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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36656667

RESUMO

Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) can be vertically transmitted in a Mendelian fashion, are stably maintained in the human genome, and are estimated to constitute approximately 8% of the genome. HERVs affect human physiology and pathology via their provirus-encoded protein or long terminal repeat (LTR) element effect. Characterization of the genomic distribution is an essential step to understanding the relationships between endogenous retrovirus expression and diseases. However, the poor characterization of HML-8 prevents a detailed understanding of the regulation of the expression of this family in humans and its impact on the host genome. In light of this, the definition of an accurate and updated HERV-K HML-8 genomic map is urgently needed. Here, we report the results of a comprehensive analysis of HERV-K HML-8 sequence presence and distribution within the human genome and hominoids, with a detailed description of the different structural and phylogenetic aspects characterizing the group. A total of 40 proviruses and 5 solo LTR elements for human were characterized, which included a detailed description of provirus structure, integration time, potentially regulated genes, transcription factor-binding sites, and primer-binding site (PBS) features. Besides, 9 chimpanzee sequences, 8 gorilla sequences, and 10 orangutan sequences belonging to the HML-8 subgroup were identified. The integration time results showed that the HML-8 elements were integrated into the primate lineage around 35 and 42 million years ago (mya), during primates evolutionary speciation. Overall, the results clarified the composition of the HML-8 groups, providing an exhaustive background for subsequent functional studies.

2.
Mater Horiz ; 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36651348

RESUMO

Bioinspired smart hydrogels with additive-switchable mechanical properties have been attracting increasing attention in recent years. However, most existing hydrogel systems suffer from limited stiffening amplitude and dramatic volume change upon response to environmental triggers. Herein, we propose a novel strategy to prepare additive-responsive hydrogels with ultra-highly adjustable toughness under quasi-isochoric conditions. The key point lies in tuning the softening transition temperature of the hydrogels with non-covalent interactions between the polymer networks and additives, shifting the hydrogels from glassy to rubbery states. As a proof of concept, a variety of glassy hydrogels are prepared and exposed to additives to trigger responsive performances. Young's modulus of the same hydrogel demonstrates up to 36 000 times ultra-broad-range tunability, ranging from 0.0042 to 150 MPa in response to different additives. Meanwhile, negligible volume changes occur, keeping the hydrogels in quasi-isochoric conditions. Interestingly, the mechanical behaviors of the hydrogels manifest remarkable dependence on the additive type and concentration since both the Hofmeister effect and hydrophobicity of the additives play pivotal roles according to mechanism investigations. Furthermore, the regulation with additives reveals satisfactory reversibility and universality. Taken together, this simple and effective approach provides a novel strategy to fabricate hydrogels with highly tunable toughness for versatile applications, including spatially patterned conductive gels and anti-icing coatings.

3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36625511

RESUMO

Lithographic patterning, which utilizes the solubility switch of photoresists to convert optical signals into nanostructures on the substrate, is the primary top-down approach for nanoscale fabrication. However, the low light/electron-energy conversion efficiency severely limits the throughput of lithography. Thiol-ene reaction, as a photoinitiated radical addition reaction, is widely known as click reaction in the field of chemistry due to its extremely high efficiency. Here, we introduce a click lithography strategy utilizing the rapid thiol-ene click reaction to realize ultraefficient nanofabrication. This novel approach facilitated by the implementation of ultrahigh-functionality material designs enables high-contrast patterning of metal-containing nanoclusters under an extremely low deep-ultraviolet exposure dose, e.g., 7.5 mJ cm-2, which is 10-20 times lower than the dose used in the photoacid generator-based photoresist system. Meanwhile, 45 nm dense patterns were also achieved at a low dose using electron beam lithography, revealing the great potential of this approach in high-resolution patterning. Our results demonstrated the high-sensitivity and high-resolution features of click lithography, providing inspiration for future lithography design.

4.
Front Neurorobot ; 16: 1029968, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36467567

RESUMO

Introduction: Existing multi-view-based 3D model classification methods have the problems of insufficient view refinement feature extraction and poor generalization ability of the network model, which makes it difficult to further improve the classification accuracy. To this end, this paper proposes a multi-view SoftPool attention convolutional network for 3D model classification tasks. Methods: This method extracts multi-view features through ResNest and adaptive pooling modules, and the extracted features can better represent 3D models. Then, the results of the multi-view feature extraction processed using SoftPool are used as the Query for the self-attentive calculation, which enables the subsequent refinement extraction. We then input the attention scores calculated by Query and Key in the self-attention calculation into the mobile inverted bottleneck convolution, which effectively improves the generalization of the network model. Based on our proposed method, a compact 3D global descriptor is finally generated, achieving a high-accuracy 3D model classification performance. Results: Experimental results showed that our method achieves 96.96% OA and 95.68% AA on ModelNet40 and 98.57% OA and 98.42% AA on ModelNet10. Discussion: Compared with a multitude of popular methods, our algorithm model achieves the state-of-the-art classification accuracy.

5.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 1044676, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36578566

RESUMO

The HIV-1 Rev response element (RRE) is a cis-acting RNA element that facilitates the nuclear export of mRNA-containing introns by binding specifically to the Rev protein, enabling a critical step in the viral replication cycle. This study aims to determine the subtype-specific loci of HIV-1 subtype B RRE circulating in China and to analyze their effects on Rev-RRE function and HIV-1 replication. We amplified 71 HIV-1 subtype B RRE full-length sequences from the HIV patients' blood samples collected in China, analyzed the subtype-specific loci on them by comparing them with subtype B in the United States, and predicted their RNA secondary structures. Rev-RRE activity assay was used to test the binding activity of Rev and different RREs. Infectious clones were mutated to test the effect of the subtype-specific loci on replication capacity. In this study, two sites were determined to be the subtype-specific loci of HIV-1 subtype B RRE circulating in China. Both site 186 and site 56-57insAAC can significantly increase the viral mRNA transcription and Rev-RRE activity, but only the site 186 can significantly improve viral replication ability. Collectively, the subtype-specific loci of subtype B RRE circulating in China have a significant effect on the Rev-RRE activity and viral replication. This study investigates the subtype-specific loci of RRE, which are unique to retroviruses and essential for viral replication, and will help to explore the reasons why subtype B circulating in China is more widespread and persistent than American subtype B in China at the genetic level, and will provide theoretical support for the development of more inclusive detection and treatment methods for subtype B circulating in China. At the same time, it will also provide insight into the impact of different subtype HIV-1 genetic characteristics on viral replication.

6.
Front Oncol ; 12: 1068198, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36568178

RESUMO

Background: Prediction of prognosis for patients with esophageal cancer(EC) is beneficial for their postoperative clinical decision-making. This study's goal was to create a dependable machine learning (ML) model for predicting the prognosis of patients with EC after surgery. Methods: The files of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) of the thoracic segment from China who received radical surgery for EC were analyzed. The data were separated into training and test sets, and prognostic risk variables were identified in the training set using univariate and multifactor COX regression. Based on the screened features, training and validation of five ML models were carried out through nested cross-validation (nCV). The performance of each model was evaluated using Area under the curve (AUC), accuracy(ACC), and F1-Score, and the optimum model was chosen as the final model for risk stratification and survival analysis in order to build a valid model for predicting the prognosis of patients with EC after surgery. Results: This study enrolled 810 patients with thoracic ESCC. 6 variables were ultimately included for modeling. Five ML models were trained and validated. The XGBoost model was selected as the optimum for final modeling. The XGBoost model was trained, optimized, and tested (AUC = 0.855; 95% CI, 0.808-0.902). Patients were separated into three risk groups. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.001) were found among all three groups for both the training and test sets. Conclusions: A ML model that was highly practical and reliable for predicting the prognosis of patients with EC after surgery was established, and an application to facilitate clinical utility was developed.

7.
Sci Bull (Beijing) ; 67(22): 2358-2368, 2022 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36546225

RESUMO

Most economically important tungsten (W) deposits are of magmatic-hydrothermal origin. The species and partitioning of W during fluid exsolution, considered to be the controlling factors for the formation of ore deposits, are thus of great significance to investigate. However, this issue has not been well addressed mainly due to the significant difference in reported partition coefficients (e.g., from strongly incompatible to strongly compatible) between fluid and melt (DWfluid/melt). Here, we used an in situ Raman spectroscopic approach to describe the W speciation, and to quantitatively determine the Dfluid/melt of individual and total W species in granite melts and coexisting Na2WO4 solutions at elevated temperatures (T; 700-800 °C) and pressures (P; 0.35-1.08 GPa). Results show that WO42- and HWO4- are predominant W species, and the fractions of these two species are similar in melt and coexisting fluid. The partitioning behaviors of WO42- and HWO4- are comparable, exhibiting strong enrichment in the fluid. The total DWfluid/melt ranges from 8.6 to 37.1. Specifically, DWfluid/melt decreases with rising T-P, indicating that shallow exsolution favors enrichment of W in evolved fluids. Furthermore, Rayleigh fractionation modeling based on the obtained DWfluid/melt data was used to describe the fluid exsolution processes. Our results strongly support that fluid exsolution can serve as an important mechanism to generate W-rich ore-forming fluids. This study also indicates that in situ approach can be used to further investigate the geochemical behavior of ore-forming elements during the magmatic-hydrothermal transition, especially for rare metals associated with granite and pegmatite.

8.
Mater Horiz ; 2022 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36533533

RESUMO

Fascinating properties are displayed by high-performance ionogel-based flexible strain sensors, thereby gaining increasing attention in various applications ranging from human motion monitoring to soft robotics. However, the integration of excellent properties such as optical and mechanical properties and satisfactory sensing performance for one ionogel sensor is still a challenge. In particular, fatigue-resistant and self-healing properties are essential to continuous sensing. Herein, we design a flexible ion-conductive sensor based on a multifunctional ionogel with a double network using polyacrylamide, amino-modified agarose, 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxaldehyde and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride. The ionogel exhibits comprehensive properties including high transparency (>95%), nonflammability, strong adhesion and good temperature tolerance (about -96 to 260 °C), especially adaptive for extreme conditions. The dynamic imine bonds and abundant hydrogen bonds endow the ionogel with excellent self-healing capability, to realize rapid self-repair within minutes, as well as good mechanical properties and ductility to dissipate input energy and realize high resilience. Notably, unexpected fluorescence has been observed for the ionogel because of the gelation-induced emission phenomenon. Flexible strain sensors prepared directly from ionogels can sensitively monitor and differentiate various human motions, exhibiting a fast response time (38 ms), high sensitivity (gauge factor = 3.13 at 800% strain), good durability (>1000 cycles) and excellent stability over a wide temperature range (-30 to 80 °C). Therefore, the prepared ionogel as a high-performance flexible strain sensor in this study shows tremendous potential in wearable devices and soft ionotronics.

9.
Microsyst Nanoeng ; 8: 133, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36575664

RESUMO

Implantable brain-computer interface (BCI) devices are an effective tool to decipher fundamental brain mechanisms and treat neural diseases. However, traditional neural implants with rigid or bulky cross-sections cause trauma and decrease the quality of the neuronal signal. Here, we propose a MEMS-fabricated flexible interface device for BCI applications. The microdevice with a thin film substrate can be readily reduced to submicron scale for low-invasive implantation. An elaborate silicon shuttle with an improved structure is designed to reliably implant the flexible device into brain tissue. The flexible substrate is temporarily bonded to the silicon shuttle by polyethylene glycol. On the flexible substrate, eight electrodes with different diameters are distributed evenly for local field potential and neural spike recording, both of which are modified by Pt-black to enhance the charge storage capacity and reduce the impedance. The mechanical and electrochemical characteristics of this interface were investigated in vitro. In vivo, the small cross-section of the device promises reduced trauma, and the neuronal signals can still be recorded one month after implantation, demonstrating the promise of this kind of flexible BCI device as a low-invasive tool for brain-computer communication.

10.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 115: 109624, 2022 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36577158

RESUMO

PHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Indirubin (IR) is a key active ingredient in the traditional Chinese medication QingDai, also called indigo naturalis, which are extensively used in China to treat chronic diseases, such as inflammation and cancer. However, the function of IR in reducing chondrocyte inflammation in osteoarthritis (OA) is still unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this research was to examine how IR inhibits arthritis and to highlight some of its cellular-level processes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chondrocytes from the knee joint of C57 mice were gathered and grown for in vitro tests and used to determine the toxicity of IR toward chondrocytes using a CCK8 kit. Chondrocytes were treated with IL-1ß and IR or with IL-1ß alone, and western blotting was used to determine the expression levels of inflammatory mediators. Meanwhile, through the identification and examination of pertinent markers via quantitative PCR. By using PCR assays, western blotting, toluidine blue staining and safranin O staining, the expression of proteoglycan (AGG) and type II collagen (collagen II) was investigated. Furthermore, western blotting was used to detect activation of the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways, and immunofluorescence was used to detect p65 nuclear translocation. In an in vivo experiment, C57BL/6 mice were subjected to destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) surgery to produce an OA model, and IR was injected into the articular cavity for 8 weeks. Eventually, the mice were killed, and samples of the knee joints were obtained for histological examination and analysis. RESULTS: IR significantly reduced the expression of inflammatory regulators in chondrocytes treated with IL-1ß, including iNOS and COX-2. Inhibition of IL-1ß induced production of the key catabolic enzymes MMP3, MMP13 and A5. Additionally, an improvement in the downregulation of collagen II and AGG expression was observed. Moreover, IR prevented the aberrant IL-1ß-induced activation of the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways, which resulted in downregulation of p65 and p38 expression. Compared to the DMM group, the severity of cartilage injury in animals was dramatically lessened and OARSI scores were lower in the treated groups. CONCLUSION: According to the above findings, IR is quite effective in preventing arthritis both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that IR may be employed as a possible anti-arthritis drug.

11.
J Microencapsul ; 39(7-8): 654-667, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36476313

RESUMO

This study aims to fabricate core-shell clarithromycin (CAM) microcapsules to cover up the bitter taste of CAM by spray drying with aqueous polymer dispersion. Water dispersion of Eudragit EPO and Surelease® were innovatively used to encapsulate CAM into microcapsules via a one-step spray-drying method. The inlet air temperature, airflow rate, CAM-polymer ratio, and particle size of CAM were optimised based on drug content and T6% (the time taken for the drug to release equal to 6% w/w). The powder properties were assessed by measuring particle size and microstructure using SEM, FT-IR, and PXRD. Furthermore, selected batch was assessed for their drug content, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro release, bitterness, and stability studies. EPO-Surelease® (1: 4) microcapsules had an average diameter (D50) of 37.69 ± 3.61 µm with a span of 2.395. The drug contents and encapsulation efficiency of EPO-Surelease®(1:4) were 10.89% and 63.7%, respectively. EPO-Surelease® (1:4) microcapsules prepared by spray drying with aqueous polymer dispersion can effectively mask the bitter taste of CAM.


Assuntos
Claritromicina , Polímeros , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Cápsulas/química , Composição de Medicamentos , Polímeros/química , Água/química
12.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(23)2022 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36499991

RESUMO

Compared with the post-treatment of pollutants, such as the removal of phosphate from wastewater, it is more important to develop effective emission control strategies to reduce phosphate pollution. Phosphogypsum (PG) is a typical solid waste byproduct of phosphate production and contains high amounts of residual phosphate. In order to control the phosphate emissions during the recycling of PG aggregates for cemented backfill, another solid waste product-iron tailings (ITs)-was added during the preparation of backfill slurry. The results showed that the ITs effectively accelerated the phosphate removal in cemented PG backfill, enabling the quick reduction in the phosphate concentration to the discharge standard (<0.5 mg/L) within 15 min. This means that the emissions of phosphate to bleeding water were effectively controlled. The adsorption experiment showed that phosphate was adsorbed by the ITs, and the adsorption data fitted well with the Langmuir adsorption model (R2 = 0.98) and pseudo-second-order kinetic model (R2 = 0.99), indicating that the phosphate adsorption of ITs was a monolayer chemical adsorption. Furthermore, an unconfined compressive strength (UCS) test was performed on the backfill with the addition of ITs. Compared to the control group (without ITs), the UCS of backfill with 20% ITs increased from 1.08 MPa to 1.33 MPa, indicating that the addition of solid waste could be beneficial to the strength development of the backfill by mitigating the interference of phosphate with the hydration process. The backfill cured for 28 d was selected for the toxic leaching test, and the phosphate concentration in the leachates was always below 0.02 mg/L, indicating that ITs can effectively immobilize phosphate in backfill for a long time.

13.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 10: 997799, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36425649

RESUMO

Glioma is the most common malignant intracranial tumor with low 5-year survival rate. In this study, we constructed a plasmid expressing anti-HAAH single-chain antibody and sTRAIL fusion protein (scFv-sTRAIL), and explored the effects of the double gene modified human umbilical cord mesenchyreal stem cells (hucMSCs) on the growth of glioma in vitro and in vivo. The isolated hucMSCs were identified by detecting the adipogenic differentiation ability and the osteogenic differentiation ability. The phenotypes of hucMSCs were determined by the flow cytometry. The hucMSCs were infected with lentivirus expression scFv-sTRAIL fusion protein. The expression of sTRAIL in hucMSCs were detected by immunofluorescence staining, western blot and ELISA. The tropism of hucMSCs toward U87G cells was assessed by transwell assay. The inhibitory effect of hucMSCs on U87G cells were explored by CCK8 and apoptosis assay. The xenograft tumor was established by subcutaneously injection of U87G cells into the back of mice. The hucMSCs were injected via tail veins. The inhibitory effect of hucMSCs on glioma in vivo was assessed by TUNEL assay. The hucMSCs migrated into the xenograft tumor were revealed by detecting the green fluorescent. The results showed that the scFv-sTRAIL expression did not affect the phenotypes of hucMSCs. The scFv-sTRAIL expression promoted the tropism of hucMSCs toward U87G cells, enhanced the inhibitory effect and tumor killing effect of hucMSCs on U87G cells. The in vivo study showed that hucMSCs expressing scFv-sTRAIL demonstrated significantly higher inhibitory effect and tumor killing effect than hucMSCs expressing sTRAIL. The green fluorescence intensity in the mice injected with hucMSCs expressing scFv-sTRAIL was significantly higher than that injected with hucMSCs expressing sTRAIL. These data suggested that the scFv conferred the targeting effect of hucMSCs tropism towards the xenograft tumor. In conclusion, the hucMSCs expressing scFv-sTRAIL fusion protein gained the capability to target and kill gliomas cells in vitro and in vivo. These findings shed light on a potential therapy for glioma treatment.

15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19497, 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36376427

RESUMO

This paper examined the effects of no treatment versus plasma treatment, and femtosecond laser irradiation as pre-annealing processes on indium zinc oxide (IZO) films and annealing at high temperatures. The plasma pre-annealed multilayer stacked IZO TFTs showed better electrical properties with mobility enhancement from 2.45 to 7.81 cm2/Vs, but exhibited diminished on-off current ratio (Ion/Ioff). The IZO thin-film transistor (TFT) prepared with femtosecond laser pre-annealing with low pulse energy generation (power of 3 W at 700 nm wavelength) for 100 s has also exhibited significantly improved electrical performance, the saturation mobility increased to 4.91 cm2/Vs, the Ion/Ioff ratio was enhanced from 4.5 × 105 to 2.1 × 106, the threshold voltage improved from - 1.44 to - 0.25 V, and the subthreshold swing was reduced from 1.21 to 0.61 V/dec. In conclusion, IZO TFTs with improved performance can be prepared using a femtosecond laser pre-annealing process, which has great potential for fabricating low-cost, high-performance devices.

16.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 23(1): 964, 2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36348396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medial epicondyle fractures are one of the more common humerus fractures, but humeral medial condyle fracture (HMCF) is rare. Nonunion of medial humeral condyle fractures due to functional exercise is less common. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 5-year-old patient with a nonunion HMCF due to excessive functional exercise, who bruised the elbow 1 year ago and had no positive findings on all imaging studies. On this physical examination, there was a snapping and palpable lump in the elbow joint during movement, but the patient did not feel any discomfort and the range of motion of the joint was normal. X rays and computed tomography (CT) showed that the left HMCF was discontinuous, the broken ends were dislocated, and the joint alignment was poor. Open reduction (OR) and screw fixation was used during the operation, and the patient recovered well at 3-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The rarity and low radiographic appearance of displaced HMCF are easily overlooked and can eventually lead to nonunion HMCF, especially when radiographically difficult to visualize before age 5 years. Therefore, regardless of whether there are signs or imaging abnormalities in the growth process of adolescents, they should be vigilant, shorten the time interval for re-examination, and early detection and timely treatment can avoid some complications caused by this.


Assuntos
Articulação do Cotovelo , Fraturas não Consolidadas , Fraturas do Úmero , Adolescente , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Articulação do Cotovelo/cirurgia , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/métodos , Fraturas do Úmero/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas do Úmero/etiologia , Fraturas do Úmero/cirurgia , Úmero/cirurgia , Fraturas não Consolidadas/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas não Consolidadas/etiologia , Fraturas não Consolidadas/cirurgia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Polymers (Basel) ; 14(21)2022 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36365766

RESUMO

Bladder cancer and prostate cancer are the most common malignant tumors of the genitourinary system. Conventional strategies still face great challenges of high recurrence rate and severe trauma. Therefore, minimally invasive photothermal therapy (PTT) has been extensively explored to address these challenges. Herein, fluorescent Au nanoparticles (NPs) were first prepared using glutathione as template, which were then capped with SiO2 shell to improve the biocompatibility. Next, Au nanoclusters were deposited on the NPs surface to obtain Au@SiO2@Au NPs for photothermal conversion. The gaps between Au nanoparticles on their surface could enhance their photothermal conversion efficiency. Finally, hyaluronic acid (HA), which targets cancer cells overexpressing CD44 receptors, was attached on the NPs surface via 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) chemistry to improve the accumulation of NPs in tumor tissues. Photothermal experiments showed that NPs with an average size of 37.5 nm have a high photothermal conversion efficiency (47.6%) and excellent photostability, thus exhibiting potential application as a PTT agent. The temperature of the NPs (100 µg·mL-1) could rapidly increase to 38.5 °C within 200 s and reach the peak of 57.6 °C with the laser power density of 1.5 W·cm-2 and irradiation time of 600 s. In vivo and in vitro PTT experiments showed that the NPs have high biocompatibility and excellent targeted photothermal ablation capability of cancer cells. Both bladder and prostate tumors disappeared at 15 and 18 d post-treatment with HA-Au@SiO2@Au NPs, respectively, and did not recur. In summary, HA-Au@SiO2@Au NPs can be used a powerful PTT agent for minimally invasive treatment of genitourinary tumors.

18.
Ann Transl Med ; 10(19): 1069, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36330384

RESUMO

Background: Roxadustat is a newly marketed hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor used to treat anemia in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). While clinical trials have demonstrated the therapeutic effects of roxadustat in patients with ESRD who are resistant to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs), its metabolic effects are still unclear. Methods: Thirty-two individuals with ESRD and ESA resistance from the Blood Purification Center of Dalian Municipal Central Hospital were included. A total of 96 fasting serum samples were obtained from participants before treatment with roxadustat, and after treatment for 15 and 30 days. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics and lipidomics strategies were applied to investigate the effects of roxadustat on serum metabolism. Results: A total of 255 metabolites and 444 lipid molecular species were detected and quantified. Sphingolipids and phospholipids decreased significantly during treatment, possibly associated with changes in phospholipid and ceramide metabolism. Bile acid levels decreased and cholic acid/chenodeoxycholic acid increased, indicating changes in gut microbiota and bile acid metabolism. Amino acids also changed during the process of treatment. Conclusions: The present study showed sphingolipids, phospholipids, and bile acids were significantly altered, which may be associated with a changed metabolism caused by roxadustat. This approach provided a powerful tool for exploring the mechanisms of ESA resistance in ESRD patients and may represent a promising strategy for elucidating the complex therapeutic mechanisms of other drugs.

19.
Chem Soc Rev ; 2022 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36448270

RESUMO

Uranium extraction from seawater (UES), a potential approach to securing the long-term uranium supply and sustainability of nuclear energy, has experienced significant progress in the past decade. Promising adsorbents with record-high capacities have been developed by diverse innovative synthetic strategies, and scale-up marine field tests have been put forward by several countries. However, significant challenges remain in terms of the adsorbents' properties in complex marine environments, deployment methods, and the economic viability of current UES systems. This review presents an up-to-date overview of the latest advancements in the UES field, highlighting new insights into the mechanistic basis of UES and the methodologies towards the function-oriented development of uranium adsorbents with high adsorption capacity, selectivity, biofouling resistance, and durability. A distinctive emphasis is placed on emerging electrochemical and photochemical strategies that have been employed to develop efficient UES systems. The most recent achievements in marine tests by the major countries are summarized. Challenges and perspectives related to the fundamental, technical, and engineering aspects of UES are discussed. This review is envisaged to inspire innovative ideas and bring technical solutions towards the development of technically and economically viable UES systems.

20.
Circulation ; 2022 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36448459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetic heart dysfunction is a common complication of diabetes. Cell death is a core event that leads to diabetic heart dysfunction. However, the time sequence of cell death pathways and the precise time to intervene of particular cell death type remain largely unknown in the diabetic heart. This study aims to identify the particular cell death type that is responsible for diabetic heart dysfunction and to propose a promising therapeutic strategy by intervening in the cell death pathway. METHODS: Type 2 diabetes models were established using db/db leptin receptor-deficient mice and high-fat diet/streptozotocin-induced mice. The type 1 diabetes model was established in streptozotocin-induced mice. Apoptosis and programmed cell necrosis (necroptosis) were detected in diabetic mouse hearts at different ages. G protein-coupled receptor-targeted drug library was searched to identify potential receptors regulating the key cell death pathway. Pharmacological and genetic approaches that modulate the expression of targets were used. Stable cell lines and a homemade phosphorylation antibody were prepared to conduct mechanistic studies. RESULTS: Necroptosis was activated after apoptosis at later stages of diabetes and was functionally responsible for cardiac dysfunction. Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R) was a key regulator of necroptosis. Mechanically, during normal glucose levels, CB2R inhibited S6 kinase-mediated phosphorylation of BACH2 at serine 520, thereby leading to BACH2 translocation to the nucleus, where BACH2 transcriptionally repressed the necroptosis genes Rip1, Rip3, and Mlkl. Under hyperglycemic conditions, high glucose induced CB2R internalization in a ß-arrestin 2-dependent manner; thereafter, MLKL (mixed lineage kinase domain-like), but not receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 or 3, phosphorylated CB2R at serine 352 and promoted CB2R degradation by ubiquitin modification. Cardiac re-expression of CB2R rescued diabetes-induced cardiomyocyte necroptosis and heart dysfunction, whereas cardiac knockout of Bach2 diminished CB2R-mediated beneficial effects. In human diabetic hearts, both CB2R and BACH2 were negatively associated with diabetes-induced myocardial injuries. CONCLUSIONS: CB2R transcriptionally repressed necroptosis through interaction with BACH2; in turn, MLKL formed a negative feedback to phosphorylate CB2R. Our study provides the integrative view of a novel molecular mechanism loop for regulation of necroptosis centered by CB2R, which represents a promising alternative strategy for controlling diabetic heart dysfunction.

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