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1.
Stem Cell Res ; 41: 101628, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678776

RESUMO

CUL4B gene mutation can cause intelligence deficiency 15, a syndromic form of X-linked mental retardation characterized by severe intellectual deficit associated with short stature, craniofacial dysmorphism, speech delay and impairment, tremor and gait ataxia. Here, we generated iPSCs from a Chinese patient with c.1007_1011del (p.(Ile336fs)) in CUL4B gene by reprogramming peripheral blood mononuclear cells with non-integrating vectors. The generated iPSC line (SDQLCHi015-A) expresses pluripotency markers, presents a normal karyotype and is able to differentiate into three germ layers.

2.
J Diabetes ; 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with a higher fracture risk. Sex hormones are important for maintaining skeletal health. It is not clear which sex hormone(s) contribute(s) to bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk in males with T2DM. This study investigated the relationships of these parameters in males with T2DM. METHODS: This study involved 482 men with T2DM. BMD at the lumbar spine (L2-4), femoral neck (FN) and total hip (TH) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The 10-year probability of fractures was assessed using the modified Fracture Risk Algorithm (FRAX) tool. Serum levels of sex hormones were measured. RESULTS: Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol (E2) were associated with BMDs at L2-4 (FSH, ß = -0.162, P < 0.05; E2, ß = 0.176, P < 0.001), and E2 was associated with BMD at FN (ß = 0.137, P < 0.05) and TH (ß = 0.140, P < 0.05). FSH was associated with major osteoporotic fractures (MOFs) (ß = 0.288, P < 0.001) and hip fractures (HFs) (ß = 0.235, P < 0.001). Higher FSH was a risk factor for osteoporosis/osteopenia (OR = 2.92, 95% CI = 1.66-5.14, P < 0.001), whereas higher E2 was a protective factor (OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.22-0.60, P < 0.001). Patients in the higher tertile of FSH and lower tertile of E2 had an increased risk of osteoporosis/osteopenia (OR = 5.05, 95% CI = 1.37-18.65, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: For males with diabetes, FSH and E2 are significantly associated with BMD, osteoporosis/osteopenia and fracture risk. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 1094, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has been increasing worldwide in recent years. Therefore, novel potential therapeutic targets for PTC are urgently needed. Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a methyltransferase belonging to PRC2, plays important roles in epigenetic silencing and cell cycle regulation. EZH2 overexpression has been found in several malignant tumor tissues, while its expression and function in PTC are largely unknown. METHODS: Sixty-five cases of PTC tissue confirmed by pathology and 30 cases of normal thyroid tissue adjacent to PTC tissue were collected from patients undergoing surgical treatment, between February 2003 and February 2006. We investigated the clinic pathologic significance of EZH2 expression using Realtime-PCR and IHC in 65 human PTC tissues and 30 normal thyroid tissue samples. The EZH2 expression in human PTC cell lines (K1 and W3) and the normal thyroid follicular epithelial cell line Nthy-ori 3-1 was analyzed by Western blotting and Realtime PCR. The expressions of ERα and ERß in cell lines were analyzed by Realtime PCR.The tumor cell biological behavior was evaluated by CCK8 assay, colony formation assay, transwell migration assay and xenograft tumors model. RESULTS: Higher rate of EZH2 expression was found in PTC tissues than in normal thyroid tissues, EZH2 expression is associated with lymph node metastasis and recurrent. Inhibition of EZH2 in PTC cell lines downregulates cellular proliferation and migration. PTC is a disease with high incidence of female and E2-ERα upregulates EZH2 expression. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a potential role of EZH2 for the PTC growth and metastasis. As a novel therapy, a pharmacological therapy targeting EZH2 has full potential in treatment of PTC.

4.
J Nat Prod ; 82(11): 2953-2962, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710490

RESUMO

Six new nonadride derivatives (1-6) and three new spirocyclic anhydride derivatives (7-9) were isolated from the endophytic fungus Talaromyces purpurogenus obtained from fresh leaves of the toxic medicinal plant Tylophora ovata. The structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic analyses including 1D and 2D NMR, HRESIMS, and ECD techniques. Maleic anhydride derivatives 1-9 were evaluated for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activities. Compound 1 showed significant inhibitory activity against NO production in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells with an IC50 value of 1.9 µM. Compounds 2 and 6 showed moderate inhibitory activities toward XOD and PTP1b, respectively, at 10 µM with inhibition rates of 67% and 76%.

5.
Mol Cancer ; 18(1): 158, 2019 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circular RNAs (circRNAs), a subclass of non-coding RNAs, play essential roles in tumorigenesis and aggressiveness. Our previous study has identified that circAGO2 drives gastric cancer progression through activating human antigen R (HuR), a protein stabilizing AU-rich element-containing mRNAs. However, the functions and underlying mechanisms of circRNAs derived from HuR in gastric cancer progression remain elusive. METHODS: CircRNAs derived from HuR were detected by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and validated by Sanger sequencing. Biotin-labeled RNA pull-down, mass spectrometry, RNA immunoprecipitation, RNA electrophoretic mobility shift, and in vitro binding assays were applied to identify proteins interacting with circRNA. Gene expression regulation was observed by chromatin immunoprecipitation, dual-luciferase assay, real-time quantitative RT-PCR, and western blot assays. Gain- and loss-of-function studies were performed to observe the impacts of circRNA and its protein partner on the growth, invasion, and metastasis of gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: Circ-HuR (hsa_circ_0049027) was predominantly detected in the nucleus, and was down-regulated in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines. Ectopic expression of circ-HuR suppressed the growth, invasion, and metastasis of gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, circ-HuR interacted with CCHC-type zinc finger nucleic acid binding protein (CNBP), and subsequently restrained its binding to HuR promoter, resulting in down-regulation of HuR and repression of tumor progression. CONCLUSIONS: Circ-HuR serves as a tumor suppressor to inhibit CNBP-facilitated HuR expression and gastric cancer progression, indicating a potential therapeutic target for gastric cancer.

6.
Environ Pollut ; : 113494, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753637

RESUMO

Over three different seasons, seawater, porewater and sediment samples were collected from Jinzhou Bay, a previously heavily contaminated bay, to quantitatively assess the benthic flux of trace metals after a reduction in fluvial/sewage discharge for almost three decades. The spatial distribution patterns of trace metals in seawater, surface sediment, as well as the vertical distribution patterns of metals in porewater and solid phases in short sediment cores were reported. Metal concentrations in seawater and sediment all showed much higher Cd and Zn concentrations inside the Jinzhou Bay compared to the rest of Bohai Sea area. Zn, Ni, Pb and Co all had average benthic fluxes coming out of the sediments to the water column, contributing about 0.5%, 0.3%, 1.4% and 14% to their current standing stock in Jinzhou Bay. Seasonal difference was also identified in seawater and porewater, as well as in the benthic fluxes. In general, benthic fluxes and porewater concentrations all tended to be higher in summer, implying a close relationship between benthic flux and the temperature-dependent organic matter degradation process at the sediment-water interface. Currently, there are clearly still other sources, possibly fluvial/sewage discharge, as the main source of trace metals in Jinzhou Bay waters. For Cd and Cu, concentrations in the water column remain high on an annual basis indicating that sediment still acts as a sink. Conversely, for Pb, Zn, Co, and Ni, the sediment is beginning to act as a source to the water column. Although this may not yet be significant, it will become more and more important with time, and can last for hundreds to thousands of years.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 701: 134979, 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733400

RESUMO

Floods are one of the most devastating types of disasters that cause loss of lives and property worldwide each year. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the prediction capability of the naïve Bayes tree (NBTree), alternating decision tree (ADTree), and random forest (RF) methods for the spatial prediction of flood occurrence in the Quannan area, China. A flood inventory map with 363 flood locations was produced and partitioned into training and validation datasets through random selection with a ratio of 70/30. The spatial flood database was constructed using thirteen flood explanatory factors. The probability certainty factor (PCF) method was used to analyze the correlation between the factors and flood occurrences. Consequently, three flood susceptibility maps were produced using the NBTree, ADTree, and RF methods. Finally, the area under the curve (AUC) and statistical measures were used to validate the flood susceptibility models. The results indicated that the RF method is an efficient and reliable model in flood susceptibility assessment, with the highest AUC values, positive predictive rate, negative predictive rate, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the training (0.951, 0.892, 0.941, 0.945, 0.886, and 0.915, respectively) and validation (0.925, 0.851, 0.938, 0.945, 0.835, and 0.890, respectively) datasets.

8.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 8306-8314, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Long noncoding RNAs play important roles in the development of various diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the effects and mechanism of VIM antisense RNA 1 (VIM-AS1) in the development of preeclampsia. MATERIAL AND METHODS HTR-8/SVneo cells were divided into normal control (NC), Model, Blank, and VIM-AS1 groups. These groups were analyzed for their VIM-AS1 gene expressions by RT-PCR, HTR-8/SVneo cell invasion was assessed by transwell and migration by wound healing, cell morphology was assessed by microscopy examination, and E-cadherin, Snail, and Vimentin genes expressions were assessed by RT-PCR and WB assay. RESULTS VIM-AS1 gene expression was significantly different among normal placenta tissue, mild preeclampsia tissues, and severe preeclampsia tissues (P<0.001 or P<0.01). VIM-AS1 gene expressions, cell invasions, and wound healing rates in the Model and Blank groups were significantly suppressed compared with that of NC group (P<0.001, all). With VIM-AS1 supplementation, VIM-AS1 gene expression, cell invasion, and wound healing rate in the VIM-AS1 group were significantly increased compared with that in the Model group (P<0.001). RT-PCR and WB assay showed that E-cadherin gene and protein expressions in Model and Blank groups were significantly upregulated compared with the NC group (P<0.001); Snail and Vimentin gene and protein expressions in the Model and Blank groups were significantly downregulated compared with the NC group (P<0.001). With VIM-AS1 supplementation, E-cadherin, Snail, and Vimentin gene and proteins expression levels in the VIM-AS1 group were significantly different compared with that in the Model group (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS VIM-AS1 promotes preeclampsia via inducing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT).

9.
Drug Metab Dispos ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757797

RESUMO

The human cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) is well-known for chemical activation of procarcinogens and often has a substrate scope towards small and highly planar compounds. Substrates deviating from these characteristics are certainly known, but how these larger and nonplanar substrates are accommodated and oriented within the CYP1A1 active site is not understood. Herein a new X-ray structure of CYP1A1 bound to the pan-Pim kinase inhibitor GDC-0339 reveals how the CYP1A1 active site cavity is reconfigured to bind larger and nonplanar compounds. The shape and size of the cavity are controlled by structural elements in the active site roof, with major changes in the conformation of the F helix break and relocation of Phe224 from the active site to the protein surface. This altered CYP1A1 active site architecture is consistent with the proposed mechanism for CYP1A1 generation of an unusual aminoazepane-rearranged metabolite for this substrate. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Cytochrome P450 1A1 metabolizes drugs, procarcinogens, and toxins and while previous structures have revealed how its stereotypical planar, aromatic compounds are accommodated in the CYP1A1 active site, this is not the case for flexible and nonplanar compounds. The current work determines the X-ray structure of CYP1A1 with such a flexible, nonplanar Pim kinase inhibitor, revealing significant modification of the CYP1A1 roof that accommodate this preclinical candidate and support an unusual intramolecular rearrangement reaction.

10.
EMBO Mol Med ; : e10835, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709724

RESUMO

Aerobic glycolysis is a hallmark of metabolic reprogramming in tumor progression. However, the mechanisms regulating glycolytic gene expression remain elusive in neuroblastoma (NB), the most common extracranial malignancy in childhood. Herein, we identify that CUT-like homeobox 1 (CUX1) and CUX1-generated circular RNA (circ-CUX1) contribute to aerobic glycolysis and NB progression. Mechanistically, p110 CUX1, a transcription factor generated by proteolytic processing of p200 CUX1, promotes the expression of enolase 1, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, and phosphoglycerate kinase 1, while circ-CUX1 binds to EWS RNA-binding protein 1 (EWSR1) to facilitate its interaction with MYC-associated zinc finger protein (MAZ), resulting in transactivation of MAZ and transcriptional alteration of CUX1 and other genes associated with tumor progression. Administration of an inhibitory peptide blocking circ-CUX1-EWSR1 interaction or lentivirus mediating circ-CUX1 knockdown suppresses aerobic glycolysis, growth, and aggressiveness of NB cells. In clinical NB cases, CUX1 is an independent prognostic factor for unfavorable outcome, and patients with high circ-CUX1 expression have lower survival probability. These results indicate circ-CUX1/EWSR1/MAZ axis as a therapeutic target for aerobic glycolysis and NB progression.

11.
Biochem Cell Biol ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689122

RESUMO

Both tobacco smoking and nicotine have been reported to regulate the occurrence and progression of periodontitis. Many studies have demonstrated that nicotine destroys regeneration of periodontal tissues primarily by inhibiting the proliferation of human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells. However, the mechanism underlying this process is still unclear. Therefore, we investigated whether nicotine-upregulated miR-30a inhibited the proliferation of human PDL cells by downregulating cyclin E2 (CCNE2) in vitro. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that nicotine upregulated the expression of miR-30a in human PDL cells. In addition, nicotine could inhibit the proliferation of human PDL cells by inducing cell cycle arrest. To support this hypothesis, we showed that nicotine downregulated the expression of CCNE2 in human PDL cells, whereas inhibition of miR-30a restored CCNE2 expression that were downregulated by nicotine. Furthermore, we found that miR-30a directly interacts with the CCNE2 3'UTR through luciferase reporter assay. In conclusion, these findings indicate that nicotine-upregulated miR-30a inhibits the proliferation of human PDL cells by downregulating the expression of CCNE2.

12.
FASEB J ; : fj201901329RR, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690106

RESUMO

Chronic islet inflammation is associated with development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Intermediate-conductance calcium-activated K+ (KCa3.1) channel plays an important role in inflammatory diseases. However, the role and regulation of KCa3.1 in pancreatic ß cells in progression of T2DM remain unclarified. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of the specific KCa3.1 channel blocker 1-[(2-chlorophenyl)diphenylmethyl]-1H-pyrazole (TRAM-34) on diabetic phenotype in the db/db model. In diabetic mice, blockade of KCa3.1 significantly improved glucose tolerance, enhanced secretion of postprandial insulin level, and reduced loss of ß-cell mass through attenuating the expression and secretion of inflammatory mediators. Furthermore, in cultured pancreatic ß cells, exposure to high levels of glucose or palmitic acid significantly increased expression and current density of the KCa3.1 channel as well as secretion of proinflammatory chemokines, and the effects were similarly reversed by preincubation with TRAM-34 or a NF-κB inhibitor pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate. Additionally, expression of KCa3.1 in pancreas islet cells was up-regulated by activation of NF-κB with IL-1ß stimulation. In summary, up-regulated KCa3.1 due to activation of NF-κB pathway leads to pancreatic inflammation via expression and secretion of chemokines and cytokines by pancreatic ß cells, thereby facilitating progression of T2DM.-Pang, Z.-D., Wang, Y., Wang, X.-J., She, G., Ma, X.-Z., Song, Z., Zhao, L.-M., Wang, H.-F., Lai, B.-C., Gou, W., Du, X.-J., Deng, X.-L. KCa3.1 channel mediates inflammatory signaling of pancreatic ß cells and progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

13.
Org Biomol Chem ; 17(43): 9510-9513, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657418

RESUMO

Nucleophilic addition of Grignard reagents to tetrahydro-ß-carboline (THC) N-sulfonyl N,S-acetal generates exclusively cis-1,3-disubstituted THCs with a unique 1,3-diaxial conformation. The stereochemical relationship of the 1,3-substituents was confirmed by 2-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. The mechanism of the reaction is proposed based on crystal structures and molecular orbital calculations.

14.
Lab Invest ; 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641227

RESUMO

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in the progression of renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis, a common mechanism leading to end-stage renal failure. V-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 2 (ETS2), a transcription factor, exhibits diverse roles in pathogenesis; however, its role in renal fibrosis is not yet fully understood. In this study, we detected the expression of ETS2 in an animal model of renal fibrosis and evaluated the potential role of ETS2 in tubular EMT induced by TGF-ß1. We found that ETS2 and profibrogenic factors, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and fibronectin (FN), were significantly increased in the unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced renal fibrosis model in mice. In vitro, TGF-ß1 induced a high expression of ETS2 dependent on Smad3 and ERK signaling pathway in human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK2). Knockdown of ETS2 abrogated TGF-ß1-mediated expression of profibrogenic factors vimentin, α-SMA, collagen I, and FN in HK2 cells. Mechanistically, ETS2 promoted JUNB expression in HK2 cells after TGF-ß1 stimulation. Furthermore, luciferase and Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays revealed that the binding of ETS2 to three EBS motifs on the promoter of JUNB triggered its transcription. Notably, silencing JUNB reversed the ETS2-induced upregulation of the profibrogenic factors in HK2 cells after TGF-ß1 stimulation. These findings suggest that ETS2 mediates TGF-ß1-induced EMT in renal tubular cells through JUNB, a novel pathway for preventing renal fibrosis.

15.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568643

RESUMO

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a heterogeneous histological disease and it is one of the most common kidney cancer. The treatment of RCC has been improved for the past few years, but its mortality still remains high. Chelerythrine (CHE) is a natural benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloid and a widely used broad-range protein kinase C inhibitor which has anti-cancer effect on various types of human cancer cells. However, its effect on RCC has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we evaluated the effect and mechanism of CHE on RCC cells. Our study showed that CHE induced colony formation inhibition and G2/M cell cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner in RCC cells. In addition, CHE increased cellular ROS level, leading to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, inactivating STAT3 activities and inducing apoptosis in RCC cells which were suppressed by NAC, a special ROS inhibitor. We further found that both knockdown of ATF4 protein and overexpression of STAT3 protein could reduce CHE-induced apoptosis in Caki cells. These results demonstrated that the apoptosis induced by CHE was mediated by ROS-caused ER stress and STAT3 inactivation. Collectively, our studies provided support for CHE as a potential new therapeutic agent for the management of RCC.

16.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0224038, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644545

RESUMO

Spathiphyllum is a very important tropical plant used as a small, potted, ornamental plant in South China, with an annual output value of hundreds of millions of yuan. In this study, we sequenced and analyzed the complete nucleotide sequence of the Spathiphyllum 'Parrish' chloroplast genome. The whole chloroplast genome is 168,493 bp in length, and includes a pair of inverted repeat (IR) regions (IRa and IRb, each 31,600 bp), separated by a small single-copy (SSC, 15,799 bp) region and a large single-copy (LSC, 89,494 bp) region. Our annotation revealed that the S. 'Parrish' chloroplast genome contained 132 genes, including 87 protein coding genes, 37 transfer RNA genes, and 8 ribosomal RNA genes. In the repeat structure analysis, we detected 281 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) which included mononucleotides (223), dinucleotides (28), trinucleotides (12), tetranucleotides (11), pentanucleotides (6), and hexanucleotides (1), in the S. 'Parrish' chloroplast genome. In addition, we identified 50 long repeats, comprising 18 forward repeats, 13 reverse repeats, 17 palindromic repeats, and 2 complementary repeats. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and insertion/deletion (indel) analyses of the chloroplast genome of the S. 'Parrish' relative S. cannifolium revealed 962 SNPs in S. 'Parrish'. There were 158 indels (90 insertions and 68 deletions) in the S. 'Parrish' chloroplast genome relative to the S. cannifolium chloroplast genome. Phylogenetic analysis of five species found S. 'Parrish' to be more closely related to S. kochii than to S. cannifolium. This study identified the characteristics of the S. 'Parrish' chloroplast genome, which will facilitate species identification and phylogenetic analysis within the genus Spathiphyllum.

17.
Oral Oncol ; 98: 118-124, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586893

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe differences in cancer stem cell (CSC) presence and behavior associated with their intratumor compartment of origin using a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four HPV-negative OCSCC PDX cases were selected (CUHN004, CUHN013, CUHN096, CUHN111) and the percentage of CSCs (ALDH+CD44high) was measured in the tumor Leading Edge (LE) and Core compartments of each PDX tumor case via fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). The fraction of cells in the proliferative phase was measured by Ki-67 labelling index of paraffin embedded tissue. The proliferation and invasion of LE versus Core CSCs were compared using sphere and Matrigel invasion assays, respectively. RESULTS: Both CUHN111 and CUHN004 demonstrate CSC enrichment in their LE compartments while CUHN013 and CUHN096 show no intratumor difference. Cases with LE CSC enrichment demonstrate greater Ki-67 labelling at the LE. CSC proliferative potential, assessed by sphere formation, reveals greater sphere formation in CUHN111 LE CSCs, but no difference between CUHN013 LE and Core CSCs. CUHN111 CSCs do not demonstrate an intratumor difference in invasiveness while CUHN013 LE CSCs are more invasive than Core CSCs. CONCLUSION: A discrete intratumor CSC niche is present in a subset of OCSCC PDX tumors. The CSC functional phenotype with regard to proliferation and invasion is associated with the intratumor compartment of origin of the CSC: LE or Core. These individual functional characteristics appear to be modulated independently of one another and independently of the presence of an intratumor CSC niche.

18.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3969, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481671

RESUMO

Analyses of idealized feedforward networks suggest that several conditions have to be satisfied in order for activity to propagate faithfully across layers. Verifying these concepts experimentally has been difficult owing to the vast number of variables that must be controlled. Here, we cultured cortical neurons in a chamber with sequentially connected compartments, optogenetically stimulated individual neurons in the first layer with high spatiotemporal resolution, and then monitored the subthreshold and suprathreshold potentials in subsequent layers. Brief stimuli delivered to the first layer evoked a short-latency transient response followed by sustained activity. Rate signals, carried by the sustained component, propagated reliably through 4 layers, unlike idealized feedforward networks, which tended strongly towards synchrony. Moreover, temporal jitter in the stimulus was transformed into a rate code and transmitted to the last layer. This novel mode of propagation occurred in the balanced excitatory-inhibitory regime and is mediated by NMDA-mediated receptors and recurrent activity.

19.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(42): 15076-15081, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404487

RESUMO

Piezocatalysis, converting mechanical vibration into chemical energy, has emerged as a promising candidate for water-splitting technology. However, the efficiency of the hydrogen production is quite limited. We herein report well-defined 10 nm BaTiO3 nanoparticles (NPs) characterized by a large electro-mechanical coefficient which induces a high piezoelectric effect. Atomic-resolution high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) and scanning probe microscopy (SPM) suggests that piezoelectric BaTiO3 NPs display a coexistence of multiple phases with low energy barriers and polarization anisotropy which results in a high electro-mechanical coefficient. Landau free energy modeling also confirms that the greatly reduced polarization anisotropy facilitates polarization rotation. Employing the high piezoelectric properties of BaTiO3 NPs, we demonstrate an overall water-splitting process with the highest hydrogen production efficiency hitherto reported, with a H2 production rate of 655 µmol g-1 h-1 , which could rival excellent photocatalysis system. This study highlights the potential of piezoelectric catalysis for overall water splitting.

20.
Exp Cell Res ; 383(2): 111552, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415760

RESUMO

Elevated plasma free fatty acids level has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction in diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. However, the underlying mechanisms still remain to be defined. Herein, we investigated the effect of palmitic acid (PA), the most abundant saturated fatty acid in the human body, on small-conductance Ca2+-activated potassium channels (KCa2.3)-mediated relaxation in rodent resistance arteries and the underlying molecular mechanism. The effect of PA on KCa2.3 in endothelium was evaluated using real-time PCR, Western blotting, whole-cell patch voltage-clamp, wire and pressure myograph system, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by using dihydroethidium and 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate. KCa2.3-mediated vasodilatation responses to acetylcholine and NS309 (agonist of KCa2.3 and KCa3.1) were impaired by incubation of normal mesenteric arteries with 100 µM PA for 24 h. In cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), PA decreased KCa2.3 current and expression at mRNA and protein levels. Incubation with the NADPH oxidase (Nox) inhibitor dibenziodolium (DPI) partly inhibited the PA-induced ROS production and restored KCa2.3 expression. Inhibition of either p38-MAPK or NF-κB using specific inhibitors (SB203580, SB202190 or Bay11-7082, pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate) attenuated PA-induced downregulation of KCa2.3 and inhibition of p38-MAPK also attenuated PA-induced phosphorylation of NF-κB p65. Furthermore, DPI reversed the increment of phospho-p38-MAPK by PA. These results demonstrated that PA downregulated KCa2.3 expressions via Nox/ROS/p38-MAPK/NF-κB signaling leading to endothelial vasodilatory dysfunction.

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