sedation. METHODS: In a multicenter, prospective randomized single-blinded study, 1994 outpatients undergoing routine gastroscopy with propofol sedation provided by an anesthesiologist were randomized into 2 groups: the nasal cannula group (O2 [2 L/minute] was supplied via an HFNC) and the HFNC group (O2 [30-60 L/minute] was supplied via an HFNC) at 3 centers from November 2017 to February 2018. The primary outcome was the incidence of hypoxia. Other adverse events were also recorded. RESULTS: HFNC supportive oxygen therapy decreased the incidence of hypoxia (75% ≤ Spo2 < 90% for <60 seconds) and severe hypoxia (Spo2 < 75% for any duration or 75% ≤ Spo2 < 90% for ≥60 seconds) from 8.4% to 0% (P < .001) and from 0.6% to 0% (P = .03), respectively. The only HFNC-related adverse event was xeromycteria/rhinalgia (1.7%), which was observed 1 minute after the procedure and disappeared after 30 minutes. CONCLUSIONS: HFNC supportive oxygen therapy can prevent the incidence of hypoxia and severe hypoxia in patients in America Society of Anesthesiologists class I-II undergoing elective gastroscopy under propofol sedation, with minimal related adverse events and good tolerance. (Clinical trial registration number: NCT03332433.).

14.
Drug Metab Dispos ; 47(11): 1361-1367, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324700

RESUMO

As a prominent human therapeutic, therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have attracted increasing attention in the past decade due to their high-targeting specificity, low toxicity, and prolonged efficacy. Systematic pharmacokinetic analysis of mAbs not only largely facilitates the understanding of their biologic functions but also promotes the development of therapeutic drug discovery, early clinical trial implementation, and therapeutic monitoring. However, the extremely complex nature of biomatrices and the especially low dosages of mAbs make their detection in biomatrices and further pharmacokinetic analysis highly challenging. Therefore, a method capable of reliably, quickly, and sensitively quantifying mAbs in biomatrices is urgently needed. In this work, we developed and evaluated an gold nanoparticle-functionalized surface plasmon resonance assay for cetuximab (C225) detection and pharmacokinetic analysis in rhesus monkeys. Combining its advantages of label-free pretreatment and amplified signal response, the lower limit of quantitation of C225 in monkey serum was reduced to 0.0125 µg/ml, and the linear range had an order of magnitude comparable to that of an ELISA-based method. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetics of C225 in rhesus monkeys was studied after intravenous infusions of single doses at 7.5, 24, and 75 mg/kg. The concentration of C225 in monkey serum was detectable after dosing for 720 hours. We believe that this new strategy will be applicable as a general protocol for mAb quantification, pharmacokinetic characteristic determination, and toxicokinetic analysis during drug development.

15.
Carcinogenesis ; 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300810

RESUMO

Excess consumption of trans-fatty acid (TFA), an unsaturated fatty acid containing trans double bonds, is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. However, little is known about the link between TFA and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) despite it being a frequent form of cancer in humans. In the current study, the impact of excessive dietary TFA on hepatic tumorigenesis was assessed using hepatitis C virus (HCV) core gene transgenic mice that spontaneously developed HCC. Male transgenic mice were treated for 5 months with either a control diet or an isocaloric TFA-rich diet that replaced the majority of soybean oil with shortening. The prevalence of liver tumors was significantly higher in TFA-rich diet-fed transgenic mice compared with control diet-fed transgenic mice. The TFA-rich diet significantly increased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress, and activated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and nuclear factor erythroid 2 (NRF2), leading to high p62/sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1) expression. Furthermore, the TFA diet activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and stimulated the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway, synergistically up-regulating cyclin D1 and c-Myc, driving cell proliferation. Excess TFA intake also promoted fibrogenesis and ductular reaction, presumably contributing to accelerated liver tumorigenesis. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that a TFA-rich diet promotes hepatic tumorigenesis, mainly due to persistent activation of NF-κB and NRF2-p62/SQSTM1 signaling, ERK and Wnt/ß-catenin pathways, and fibrogenesis. Therefore, HCV-infected patients should avoid a TFA-rich diet to prevent liver tumor development.

16.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 29(16): 2090-2093, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311734

RESUMO

Phenolic groups are responsible for the high clearance and low oral bioavailability of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) clinical candidate GDC-0927. An exhaustive search for a backup molecule with improved pharmacokinetic (PK) properties identified several metabolically stable analogs, although in general at the expense of the desired potency and degradation efficiency. C-8 hydroxychromene 30 is the first example of a phenol-containing chromene that not only maintained excellent potency but also exhibited 10-fold higher oral exposure in rats. The improved in vivo clearance in rat was hypothesized to be the result of C-8 hydroxy group being sterically protected from glucuronide conjugation. The excellent potency underscores the possibility of replacing the presumed indispensable phenolic group at C-6 or C-7 of the chromene core. Co-crystal structures were obtained to highlight the change in key interactions and rationalize the retained potency.

17.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 39(7): 760-765, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340906

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the inhibitory effect of matrine on the proliferation of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and explore the possible molecular mechanism. METHODS: Cultured human NSCLC A549 cells were treated with 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6, and 2.0 g/L matrine for 24, 48 or 72 h. CCK-8 assay was used for measuring the changes in A549 cell viability. The morphological changes of the cells were observed under a fluorescence microscope, and flow cytometry was employed for analyzing the cell apoptosis. The effects of matrine and the PI3K specific inhibitor LY294002 (10 nmol/L) on AKT pathway and autophagy-related proteins in A549 cells were investigated using Western blotting. RESULTS: Matrine significantly inhibited the proliferation of A549 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). At the concentration of 1.6 g/L or higher, matrine caused obvious cell shrinkage and fragmentation and significantly increased floating cells; autophagy vacuoles could be observed in the cells after acridine orange staining. Within the concentrations range of 0.8-1.6 g/L, matrine time- and dosedependently increased the cell apoptosis. Treatment of the cells with 1.6 g/L matrine and 10 nmol/L LY294002 resulted in significantly lowered expressions of p-AKT and p-mTOR proteins and increased the expression of light chain 3B (LC 3B), an autophagy-related protein, as compared with those in the control cells (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that matrine inhibits the proliferation and induces autophagy and apoptosis of A549 cells by deactivating AKT pathway, suggesting the potential of matrine as an anti-cancer agent for lung cancer.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Alcaloides , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Quinolizinas , Transdução de Sinais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR
18.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 132: 110661, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279042

RESUMO

Currently, T-2 toxin has been reported to cause liver toxicity with the effects of oxidative stress and inflammation; however, the underlying mechanism of T-2 toxin-induced liver injury is not fully understood. Increasing lines of evidence show that DNA methylation affects the expression of inflammatory cytokine, and plays a crucial role in autoimmune diseases. Nevertheless, the potential role of DNA methylation in the hepatotoxicity of T-2 toxin has not been explored. In this study, female Wistar rats were given a single dose of T-2 toxin at 2 mg/kg b.w. and were sacrificed at 1, 3 and 7 days post-exposure. In vitro, a normal rat liver cell line (BRL) was exposed to different concentrations of T-2 toxin. Histopathological analysis was used to investigate damage to the liver, which was detected at the molecular level by RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemical assays, methylation-specific PCR (MSP), bisulfite sequencing (BSP), and flow cytometry. The results showed that T-2 toxin significantly increased the levels of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3A), which were mainly concentrated at the site of liver injury. The 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) level of genomic DNA was also raised in T-2 toxin-treated rat livers. The expression of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1ß, IL-11, IL-1α, and TNF-α) increased both in vivo and in vitro under T-2 toxin treatment. Notably, DNA demethylation directly increased the expression of cytokines IL-11, IL-6, IL-α, and TNF-α under T-2 toxin exposure. DNA methylation inhibitors combined with T-2 toxin directly or indirectly induced the production of inflammatory cytokines and aggravate cell apoptosis. Our study uncovered for the first time that DNA methylation is related to the expression of inflammatory cytokines in T-2 toxin-induced liver injury. These findings suggested that DNA methylation is a potential mechanism of T-2 toxin-induced hepatotoxicity.

19.
Food Funct ; 10(8): 4505-4521, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348478

RESUMO

Adverse early-life exposures program an increased risk of chronic metabolic diseases in adulthood. However, the effects of genistein consumption in early life on metabolic health are unclear. Our objective was to investigate whether perinatal genistein intake could mitigate the deleterious effects of a high-fat diet (HF) on metabolism in dams and female offspring and to explore the role of the gut microbiota in mediating the transgenerational effects. C57BL/6 female mice were fed a HF, HF with genistein (0.6 g kg-1 diet) or normal control diet for 3 weeks before mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation. The offspring had free access to normal diet from weaning to 24 weeks of age. A glucose tolerance test was performed and the levels of serum insulin and lipid were measured. The cecal contents were collected for 16s rDNA sequencing. The results showed that perinatal genistein intake could not only significantly reduce blood glucose levels, insulin and free fatty acids (FFA) in dams, but also improve glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and serum lipid profiles in adult female offspring. Significant enrichment of short-chain fatty acid (mainly butyrate)-producing bacteria might play crucial roles in deciphering the metabolic benefits of perinatal genistein intake in dams. The obvious decrease in harmful microorganisms and increase in Erysipelotrichaceae_incertae_sedis were associated with the protective effects of maternal genistein intake on female offspring. In addition, Bifidobacterium might be an important factor for deciphering the metabolic improvement in both dams and female offspring by dietary genistein. Overall, perinatal genistein intake attenuated the harmful effects of HF on metabolism in both dams and female offspring, and the protective effects were associated with the alterations in the gut microbiota, which provides new evidence and targets for mitigating the poor effects of adverse early-life exposures on metabolic health in later life.

20.
Cell ; 178(4): 949-963.e18, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353221

RESUMO

Estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancers frequently remain dependent on ER signaling even after acquiring resistance to endocrine agents, prompting the development of optimized ER antagonists. Fulvestrant is unique among approved ER therapeutics due to its capacity for full ER antagonism, thought to be achieved through ER degradation. The clinical potential of fulvestrant is limited by poor physicochemical features, spurring attempts to generate ER degraders with improved drug-like properties. We show that optimization of ER degradation does not guarantee full ER antagonism in breast cancer cells; ER "degraders" exhibit a spectrum of transcriptional activities and anti-proliferative potential. Mechanistically, we find that fulvestrant-like antagonists suppress ER transcriptional activity not by ER elimination, but by markedly slowing the intra-nuclear mobility of ER. Increased ER turnover occurs as a consequence of ER immobilization. These findings provide proof-of-concept that small molecule perturbation of transcription factor mobility may enable therapeutic targeting of this challenging target class.

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