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1.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 874637, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35571107

RESUMO

Purpose: The persistent pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the discovery of gastrointestinal transmission routes and the possible susceptibility of cancer patients to COVID-19 have forced us to search for effective pathways against stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD)/COVID-19. Vitamin D3 (VD3) is a steroid hormone with antiviral, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. This study aimed to evaluate the possible functional role and potential mechanisms of action of VD3 as an anti-COVID-19 and anti- STAD. Methods: Clinicopathological analysis, enrichment analysis and protein interaction analysis using bioinformatics and network pharmacology methods. Validate the binding activity of VD3 to core pharmacological targets and viral crystal structures using molecular docking. Results: We revealed the clinical characteristics of STAD/COVID-19 patients. We also demonstrated that VD3 may be anti- STAD/COVID-19 through antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory pathways. Molecular docking results showed that VD3 binds well to the relevant targets of COVID-19, including the spike RBD/ACE2 complex and main protease (Mpro, also known as 3CLpro). We also identified five core pharmacological targets of VD3 in anti-STAD/COVID-19 and validated the binding activity of VD3 to PAI1 by molecular docking. Conclusion: This study reveals for the first time that VD3 may act on disease target gene SERPINE1 through inflammatory and viral related signaling pathways and biological functions for the therapy of STAD/COVID-19. This may provide a new idea for the use of VD3 in the treatment of STAD/COVID-19.

2.
Tree Physiol ; 2022 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35234958

RESUMO

In plants, ultraviolet (UV)-light is an important driver for their growth and natural distribution and is also a valuable tool for manipulating their productivity as well as their biotic interactions. Understanding plant responses to different UV radiation is sparse, especially from a systems biology perspective and particularly for conifers. Here, we evaluated the physiological and transcriptomic responses to the short-term application of high-irradiance UV-B and UV-C waves on Pinus tabuliformis Carr., a major conifer in Northern China. By undertaking time-ordered gene co-expression network analyses and network comparisons incorporating physiological traits and gene expression variation, we uncovered communalities but also differences in P. tabuliformis responses to UV-B and UV-C. Both types of spectral bands caused a significant inhibition of photosynthesis, and conversely, the improvement of antioxidant capacity, flavonoid production and signaling pathways related to stress resistance, indicating a clear switch from predominantly primary metabolism to enhanced defensive metabolism in pine. We isolated distinct subnetworks for photoreceptor-mediated signal transduction, maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) regulation and flavonoid biosynthesis in response to UV-B and UV-C radiation. From these subnetworks, we further identified phototropins as potentially important elements in both UV-B and UV-C signaling and, for the first time, suggesting peptide hormones to be involved in promoting flavonoid biosynthesis against UV-B, while these hormones seem not to be implicated in the defense against UV-C exposure. The present study employed an effective strategy for disentangling the complex physiological and genetic regulatory mechanisms in a non-model plant species, and thus, provides a suitable reference for future functional evaluations and artificial UV-light mediated growing strategies in plant production.

3.
Exp Ther Med ; 23(2): 181, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35069862

RESUMO

TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) has been reported to be associated with the development of cancer. Nevertheless, the exact role of TRAF6 in cancer remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was to explore the mechanism of 2-benzoyl-3-hydroxy-4-methyl-9H-xanthen-9-one leading to the inhibition of the activation of AKT and TGF-ß-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), and to the apoptosis of MCF-7 cells. Using a computational docking program and examination of AKT and TAK1 level changes, a new small molecule was identified, 2-benzoyl-3-hydroxy-4-methyl-9H-xanthen-9-one, which competitively bound to TRAF6. Next, the effect of this new compound on MCF-7 cells' biological behavior was studied in vitro. MTT assays were used to investigate cell viability; flow cytometry and invasion assays were performed to detect early apoptosis and invasion in MCF-7 cells, respectively. Immunoprecipitation, western blotting and caspase-3/9 activity assays were carried out to explore changes in protein expression. Briefly, the present data indicated that 2-benzoyl-3-hydroxy-4-methyl-9H-xanthen-9-one could suppress proliferation, induce early apoptosis and inhibit invasion in MCF-7 cells by suppressing the expression of Bcl-2 and promoting the expression of Bax, caspase-9, and caspase-3. These findings indicated that 2-benzoyl-3-hydroxy-4-methyl-9H-xanthen-9-one could induce apoptosis by inhibiting the activation of AKT and TAK1, and affecting the Bcl-2/Bax-caspase-9-caspase-3 pathway by competitively binding with TRAF6.

4.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 120: 610-619, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34968708

RESUMO

To study the roles of the exbB gene in Pseudomonas plecoglossicida during interactions with Epinephelus coioides, five short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) were designed and synthesized to silence the exbB gene in P. plecoglossicida which resulted in significant reductions in exbB mRNA expression. The mutant with the best silencing efficiency (89.3%) was selected for further study. Silencing exbB in the exbB-RNA interference (RNAi) strain resulted in a 70% increase in the survival rate and a 3-day delay in the onset of infection in E. coioides. Silencing of the exbB gene also resulted in a significant decrease in the number of white spots on the spleen surface and in the spleen pathogen load. The results of dual RNA-seq showed that exbB silencing in P. plecoglossicida also resulted in a significant change in both the pathogen and host transcriptomes in the spleens of infected E. coioides. Comparative transcriptome analysis showed that silencing exbB caused significant changes in multiple signaling molecules and interaction- and immune system-related genes in E. coioides. Gene silencing also resulted in the differential expression of flagellar assembly and the bacterial secretion system in P. plecoglossicida during the infection period, and most of the DEGs were down-regulation. These host-pathogen interactions may make it easier for E. coioides to eliminate the exbB-RNAi strain of P. plecoglossicida, suggesting a significant decrease in the pathogenicity of this strain. These results indicated that exbB was a virulence gene of P. plecoglossicida which contributed a lot in the pathogen-host interactions with E. coioides.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias , Bass , Doenças dos Peixes , Pseudomonas/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Bass/genética , Bass/microbiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Inativação Gênica , Imunidade Inata , Pseudomonas/patogenicidade , Baço/microbiologia , Transcriptoma , Virulência/genética
5.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 766389, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34880890

RESUMO

In-depth genome characterization is still lacking for most of biofuel crops, especially for centromeres, which play a fundamental role during nuclear division and in the maintenance of genome stability. This study applied long-read sequencing technologies to assemble a highly contiguous genome for yellowhorn (Xanthoceras sorbifolium), an oil-producing tree, and conducted extensive comparative analyses to understand centromere structure and evolution, and fatty acid biosynthesis. We produced a reference-level genome of yellowhorn, ∼470 Mb in length with ∼95% of contigs anchored onto 15 chromosomes. Genome annotation identified 22,049 protein-coding genes and 65.7% of the genome sequence as repetitive elements. Long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) account for ∼30% of the yellowhorn genome, which is maintained by a moderate birth rate and a low removal rate. We identified the centromeric regions on each chromosome and found enrichment of centromere-specific retrotransposons of LINE1 and Gypsy in these regions, which have evolved recently (∼0.7 MYA). We compared the genomes of three cultivars and found frequent inversions. We analyzed the transcriptomes from different tissues and identified the candidate genes involved in very-long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis and their expression profiles. Collinear block analysis showed that yellowhorn shared the gamma (γ) hexaploidy event with Vitis vinifera but did not undergo any further whole-genome duplication. This study provides excellent genomic resources for understanding centromere structure and evolution and for functional studies in this important oil-producing plant.

7.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 720967, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484162

RESUMO

Pseudomonas plecoglossicida is the causative agent of "visceral white spot disease" in cultured fish and has resulted in serious economic losses. tonB gene plays a crucial role in the uptake of nutrients from the outer membranes in Gram-negative bacteria. The previous results of our lab showed that the expression of tonB gene of P. plecoglossicida was significantly upregulated in the spleens of infected Epinephelus coioides. To explore the effect of tonB gene on the virulence of P. plecoglossicida and the immune response of E. coioides, tonB gene of P. plecoglossicida was knocked down by RNAi; and the differences between the wild-type strain and the tonB-RNAi strain of P. plecoglossicida were investigated. The results showed that all of the four mutants of P. plecoglossicida exhibited significant decreases in mRNA of tonB gene, and the best knockdown efficiency was 94.0%; the survival rate of E. coioides infected with the tonB-RNAi strain was 20% higher than of the counterpart infected with the wild strain of P. plecoglossicida. Meanwhile, the E. coioides infected with the tonB-RNAi strain of P. plecoglossicida carried less pathogens in the spleen and less white spots on the surface of the spleen; compared with the wild-type strain, the motility, chemotaxis, adhesion, and biofilm formation of the tonB-RNAi strain were significantly attenuated; the transcriptome data of E. coioides infected with the tonB-RNAi strain were different from the counterpart infected with the wild strain of P. plecoglossicida; the antigen processing and presentation pathway and the complement and coagulation cascade pathway were the most enriched immune pathways. The results indicated that tonB was a virulence gene of P. plecoglossicida; tonB gene was involved in the regulation of motility, chemotaxis, adhesion, and biofilm formation; tonB gene affected the immune response of E. coioides to P. plecoglossicida infection.

8.
Hortic Res ; 8(1): 177, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465761

RESUMO

Polyploidization plays a key role in plant evolution, but the forces driving the fate of homoeologs in polyploid genomes, i.e., paralogs resulting from a whole-genome duplication (WGD) event, remain to be elucidated. Here, we present a chromosome-scale genome assembly of tetraploid scarlet sage (Salvia splendens), one of the most diverse ornamental plants. We found evidence for three WGD events following an older WGD event shared by most eudicots (the γ event). A comprehensive, spatiotemporal, genome-wide analysis of homoeologs from the most recent WGD unveiled expression asymmetries, which could be associated with genomic rearrangements, transposable element proximity discrepancies, coding sequence variation, selection pressure, and transcription factor binding site differences. The observed differences between homoeologs may reflect the first step toward sub- and/or neofunctionalization. This assembly provides a powerful tool for understanding WGD and gene and genome evolution and is useful in developing functional genomics and genetic engineering strategies for scarlet sage and other Lamiaceae species.

9.
J Fish Dis ; 44(11): 1831-1841, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339054

RESUMO

Pseudomonas plecoglossicida is an important pathogen in aquaculture and causes serious economic losses. Our previous study indicated that znuA gene might play an important role in the pathogenicity of P. plecoglossicida. Five shRNAs were designed and synthesized to silence the znuA gene of P. plecoglossicida. Two of the five mutants of P. plecoglossicida exhibited significant reduction in the expression level of znuA mRNA with different efficiencies. The mutant with the highest silencing efficiency of 89.2% was chosen for further studies. Intrapleural injection of the znuA-RNAi strain at a dose of 105  cfu/fish did not cause the death of Epinephelus coioides, and no significant signs were observed at the spleen surface of infected E. coioides, while the counterpart E. coioides infected by the same dose of wild-type strain of P. plecoglossicida all died in 5 days post-infection (dpi). The expression of znuA gene of znuA-RNAi strain in E. coioides was always lower than that in wild-type strain of P. plecoglossicida. The pathogen load in the early stage of infection was higher than that in the later stage of infection. Although the infection of the znuA-RNAi strain of P. plecoglossicida could induce the production of antibodies in E. coioides, it failed to produce a good immune protection against the infection of wild-type strain of P. plecoglossicida. Compared with the transcriptome data of E. coioides infected by the wild-type strain of P. plecoglossicida, the transcriptome data of E. coioides infected by the znuA-RNAi strain of P. plecoglossicida have altered significantly. Among them, KEGG enrichment analysis showed that the focal adhesion pathway was significantly enriched and exhibited the largest number of 302 DEMs (differentially expressed mRNAs). These results showed that the immune response of E. coioides to P. plecoglossicida infection was significantly affected by the RNAi of znuA gene.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Bass/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/veterinária , Pseudomonas/genética , Animais , Bass/microbiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Pseudomonas/patogenicidade , Infecções por Pseudomonas/imunologia , Interferência de RNA , RNA-Seq , Transcriptoma , Virulência
10.
Hortic Res ; 8(1): 188, 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354050

RESUMO

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is one of the most valued spice plants worldwide; it is prized for its culinary and folk medicinal applications and is therefore of high economic and cultural importance. Here, we present a haplotype-resolved, chromosome-scale assembly for diploid ginger anchored to 11 pseudochromosome pairs with a total length of 3.1 Gb. Remarkable structural variation was identified between haplotypes, and two inversions larger than 15 Mb on chromosome 4 may be associated with ginger infertility. We performed a comprehensive, spatiotemporal, genome-wide analysis of allelic expression patterns, revealing that most alleles are coordinately expressed. The alleles that exhibited the largest differences in expression showed closer proximity to transposable elements, greater coding sequence divergence, more relaxed selection pressure, and more transcription factor binding site differences. We also predicted the transcription factors potentially regulating 6-gingerol biosynthesis. Our allele-aware assembly provides a powerful platform for future functional genomics, molecular breeding, and genome editing in ginger.

11.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 702210, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34305869

RESUMO

Zanthoxylum armatum is an important woody crop with multiple applications in pharmaceutics, cosmetics, and food industries. With continuous increases in the plantation area, integrated pest management is required for scale production when diseases caused by biotic factors such as pests and pathogens have become new problems, one of which is the infectious flower yellowing disease (FYD). Here, isolates of a new illarvirus (3) and a new nepovirus-associated subviral satellite RNA (12) were identified in Z. armatum, in addition to 38 new isolates of four previously reported RNA viruses. Sequence variation can be observed in viral/subviral quasispecies and among predominant isolates from the same or different samples and geographic origins. Intriguingly, RNA sequencing of different diseased trees invariably showed an extraordinary pattern of particularly high reads accumulation of the green Sichuan pepper-nepovirus (GSPNeV) and the satellite RNA in symptomatic tissues. In addition, we also examined small RNAs of the satellite RNA, which show similar patterns to those of coinfecting viruses. This study provides further evidence to support association of the FYD with viral/subviral infections and deepens our understanding of the diversity and molecular characteristics of the viruses and satellite, as well as their interactions with the host.

12.
Stem Cell Reports ; 16(5): 1245-1261, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930315

RESUMO

In vitro induction of human primordial germ cell-like cells (hPGCLCs) provides an ideal platform to recapitulate hPGC development. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms regulating the induction of hPGCLCs remain largely uncharacterized. Here, we profiled the chromatin accessibility and transcriptome dynamics throughout the process of hPGCLC induction. Genetic ablation of SOX15 indicated the crucial roles of SOX15 in the maintenance of hPGCLCs. Mechanistically, SOX15 exerted its roles via suppressing somatic gene expression and sustaining latent pluripotency. Notably, ETV5, a downstream regulator of SOX15, was also uncovered to be essential for hPGCLC maintenance. Finally, a stepwise switch of OCT4/SOX2, OCT4/SOX17, and OCT4/SOX15 binding motifs were found to be enriched in closed-to-open regions of human embryonic stem cells, and early- and late-stage hPGCLCs, respectively. Collectively, our data characterized the chromatin accessibility and transcriptome landscapes throughout hPGCLC induction and defined the SOX15-mediated regulatory networks underlying this process.


Assuntos
Cromatina/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética , Sequência de Bases , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Células Germinativas/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas/metabolismo , Humanos , Fator 3 de Transcrição de Octâmero/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição SOX/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição AP-2/metabolismo
13.
Microorganisms ; 9(2)2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670228

RESUMO

On the annual and interannual scales, lake microbial communities are known to be heavily influenced by environmental conditions both in the lake and in its terrestrial surroundings. However, the influence of landscape setting and environmental change on shaping these communities over a longer (millennial) timescale is rarely studied. Here, we applied an 18S metabarcoding approach to DNA preserved in Holocene sediment records from two pairs of co-located Swedish mountain lakes. Our data revealed that the microbial eukaryotic communities were strongly influenced by catchment characteristics rather than location. More precisely, the microbial communities from the two bedrock lakes were largely dominated by unclassified Alveolata, while the peatland lakes showed a more diverse microbial community, with Ciliophora, Chlorophyta and Chytrids among the more predominant groups. Furthermore, for the two bedrock-dominated lakes-where the oldest DNA samples are dated to only a few hundred years after the lake formation-certain Alveolata, Chlorophytes, Stramenopiles and Rhizaria taxa were found prevalent throughout all the sediment profiles. Our work highlights the importance of species sorting due to landscape setting and the persistence of microbial eukaryotic diversity over millennial timescales in shaping modern lake microbial communities.

14.
Tree Physiol ; 41(7): 1247-1263, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416074

RESUMO

During their lifetimes, plants are exposed to different abiotic stress factors eliciting various physiological responses and triggering important defense processes. For UV-B radiation responses in forest trees, the genetics and molecular regulation remain to be elucidated. Here, we exposed Pinus tabuliformis Carr., a major conifer from northern China, to short-term high-intensity UV-B and employed a systems biology approach to characterize the early physiological processes and the hierarchical gene regulation, which revealed a temporal transition from primary to secondary metabolism, the buildup of enhanced antioxidant capacity and stress-signaling activation. Our findings showed that photosynthesis and biosynthesis of photosynthetic pigments were inhibited, while flavonoids and their related derivates biosynthesis, as well as glutathione and glutathione S-transferase mediated antioxidant processes, were enhanced. Likewise, stress-related phytohormones (jasmonic acid, salicylic acid and ethylene), kinase and reactive oxygen species signal transduction pathways were activated. Biological processes regulated by auxin and karrikin were, for the first time, found to be involved in plant defense against UV-B by promoting the biosynthesis of flavonoids and the improvement of antioxidant capacity in our research system. Our work evaluated the physiological and transcriptome perturbations in a conifer's response to UV-B, and generally, highlighted the necessity of a systems biology approach in addressing plant stress biology.


Assuntos
Pinus , Traqueófitas , China , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Pinus/genética , Estresse Fisiológico , Raios Ultravioleta
15.
Plant Commun ; 2(1): 100139, 2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33511348

RESUMO

In boreal forests, autumn frost tolerance in seedlings is a critical fitness component because it determines survival rates during regeneration. To understand the forces that drive local adaptation in this trait, we conducted freezing tests in a common garden setting for 54 Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine) populations (>5000 seedlings) collected across Scandinavia into western Russia, and genotyped 24 of these populations (>900 seedlings) at >10 000 SNPs. Variation in cold hardiness among populations, as measured by Q ST , was above 80% and followed a distinct cline along latitude and longitude, demonstrating significant adaptation to climate at origin. In contrast, the genetic differentiation was very weak (mean F ST 0.37%). Despite even allele frequency distribution in the vast majority of SNPs among all populations, a few rare alleles appeared at very high or at fixation in marginal populations restricted to northwestern Fennoscandia. Genotype-environment associations showed that climate variables explained 2.9% of the genetic differentiation, while genotype-phenotype associations revealed a high marker-estimated heritability of frost hardiness of 0.56, but identified no major loci. Very extensive gene flow, strong local adaptation, and signals of complex demographic history across markers are interesting topics of forthcoming studies on this species to better clarify signatures of selection and demography.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/genética , Aclimatação/fisiologia , Temperatura Baixa , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Pinus sylvestris/genética , Pinus sylvestris/fisiologia , Estudos de Associação Genética , Geografia , Federação Russa , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos , Taiga
16.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 59(4): 343-352, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433317

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of tofacitinib citrate using pharmacokinetic parameters, a single-dose, randomized-sequence, two-way crossover study of tofacitinib citrate test (T) and reference (R) formulations, with a 4-day washout period, was performed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 72 healthy Chinese subjects were randomly divided into 4 groups: sequence A (TR) and B (RT) in a fasted state and sequence C (TR) and D (RT) in a fed state. Plasma tofacitinib citrate levels were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and the pharmacokinetic parameter maximum concentration (Cmax) and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-t and AUC0-∞) were used to evaluate bioequivalence. RESULTS: The geometric least-squares mean (GLSM) ratio and 90% confidence intervals for fasted state Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-∞ were 93.90 - 108.17%, 100.41 - 103.95%, and 100.48 - 104.02% and at fed state were 99.45 - 119.52%, 100.05 - 104.23%, and 100.00 - 104.20%, respectively. The 90% CI of the two preparations, Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-∞, all fell within the equivalent range of 80 - 125%. tmax was ~ 0.6 hours later, and Cmax was ~ 27% lower after a high-fat diet in the fasted state. CONCLUSION: Two types of tofacitinib citrate tablets were bioequivalent under both fasted and fed conditions, and both were generally well tolerated; moreover, food-drug interaction may affect drug pharmacokinetics.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Área Sob a Curva , China , Cromatografia Líquida , Estudos Cross-Over , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Piperidinas , Pirimidinas , Comprimidos , Equivalência Terapêutica
17.
Virol Sin ; 36(1): 52-60, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643050

RESUMO

Porcine pegivirus (PPgV) is a member of the Pegivirus genus in the Flaviviridae family. PPgV is an emerging virus that has been discovered in swine herds in Germany, the United States, China, Poland, Italy, and the United Kingdom, indicating a wide geographical distribution. In this retrospective study, 339 pig serum samples were collected from 20 different commercial swine farms located in nine cities in Guangdong Province, China, from 2016 to 2018, to investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of PPgV in this geographical region. PPgV was detected in 55% (11/20) of the farms using nested reverse transcription PCR, with 6.2% (21/339) of pigs testing positive for PPgV. The yearly PPgV-positive rate increased from 2.6% to 7.5% between 2016 and 2018. Sequencing of PPgV-positive samples identified two complete polyprotein genes and seven partial NS5B genes from different farms. Comparative analysis of the polyprotein genes revealed that PPgV sequences obtained in this study showed 87.4%-97.2% similarity at the nucleotide level and 96.5%-99.4% similarity at the amino acid level with the reference sequences. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of the complete polyprotein gene and partial NS5B and NS3 genes demonstrated a high genetic similarity with the samples from the USA. The finding of the wide distribution of PPgV in swine herds in Guangdong Province will contribute to the understanding of the epidemiological characteristics and genetic evolution of PPgV in China.


Assuntos
Infecções por Flaviviridae , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Pegivirus , Filogenia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5269, 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077749

RESUMO

Azaleas (Ericaceae) comprise one of the most diverse ornamental plants, renowned for their cultural and economic importance. We present a chromosome-scale genome assembly for Rhododendron simsii, the primary ancestor of azalea cultivars. Genome analyses unveil the remnants of an ancient whole-genome duplication preceding the radiation of most Ericaceae, likely contributing to the genomic architecture of flowering time. Small-scale gene duplications contribute to the expansion of gene families involved in azalea pigment biosynthesis. We reconstruct entire metabolic pathways for anthocyanins and carotenoids and their potential regulatory networks by detailed analysis of time-ordered gene co-expression networks. MYB, bHLH, and WD40 transcription factors may collectively regulate anthocyanin accumulation in R. simsii, particularly at the initial stages of flower coloration, and with WRKY transcription factors controlling progressive flower coloring at later stages. This work provides a cornerstone for understanding the underlying genetics governing flower timing and coloration and could accelerate selective breeding in azalea.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Genoma de Planta , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Rhododendron/genética , Antocianinas/biossíntese , Vias Biossintéticas , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Cromossomos de Plantas/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Rhododendron/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rhododendron/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
19.
Genome Biol Evol ; 12(11): 1965-1974, 2020 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790831

RESUMO

Short tandem repeats (STRs) contribute to structural variation in plant mitochondrial genomes, but the mechanisms underlying their formation and expansion are unclear. In this study, we detected high polymorphism in the nad7-1 region of the Pinus tabuliformis mitogenome caused by the rapid accumulation of STRs and rearrangements over a few million years ago. The STRs in nad7-1 have a 7-bp microhomology (TAG7) flanking the repeat array. We then scanned the mitogenomes of 136 seed plants to understand the role of microhomology in the formation of STR and mitogenome evolution. A total of 13,170 STRs were identified, and almost half of them were associated with microhomologies. A substantial amount (1,197) of microhomologies was long enough to mediate structural variation, and the length of microhomology is positively correlated with the length of tandem repeat unit. These results suggest that microhomology may be involved in the formation of tandem repeat via microhomology-mediated pathway, and the formation of longer duplicates required greater length of microhomology. We examined the abundance of these 1,197 microhomologies, and found 75% of them were enriched in the plant mitogenomes. Further analyses of the 400 prevalent microhomologies revealed that 175 of them showed differential enrichment between angiosperms and gymnosperms and 186 differed between angiosperms and conifers, indicating lineage-specific usage and expansion of microhomologies. Our study sheds light on the sources of structural variation in plant mitochondrial genomes and highlights the importance of microhomology in mitochondrial genome evolution.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Genoma Mitocondrial , Repetições de Microssatélites , Modelos Genéticos , Pinus/genética , Variação Estrutural do Genoma , Haplótipos , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico
20.
Database (Oxford) ; 20202020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761141

RESUMO

The rapid and accurate diagnosis of swine diseases is indispensable for reducing their negative impacts on the pork industry. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a promising diagnostic tool for swine diseases. To support the application of NGS in the diagnosis of swine disease, we established the Swine Pathogen Database (SPDB). The SPDB represents the first comprehensive and highly specialized database and analysis platform for swine pathogens. The current version features an online genome search tool, which now contains 26 148 genomes of swine, swine pathogens and phylogenetically related species. This database offers a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis pipeline for the identification of 4403 swine pathogens and their related species in clinical samples, based on targeted 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metagenomic NGS data. The SPDB provides a powerful and user-friendly service for veterinarians and researchers to support the applications of NGS in swine disease research. Database URL: http://spdatabase.com:2080/.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Gerenciamento de Base de Dados , Bases de Dados Factuais , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Internet , Parasitos/genética , Software , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Vírus/genética
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