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1.
FASEB J ; 34(1): 1412-1429, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914599

RESUMO

Accumulation of amyloid ß (Aß) peptide, inflammation, and oxidative stress contribute to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and trigger complex pathogenesis. The ketone body ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) is an endogenous metabolic intermediate that protects against stroke and neurodegenerative diseases, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The present study aims to elucidate the protective effects of BHBA in the early stage of AD model and investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Three-and-half-month-old double-transgenic mice (5XFAD) overexpressing ß-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin-1 (PS1) were used as the AD model. The 5XFAD mice received 1.5 mmol/kg/d BHBA subcutaneously for 28 days. Morris water maze test, nest construction, and passive avoidance experiments were performed to assess the therapeutic effects on AD prevention in vivo, and brain pathology of 5XFAD mice including amyloid plaque deposition and microglia activation were assessed. Gene expression profiles in the cortexes of 5XFAD- and BHBA-treated 5XFAD mice were performed with high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. Mouse HT22 cells were treated with 2 mM BHBA to explore its in vitro protective effects of BHBA on hippocampal neurons against Aß oligomer toxicity, ATP production, ROS generation, and mitochondrial aerobic respiratory function. APP, BACE1, and neprilysin (NEP) expression levels were evaluated in HT22 cells following treatment with BHBA by measuring the presence or absence of G protein-coupled receptor 109A (GPR109A). BHBA improved cognitive function of 5XFAD mice in Morris water maze test, nesting construction and passive avoidance experiments, and attenuated Aß accumulation and microglia overactivation in the brain. BHBA also enhanced mitochondrial respiratory function of hippocampal neurons and protected it from Aß toxicity. The enzymes, APP and NEP were regulated by BHBA via G-protein-coupled receptor 109A (GPR109A). Furthermore, RNA sequencing revealed that BHBA-regulated genes mainly annotated in aging, immune system, nervous system, and neurodegenerative diseases. Our data suggested that BHBA confers protection against the AD-like pathological events in the AD mouse model by targeting multiple aspects of AD and it may become a promising candidate for the prevention and treatment of AD.

2.
J Proteome Res ; 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916767

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of worldwide cancer death. Due to its high recurrence rate and heterogeneity, effective treatment for advanced stage of HCC is currently lacking. There are accumulating evidences showing the therapeutic potential of pharmacologic vitamin C (VC) on HCC. However, the metabolic basis underlying the anticancer property of VC remains to be elucidated. In this study, we used a high-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) -based metabolomics technique to assess the global metabolic changes in HCC cells following VC treatment. In addition, the HCC cells were also treated with oxaliplatin (OXA) to explore the potential synergistic effect induced by the combined VC and OXA treatment. The current metabolomics data suggested different mechanisms of OXA and VC in modulating cell growth and metabolism. In general, VC treatment led to inhibition of energy metabolism via NAD+ depletion and amino-acid deprivation. On the other hand, OXA caused significant perturbation in phospholipid biosynthesis and phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis pathways. The current results highlighted glutathione metabolism and pathways related to succinate and choline may play central roles in conferring the combined effect between OXA and VC. Taken together, this study provided metabolic evidence of VC and OXA in treating HCC, and may contribute towards the potential application of combined VC and OXA as complementary HCC therapies.

3.
J Neuroinflammation ; 17(1): 11, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence indicates that inflammasome-induced inflammation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Several proteins including α-synuclein trigger the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. However, few studies examined whether inflammasomes are activated in the periphery of PD patients and their possible value in the diagnosis or tracking of the progress of PD. The aim of this study was to determine the association between inflammasome-induced inflammation and clinical features in PD. METHODS: There were a total of 67 participants, including 43 patients with PD and 24 controls, in the study. Participants received a complete evaluation of motor and non-motor symptoms, including Hoehn and Yahr (H-Y) staging scale. Blood samples were collected from all participants. The protein and mRNA expression levels of inflammasomes subtypes and components in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were determined using western blotting and RT-qPCR. We applied Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) immunoassay to measure the plasma levels of IL-1ß and α-synuclein. RESULTS: We observed increased gene expression of NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 in PBMCs, and increased protein levels of NLRP3, caspase-1, and IL-1ß in PD patients. Plasma levels of IL-1ß were significantly higher in patients with PD compared with controls and have a positive correlation with H-Y stage and UPDRS part III scores. Furthermore, plasma α-synuclein levels were also increased in PD patients and have a positive correlation with both UPDRS part III scores and plasma IL-1ß levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrated that the NLRP3 inflammasome is activated in the PBMCs from PD patients. The related inflammatory cytokine IL-1ß and total α-synuclein in plasma were increased in PD patients than controls, and both of them presented a positive correlation with motor severity in patients with PD. Furthermore, plasma α-synuclein levels have a positive correlation with IL-1ß levels in PD patients. All these findings suggested that the NLRP3 inflammasome activation-related cytokine IL-1ß and α-synuclein could serve as non-invasive biomarkers to monitor the severity and progression of PD in regard to motor function.

4.
J Biol Chem ; 2019 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836664

RESUMO

Chloroplast development and photosynthesis require the proper assembly and turnover of photosynthetic protein complexes. Chloroplasts harbor a repertoire of proteases to facilitate proteostasis and development. We previously have used an Arabidopsis leaf variegation mutant, yellow variegated2 (var2), defective in thylakoid FtsH protease complexes, as a tool to dissect the genetic regulation of chloroplast development. Here, we report a new genetic enhancer mutant of var2, enhancer of variegation3-1 (evr3-1). We confirm that EVR3 encodes a chloroplast metalloprotease, previously reported as ETHYLENE-DEPENDENT GRAVITROPISM-DEFICIENT AND YELLOW-GREEN1 (EGY1)/AMMONIUM OVERLY SENSITIVE1 (AMOS1). We observed that mutations in EVR3/EGY1/AMOS1 cause more severe leaf variegation in var2-5 and synthetic lethality in var2-4 Using a modified blue-native PAGE system, we revealed abnormal accumulations of photosystem I, photosystem II, and light-harvesting antenna complexes in EVR3/EGY1/AMOS1 mutants. Moreover, we discover distinct roles of VAR2 and EVR3/EGY1/AMOS1 in the turnover of photosystem II reaction center under high light stress. In summary, our findings indicate that two chloroplast metalloproteases, VAR2/AtFtsH2 and EVR3/EGY1/AMOS1, function coordinately to regulate chloroplast development and reveal new roles of EVR3/EGY1/AMOS1 in regulating chloroplast proteostasis in Arabidopsis.

5.
Plants (Basel) ; 8(12)2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795459

RESUMO

Alternative pathway (AP) has been widely accepted to be involved in enhancing tolerance to various environmental stresses. In this study, the role of AP in response to cadmium (Cd) stress in two barley varieties, highland barley (Kunlun14) and barley (Ganpi6), was investigated. Results showed that the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and electrolyte leakage (EL) level under Cd stress increased in two barley varieties. The expressions of alternative oxidase (AOX) genes (mainly AOX1a), AP capacity (Valt), and AOX protein amount were clearly induced more in Kunlun14 under Cd stress, and these parameters were further enhanced by applying sodium nitroprussid (SNP, a NO donor). Moreover, H2O2 and O2- contents were raised in the Cd-treated roots of two barley varieties, but they were markedly relieved by exogenous SNP. However, this mitigating effect was aggravated by salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM, an AOX inhibitor), suggesting that AP contributes to NO-enhanced Cd stress tolerance. Further study demonstrated that the effect of SHAM application on reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related scavenging enzymes and antioxidants was minimal. These observations showed that AP exerts an indispensable function in NO-enhanced Cd stress tolerance in two barley varieties. AP was mainly responsible for regulating the ROS accumulation to maintain the homeostasis of redox state.

6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812748

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of plasticizer type (glycerol, PEG-400, and sorbitol) and concentration (0%, 15%, 30% and 45%, w/w dry polymer weight) on rheological and physico-mechanical and structural properties of chitosan/zein blend film. Based on the analysis of rheological properties of chitosan/zein film-forming solutions, all film-forming solutions exhibited non-Newtonian behavior. The flow index of film-forming solution increased and apparent viscosity decreased with the increase of plasticizer concentration. The storage modulus (G') and the loss modulus (G″) decreased when plasticizer was added. The permeability of films increased significantly with the increase of plasticizer concentration, but the C/Z-P film (plasticized chitosan/zein film with PEG-400) had better barrier performance compared with the other two. The C/Z-P film had better mechanical properties and light transmission. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed chitosan and zein had good compatibility due to the addition of the plasticizer, and crystallinity decreased with the increase of plasticizer concentration.

7.
ISA Trans ; 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883686

RESUMO

This paper presents an intervehicle distance control (IDC) to solve the problem of autonomous vehicle platooning, motivated by future automated highway system (AHS) or smart road which is proposed as intelligent transportation system (ITS) technology. First the velocity and position control of the single vehicle is studied based on internal model compensator. And then the platooning problem on multiple vehicles is solved in the light of multiagent concept. Moreover, the platoon condition is derived for the corresponding scheme. Further we analyze the influence of controller parameters on the whole system, and propose the guidance for parameter design. Finally some simulations are used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed IDC scheme with an analysis on controller parameters.

8.
Neuroreport ; 2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876686

RESUMO

MiR-155 negatively regulates translation of mRNA targets to proteins involved in processes that modulate ischemic brain injury including neuroinflammation, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, and apoptosis. However, reports of the effect of cerebral miR-155 expression changes after ischemic brain injury are equivocal and miR-155 modulates molecular pathways with opposing effects on these processes. The role of miR-155 in postischemic cerebral hemorrhagic transformation remains unknown. To understand the net effect of complete inactivation of miR-155, miR-155 knockout mice were studied in a cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) model of infarction and hemorrhagic transformation as compared with those of wild type mice. Wild type and miR-155 knockout mice underwent one hour of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by up to 71 hours of reperfusion. The effects of miR-155 knockout on cerebral infarct size, incidence and extent of hemorrhagic transformation, and neurological outcome were determined. We found that miR-155 was significantly upregulated after cerebral I/R in wild type mice, and miR-155 knockout mice had comparably smaller cerebral infarct size and improved neurological deficits. Similarly, wild type mice had significant hemorrhagic burden after cerebral I/R, the incidence and volume of which was reduced in miR-155 knockout mice. Although miR-155 can have opposite effects on cerebral I/R-injury-related processes, the net effect of miR-155 knockout is neuroprotective. Thus, the increase in miR-155 expression observed after cerebral I/R may be considered deleterious and inhibition of this expression and its effects a potential therapeutic target.

9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 4347281, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31886216

RESUMO

The age of the population is shifting toward the elderly range, which may lead to an increased risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The aims of this study are to evaluate the cognitive function in elderly people using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), to identify the relationship between cognitive function and different characteristics, and to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention after six months of cognitive training. In this study, we included 2886 subjects aged ≧60 years in the baseline survey, and 140 subjects with MCI who participated in the baseline survey were randomly divided into an intervention group (N = 70) and a control group (N = 70). The control group was not provided any intervention measures, and the intervention group was administered cognitive training. The education level, monthly income, sleep time, exercise time, reading times, and time spent engaging in community activities and performing housework were positively correlated with MoCA scores, but age was negatively correlated with MoCA scores. The total MoCA score of the intervention group increased from 19.77 ± 2.24 points to 21.09 ± 2.20 points after six months of cognitive training, but the score of the control group decreased from 20.41 ± 2.10 points to 19.17 ± 2.57 points. The two-way repeated-measures ANOVA revealed a very significant effect of the interaction between time and cognitive training on the total MoCA score. Seventeen participants in the intervention group improved to normal levels, and no participants progressed to dementia after six months of cognitive training. Thus, the efficacy of the intervention was statistically significant. Our study concludes that older age is associated with a cognitive decline. Factors that are more likely to protect against cognitive decline included a higher education level and monthly income, sufficient sleep time, regular physical exercise and reading, frequently engaging in community activities, and continuing to perform housework. Moreover, the cognitive training intervention is effective and may help to decrease the deterioration of cognitive function in patients with MCI, and the interaction between intervention time and cognitive training significantly improves cognitive function.

10.
BMJ Open ; 9(12): e033679, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843850

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate leftover antibiotics and their influence on self-medication with antibiotics (SMA) for Chinese children, and further explore the different influences of leftovers from two main sources: previous prescriptions and pharmaceutical purchases. DESIGN: A cross-sectional questionnaire study. SETTING: The participants were approached through kindergartens and primary schools as well as in vaccination clinics. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 9526 parents from three Chinese provinces whose children were aged 0-13 years completed the survey. OUTCOME MEASURES: The prevalence of keeping antibiotics at home for children and the proportion of leftover antibiotics from two main sources were measured by a self-administrated questionnaire. Logistic regression models were established to examine the association between keeping antibiotics at home and SMA for children, specifically the risks of leftovers from two main sources. RESULTS: Overall, 4580 (48.1%) reported keeping antibiotics at home for children. Among those who had leftovers, 2891 (63.1%) reported that their leftovers came from previous prescriptions and 1619 (35.3%) reported that their leftovers came from pharmaceutical purchases. Mothers, older age of child, higher household income, higher education level and medical background were significantly associated with keeping antibiotics at home. Keeping antibiotics at home was significantly associated with SMA for children (adjusted OR=4.91, 95% CI 3.84 to 6.28). Particularly, compared with parents who did not keep antibiotics at home, parents who kept leftover antibiotics from previous prescriptions and those whose leftovers came from pharmaceutical purchases were 3.80 (95% CI 2.89 to 5.00) and 6.45 (95% CI 4.89 to 8.51) times more likely to engage in SMA for children, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Keeping antibiotics at home for children was pervasive in China. Most leftovers came from previous prescriptions, while those from pharmacies had a higher risk of SMA for children.

11.
J Cancer ; 10(26): 6584-6593, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777587

RESUMO

A positive association between the ABO blood types and survival has been suggested in several malignancies. However, little is known about the relationship between ABO blood group and survival in rectal cancer patients. The aim of this study was to assess the role of the ABO blood types in predicting the prognosis of a Chinese population in Northwest China region with curatively resected rectal cancer. We retrospectively analyzed 1613 consecutive patients who underwent curative surgery for rectal cancer between June, 2011 and December, 2016. The relationship between the ABO blood types and overall survival (OS) was analyzed. The median follow-up period of the 1613 rectal cancer patients was 69.6 months with 1427 alive. There was a significance difference of survival among ABO blood groups (P=0.007). The mean overall survival (OS) of the blood type B patients was 70.8 months, O was 64.3, whereas the mean OS of the AB and A blood type patients was significantly lower, 58.4 months and 59.7 months respectively (P=0.007, log-rank test). Compared with patients with A and AB blood types, patients with blood type B and O were more likely to have better survival(P=0.001). A blood groups were associated with significantly decreased overall survival in rectal cancer patients (hazard ratio = 1.263; 95% confidence interval = 0.776-2.054, P =0.010). In order to confirm our above results, we performed the same investigation in an independent cohort from another hospital of 505 Chinese patients and get the similar results. Our study showed that ABO blood group is associated with survival in Northwest Chinese patients with rectal cancer and the blood type B and O were favourable prognostic factors for patients with rectal cancer.

12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4540, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586054

RESUMO

Antimony trisulfide (Sb2S3) is considered to be a promising photovoltaic material; however, the performance is yet to be satisfactory. Poor power conversion efficiency and large open circuit voltage loss have been usually ascribed to interface and bulk extrinsic defects By performing a spectroscopy study on Sb2S3 polycrystalline films and single crystal, we show commonly existed characteristics including redshifted photoluminescence with 0.6 eV Stokes shift, and a few picosecond carrier trapping without saturation at carrier density as high as approximately 1020 cm-3. These features, together with polarized trap emission from Sb2S3 single crystal, strongly suggest that photoexcited carriers in Sb2S3 are intrinsically self-trapped by lattice deformation, instead of by extrinsic defects. The proposed self-trapping explains spectroscopic results and rationalizes the large open circuit voltage loss and near-unity carrier collection efficiency in Sb2S3 thin film solar cells. Self-trapping sets the upper limit on maximum open circuit voltage (approximately 0.8 V) and thus power conversion efficiency (approximately 16 %) for Sb2S3 solar cells.

13.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 864: 172719, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586634

RESUMO

Gambogic acid (GA) is a potential anti-cancer compound that is extracted from the resin of Garciania hanburyi. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-metastatic effect of GA on melanoma cell lines in vitro and to explore the underlying mechanism. The anti-proliferative activity of GA on melanoma cells was assessed by CCK-8 assay. The Wound-healing, transwell, adhesion, and tube formation assays were performed to examine the inhibition of GA on the cell's migration, invasion, adhesion, and angiogenesis capacities, respectively. Enzymatic activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were detected by gelatin zymography assay. Protein expressions regulated by GA treatment were tested by Western blot assay. The present results showed that GA significantly inhibited the proliferation of highly metastatic melanoma A375, B16-F10 cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in time- and doses-dependent manners. Furthermore, GA significantly inhibited the migratory, invasive and adhesive properties of A375 and B16-F10 cells, and tube-forming potential of HUVECs at sub-IC50 concentrations, where no significant cytotoxicity was observed. Mechanistically, GA treatment suppressed the EMT and angiogenesis processes and reduced the enzymatic activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Moreover, abnormal PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathways in A375 and B16-F10 cells and HUVECs were notably suppressed by GA treatment. Collectively, our results suggest that GA exerts anti-metastasis activity in melanoma cells by suppressing the EMT and angiogenesis through the PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathways, and might be used as a phytomedicine against metastatic melanoma.

14.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 8(4)2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661819

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to explore how changes in external factors caused by migration impact antibiotic use behaviors among Chinese university students in comparison to their peers from host areas and origin areas. Migration status was determined by host universities and origin areas, which were broadly defined as eastern vs. western regions in China. METHODS: This study analyzed secondary data from a cross-sectional study conducted in China about the antibiotic use behaviors of university students in 2015. Students were divided into four groups: eastern local students (E-Es), western local students (W-Ws), eastern-western migrant students (E-Ws), and western-eastern migrant students (W-Es). RESULTS: After controlling for gender, grade, major, hometown (rural or urban), and parents' education, E-Ws reported a significantly higher odds of asking for antibiotics (OR = 2.13; 95% CI = 1.54-3.03; p < 0.001) and taking antibiotics prophylactically (OR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.32-2.56; p < 0.001) compared with E-Es; W-Es reported a significantly lower odds of asking for antibiotics (OR = 0.56; 95% CI = 0.37-0.83; p < 0.01) and taking antibiotics prophylactically (OR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.41-0.81; p < 0.01) compared with W-Ws. DISCUSSION: Regional differences likely interacted with students' migration status in forming different antibiotic use behaviors. Factors including financial incentives and loose regulations of antibiotic over-prescription by health providers and peer influence may contribute to worsened antibiotic use behaviors among E-Ws.

15.
Chemistry ; 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475418

RESUMO

Zinc-cobalt double-metal sulfides (ZCS) as Faradic electrode materials with high energy density have great potential for supercapacitors, but their poor transfer efficiency for electrons and ions hinders their electrochemical response. Herein, ZnCo2 (CO3 )1.5 (OH)3 @ZCS microflower hybrid arrays consisting of thin nanolayer petals were anchored on three-dimensional graphene (ZnCo2 (CO3 )1.5 (OH)3 @ZCS/3DG) by a simple hydrothermal method and additional ion-exchange process. A ZnCo2 (CO3 )1.5 (OH)3 @ZCS/3DG electrode delivered high capacitance (2228 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 ) and long cycling life (85.7 % retention after 17 000 cycles), which are ascribed to the multicomponent structural design. The 3DG conductive substrate improves the electron-transfer dynamics of the electrode material. Meanwhile, the microflowers consisting of thin nanolayer petals could not only provide many active sites for ions to improve the capacitance, but also alleviate the volume expansion to ensure the structural stability. Furthermore, an all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor based on a ZnCo2 (CO3 )1.5 (OH)3 @ZCS/3DG electrode achieved a high energy density of 27 W h kg-1 at 528.3 W kg-1 and exhibits exceptional cyclic stability for 23 000 cycles. Its ability to light a blue LED for 9 min verified the feasibility of its application for energy storage devices.

16.
Plant Cell Rep ; 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535176

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Changes in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) isoforms activities and expression were investigated in soybean roots under drought, suggesting that cytosolic G6PD plays a main role by regulating H2O2 signal and redox homeostasis. G6PD acts a vital role in plant growth, development and stress adaptation. Drought (PEG6000 treatment) could markedly increase the enzymatic activities of cytosolic G6PD (Cyt-G6PD) and compartmented G6PD (mainly plastidic P2-G6PD) in soybean roots. Application of G6PD inhibitor upon drought condition dramatically decreased the intracellular NADPH and reduced glutathione levels in soybean roots. Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) participated in the regulation of Cyt-G6PD and P2-G6PD enzymatic activities under drought stress. Diphenylene iodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, abolished the drought-induced accumulation of H2O2. The exogenous application of H2O2 and its production inhibitor (DPI) could stimulate and inhibit the NO accumulation, respectively, but not vice versa. qRT-PCR analysis confirmed that NO, as the downstream signal of H2O2, positively regulated the transcription of genes encoding Cyt-G6PD (GPD5, G6PD6, G6PD7) under drought stress in soybean roots. Comparatively, NO and H2O2 signals negatively regulated the gene expression of compartmented G6PD (GPD1, G6PD2, G6PD4), indicating that a post-transcriptional mechanism was involved in compartmented G6PD regulation. Taken together, the high Cyt-G6PD activity is essential for maintaining redox homeostasis upon drought condition in soybean roots, and the H2O2-dependent NO cascade signal is differently involved in Cyt-G6PD and compartmented G6PD regulation.

17.
Mol Cell Probes ; 47: 101436, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425738

RESUMO

The abnormal expression of miRNAs may play critical roles in the occurrence, development and prognosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), with potential ethnic differences being involved. p53 and immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene (IGVH) mutations were monitored and miRNA profile screening of CD19 + cells from Uygur CLL patients was performed, analyzed by miRNA arrays and verified using real-time PCR. There were 68 differentially expressed miRNAs in CD19 + B lymphocytes obtained from 6 Uygur CLL patients, of which miR-1295, miR-29b, miR-34a, miR-21 and miR-29c were the 5 most upregulated, and miR-181a, miR-126, miR-181b, miR-125a-5p and miR199b the 5 most downregulated miRNAs. miR-15a/miR-16-1 which might be important drivers of the disease, were not eliminated by profile screening. From the 68 differentially expressed miRNAs, 5 previously-reported CLL-related miRNAs were selected for further confirmation analyses, from which expression levels of miR-29b, miR-34a and miR-155 were found to be increased while miR-181a and miR-181b decreased. However, there were no differences in the expression levels of miR-15a/miR-16-1 between CLL patients and healthy donors, but the expression levels of miR-15a/miR-16-1 in CLL patients with a 13q deletion was depressed. In addition, there was no difference in the expression level of the above 7 miRNAs between 44 Han and 40 Uygur CLL patients. The expression levels of miR-29b, miR-181a and miR-181b correlated with IGVH mutations, while the expression levels of miR-34a, miR-29b and miR-181b correlated with a p53 abnormality in 84 Uygur and Han CLL patients. Taking p53 abnormality as the cut-off value criteria, low expression levels of miR-34a (cut-off value 4.65, P = 0.02) and miR-29b (cut-off value 4.71, P = 0.009) hinted at a poor treatment-free survival (TFS) prognosis for all CLL patients. Thus miR-34a and miR-29b may represent useful indicators for the prognosis of both Uygur and Han CLL patients.

18.
Patient Educ Couns ; 2019 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455567

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore how doctors in China decide whether to inform cancer patients about diagnosis and prognosis. METHODS: We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 24 doctors and residents from a leading hospital in Hunan, China. Data were analyzed by content analysis. RESULTS: Doctors routinely told the family about cancer first, then withheld information from patients if the family did not want to tell the patient. Three main themes emerged in relation to hiding bad news from patients: 1) fear that most patients lack resilience to cope with bad news; 2) fear of direct or legal conflict with the family, and 3) a value conflict between respecting the patient's "right to know" and respecting the family's interest in protecting the patient. CONCLUSIONS: Doctors consider decisions to withhold information from cancer patients to be a non-ideal but necessary compromise of the patient's "right to know." Culturally adjusted training and guidelines could help with including the patient in information disclosure while still respecting China's cultural value of family decision-making. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Future training and guidelines should help doctors mediate between patient and family interests and understand changing laws and regulations. Other important elements include reflection, senior mentorship, self-awareness, and building trust.

19.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 131, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence of insufficient effort responding participants (IERPs) in a survey can produce systematic bias. Validation questions are commonly used to exclude IERPs. Participants were defined as IERPs if responding inconsistently to two matched validation questions, and non-insufficient effort responding participants (non-IERPs) if responding consistently. However, it has not been tested whether validation questions themselves could result in selection bias. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional survey conducted in Guangxi, China. Participants' intentions to use antibiotics for their children when they have self-limiting diseases, including sore throat, cold, diarrhea, and fever, were measured. The Chi-square tests were used to compare the socio-economic status (SES) between non-IERPs and IERPs. Logistic regression was adopted to test the association between intentions to misuse antibiotics and groups (non-IERPs, IERPs with high SES, and IERPs with low SES). RESULTS: Data with 3264 non-IERPs and 1543 IERPs were collected. The results showed IERPs had a lower education level (χ2 = 6.100, p = 0.047) and a higher proportion of rural residence (χ2 = 4.750, p = 0.030) compared with non-IERPs. Rural IERPs reported significantly higher rates of intentions to misuse antibiotics when their children have a sore throat (OR = 1.32; 95% CI = 1.11,1.56; p < 0.01), cold (OR = 1.33; 95%CI = 1.13,1.58; p < 0.01), diarrhea (OR = 1.46; 95%CI = 1.20,1.77; p < 0.001), and fever (OR = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.04,1.43; p < 0.05) compared with non-IERPs. IERPs living in urban areas reported significantly lower rates of intentions to use antibiotics when their children have a sore throat (OR = 0.76; 95%CI = 0.62,0.93; p < 0.01) compared with non-IERPs. IERPs with lower levels of education reported significantly higher rates of intentions to use antibiotics when their children have a sore throat (OR = 1.19; 95%CI = 1.02,1.39; p < 0.05), cold (OR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.23,1.66; p < 0.001), diarrhea (OR = 1.38; 95%CI = 1.15,1.64; p < 0.01), and fever (OR = 1.25; 95% CI = 1.09,1.44; p < 0.01) compared with non-IERPs. IERPs with higher education levels reported significantly lower rates of intentions to use antibiotics when their children have a sore throat (OR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.56,0.94; p < 0.05), cold (OR = 0.66; 95% CI = 0.51,0.86; p < 0.01), and fever (OR = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.60,0.92; p < 0.01) compared with non-IERPs. IERPs with low-income reported significantly higher rates of intentions to use antibiotics when their children have a cold (OR = 1.36; 95% CI = 1.13,1.64; p < 0.01) and diarrhea (OR = 1.30; 95% CI = 1.05,1.62; p < 0.05) compared with non-IERPs. CONCLUSIONS: Using validation questions to exclude IERPs can result in selection bias in which participants with lower socio-economic standing and poor antibiotic use intentions were disproportionately excluded.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/normas , Intenção , Pais , Viés de Seleção , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Resfriado Comum/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Transversais , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Faringite/tratamento farmacológico , População Rural , Classe Social , Estudos de Validação como Assunto
20.
Mikrochim Acta ; 186(8): 589, 2019 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367777

RESUMO

A microplate-based assay is described for the sensitive and selective fluorometric determination of the pesticide dimethoate. Molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP)-coated CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) are used as the molecular recognition probe. The MIP-coated QDs were synthesized using one-step reversed-phase microemulsion in the presence of hydrophobic CdSe/ZnS QDs. Copolymerization was performed by using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane as the functional monomer, tetraethoxysilane as the cross-linker, and dimethoate as the template. The fluorescence of the coated QDs is quenched by dimethoate when dimethoate becomes rebound on the imprinting sites of the MIP. Under the optimal conditions, fluorescence (best measured at excitation/emisison wavelengths of 380/620 nm) drops linearly in the 5.0-150 µg L-1 dimethoate concentration range, and the limit of detection is 2.1 µg L-1 (at S/N = 3). The assay was utilized for dimethoate determination in spiked real samples. Satisfactory recoveries (89.8%-98.0%) with relatively standard deviations of <4.9% are obtained. The method is rapid, cost-effective, sensitive, and selective. The use of microplate allows for the quantitation of a large number of samples simultaneously. Graphical abstract Schematic representation of sensitive and selective fluorometric microplate-based assay for the high-throughput determination of dimethoate (DM) based on recognition of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP)-coated CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs). DM exerts a quenching effect on the fluorescence of the QDs.

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