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1.
J BUON ; 26(5): 1879-1886, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34761595

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore the efficacy and safety of 125I radioactive seed implantation combined with epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: 108 patients with EGFR mutation-positive unresectable advanced NSCLC (stage IIIB-IV) were randomly divided into 125I group (treated with 125I radioactive seed implantation combined with EGFR-TKIs, n=54) and EGFR-TKIs group (treated with EGFR-TKIs alone, n=54). The short-term efficacy and adverse reactions were analyzed and evaluated, the changes in the levels of peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets, natural killer (NK) cells and related immune-inflammatory factors were analyzed, and the long-term survival and progression of disease were recorded. RESULTS: The objective response rate was 61.1% (33/54) and 51.9% (28/54), and the disease control rate was 88.9% (48/54) and 68.5% (37/54), respectively, in 125I group and EGFR-TKIs group. At 6 months after treatment, the levels of peripheral blood cluster of differentiation 3+ (CD3+), CD4+, CD4+/CD8+ and NK cells significantly rose in both groups compared with those before treatment (p<0.05), while the levels of CD8+, serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10 significantly declined compared with those before treatment. The 2-year overall survival (OS) rate was 53.7% (29/54) and 40.7% (22/54), and the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 14.5 months and 9.8 months, respectively, in 125I group and EGFR-TKIs group. CONCLUSIONS: 125I radioactive seed implantation combined with EGFR-TKIs is safe and effective in the treatment of advanced NSCLC, and its short-term efficacy and long-term survival rate of patients are significantly superior to those of EGFR-TKIs alone. At the same time, it can regulate the expressions of T lymphocyte subsets, NK cells and immune-inflammatory factors in patients, and improve their immune function.

2.
Front Neurol ; 12: 744749, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34759883

RESUMO

Objective: Our aim was to investigate the dynamics of functional connectivity (FC) networks during seizure termination in patients with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and graph theory (GT) analysis. Methods: MEG data were recorded from 22 drug-naïve patients diagnosed with CAE. FC analysis was performed to evaluate the FC networks in seven frequency bands of the MEG data. GT analysis was used to assess the topological properties of FC networks in different frequency bands. Results: The patterns of FC networks involving the frontal cortex were altered significantly during seizure termination compared with those during the ictal period. Changes in the topological parameters of FC networks were observed in specific frequency bands during seizure termination compared with those in the ictal period. In addition, the connectivity strength at 250-500 Hz during the ictal period was negatively correlated with seizure frequency. Conclusions: FC networks associated with the frontal cortex were involved in the termination of absence seizures. The topological properties of FC networks in different frequency bands could be used as new biomarkers to characterize the dynamics of FC networks related to seizure termination.

3.
DNA Cell Biol ; 40(11): 1418-1427, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767735

RESUMO

In this study, we examined the regulatory role of CCDC34 in the sorafenib sensitivity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its functional partners. Wide-type Huh7 and Hep3B and induced sorafenib-resistant (SR) Huh7/SR and Hep3B/SR cells were used as in vitro cell models. Immunofluorescent staining and coimmunoprecipitation were performed to check protein-protein interaction. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL), PI/Annexin V staining, and western blot analysis were performed to assess cell response to sorafenib. The results showed that CCDC34 upregulation in HCC was associated with poor survival. Huh7/SR and Hep3B/SR cells had significantly higher CCDC34 expression than the parental cell lines. RABL2A expression was significantly upregulated in SR HCC cells and interacted with CCDC34 in its GTP-bound state in Huh7/SR and Hep3B/SR cells. RABL2A depletion sensitized Huh7/SR and Hep3B/SR cells to sorafenib. RABL2A Q80L mutant (GTP-bound state locked), but not S35N mutant (GDP-bound state locked) overexpression increased sorafenib IC50 of Huh7 and Hep3B cells. CCDC34 depletion nearly abrogated the protective effects of RABL2A Q80L overexpression both in vitro and in vivo. RABL2A Q80L overexpression significantly increased the expression of p-p38 and p-JNK, the effects of which were significantly attenuated by CCDC34 depletion. In summary, we infer that the RABL2A-CCDC34 axis plays an important role in mediating p38/MAPK and JNK/MAPK signaling, thereby contributing to acquired sorafenib resistance in HCC.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Sorafenibe/metabolismo , Antígenos de Neoplasias/fisiologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , China , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/fisiologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sorafenibe/farmacologia , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/fisiologia
4.
Hum Immunol ; 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785098

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Great international efforts have been put into the development of prophylactic vaccines and neutralizing antibodies. However, the knowledge about the B cell immune response induced by the SARS-CoV-2 virus is still limited. Here, we report a comprehensive characterization of the dynamics of immunoglobin heavy chain (IGH) repertoire in COVID-19 patients. By using next-generation sequencing technology, we examined the temporal changes in the landscape of the patient's immunological status and found dramatic changes in the IGH within the patient's immune system after the onset of COVID-19 symptoms. Although different patients have distinct immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection, by employing clonotype overlap, lineage expansion, and clonotype network analyses, we observed a higher clonotype overlap and substantial lineage expansion of B cell clones 2-3 weeks after the onset of illness, which is of great importance to B-cell immune responses. Meanwhile, for preferences of V gene usage during SARS-CoV-2 infection, IGHV3-74 and IGHV4-34, and IGHV4-39 in COVID-19 patients were more abundant than those of healthy controls. Overall, we present an immunological resource for SARS-CoV-2 that could promote both therapeutic development as well as mechanistic research.

5.
EClinicalMedicine ; 42: 101187, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34841235

RESUMO

Background: We compared the efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of MIL60 with reference bevacizumab as first-line treatment in patients with advanced or recurrent non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in this phase 3, randomized, double-blind study. Methods: Patients with untreated advanced or recurrent NSCLC were randomized (1:1 ratio) to receive either MIL60 or bevacizumab in combination with paclitaxel/carboplatin. Patients with non-progressive disease continued maintenance single-agent MIL60 until disease progression, or intolerable toxicity. The primary endpoint was the 12-week objective response rates (ORR12) by independent review committee (IRC) using RECIST 1.1. Bioequivalence was established if the ORR ratio located between 0.75 and 1/0.75. The trial was registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03196986). Findings: Between Aug 23, 2017, and May 8, 2019, 517 patients were randomly assigned to MIL60 group (n=257) and bevacizumab group (n=260). In the full analysis set (FAS) population including all randomized and evaluable patients who received at least one dose of MIL60 or bevacizumab, the ORR12 in MIL60 group and bevacizumab group were 48.6% and 43.1%, respectively. The ORR ratio of these two groups were 1.14 (90% CI 0.97-1.33), which fell within the pre-specified equivalence boundaries (0.75-1/0.75). The median DOR was 5.7 months (95% CI 4.5-6.2) for MIL60 and 5.6 months (95% CI 4.3-6.4) for bevacizumab. No significant difference was noted in median PFS (7.2 vs. 8.1 months; HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.78-1.30, p=0.9606) and OS (19.3 vs. 16.3 months; HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.64-1.02, p=0.0755). Safety and tolerability profiles were similar between the two groups. No patient detected positive for Anti-drug antibody (ADA). Interpretation: The efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of MIL60 were similar with bevacizumab, providing an alternative treatment option for advanced or recurrent non-squamous NSCLC. Funding: This study was sponsored by Betta Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.

6.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(11)2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34828322

RESUMO

High-temperature stress negatively affects the growth and development of plants, and therefore threatens global agricultural safety. Cultivating stress-tolerant plants is the current objective of plant breeding programs. Pearl millet is a multi-purpose plant, commonly used as a forage but also an important food staple. This crop is very heat-resistant and has a higher net assimilation rate than corn under high-temperature stress. However, the response of heat resistant pearl millet has so far not been studied at the transcriptional level. In this study, transcriptome sequencing of pearl millet leaves exposed to different lengths of heat treatment (1 h, 48 h and 96 h) was conducted in order to investigate the molecular mechanisms of the heat stress response and to identify key genes related to heat stress. The results showed that the amount of heat stress-induced DEGs in leaves differs with the length of exposure to high temperatures. The highest value of DEGs (8286) was observed for the group exposed to heat stress for 96 h, while the other two treatments showed lower DEGs values of 4659 DEGs after 1 h exposure and 3981 DEGs after 48 h exposure to heat stress. The DEGs were mainly synthesized in protein folding pathways under high-temperature stress after 1 h exposure. Moreover, a large number of genes encoding ROS scavenging enzymes were activated under heat stress for 1 h and 48 h treatments. The flavonoid synthesis pathway of pearl millet was enriched after heat stress for 96 h. This study analyzed the transcription dynamics under short to long-term heat stress to provide a theoretical basis for the heat resistance response of pearl millet.

7.
Opt Express ; 29(16): 25511-25523, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614881

RESUMO

Speckle imposes obvious limitations on resolving capabilities of optical coherence tomography (OCT), while speckle-modulating OCT can efficiently reduce speckle arbitrarily. However, speckle-modulating OCT seriously reduces the imaging sensitivity and temporal resolution of the OCT system when reducing speckle. Here, we proposed a deep-learning-based speckle-modulating OCT, termed Sm-Net OCT, by deeply integrating conventional OCT setup and generative adversarial network trained with a customized large speckle-modulating OCT dataset containing massive speckle patterns. The customized large speckle-modulating OCT dataset was obtained from the aforementioned conventional OCT setup rebuilt into a speckle-modulating OCT and performed imaging using different scanning parameters. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed Sm-Net OCT can effectively obtain high-quality OCT images without the electronic noise and speckle, and conquer the limitations of reducing the imaging sensitivity and temporal resolution which conventional speckle-modulating OCT has. The proposed Sm-Net OCT can significantly improve the adaptability and practicality capabilities of OCT imaging, and expand its application fields.

8.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0259100, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34699560

RESUMO

Excess copper (Cu) in soil due to industrial and agricultural practices can result in reduced plant growth. Excess Cu resulted in severely retarded root growth with severe discoloration of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and Medicago truncatula. Growth in the presence of hydrogen peroxide resulted in similar symptoms that could be partially recovered by the addition of the reductant ascorbic acid revealing damage was likely due to oxidative stress. The addition of proanthocyanidins (PAs) in the presence of Cu prevented much of the damage, including plant growth and restoration of lignin synthesis which was inhibited in the presence of excess Cu. Transcriptome analyses of the impact of excess Cu and the amelioration after PAs treatment revealed that changes were enriched in functions associated with the cell wall and extracellular processes, indicating that inhibition of cell wall synthesis was likely the reason for retarded growth. Excess Cu appeared to induce a strong defense response, along with alterations in the expression of a number of genes encoding transcription factors, notably related to ethylene signaling. The addition of PAs greatly reduced this response, and also induced novel genes that likely help ameliorate the effects of excess Cu. These included induction of genes involved in the last step of ascorbic acid biosynthesis and of enzymes involved in cell wall synthesis. Combined, these results show that excess Cu causes severe oxidative stress damage and inhibition of cell wall synthesis, which can be relieved by the addition of PAs.

9.
PeerJ ; 9: e11919, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34466285

RESUMO

Orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata) is one of the top four perennial forages worldwide and, despite its large economic advantages, often threatened by various environmental stresses. WRKY transcription factors (TFs) can regulate a variety of plant processes, widely participate in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses, and are one of the largest gene families in plants. WRKYs can usually bind W-box elements specifically. In this study, we identified a total of 93 DgWRKY genes and 281 RGAs, including 65, 169 and 47 nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeats (NBS-LRRs), leucine-rich repeats receptor-like protein kinases (LRR-RLKs), and leucine-rich repeats receptor-like proteins (LRR-RLPs), respectively. Through analyzing the expression of DgWRKY genes in orchardgrass under different environmental stresses, it was found that many DgWRKY genes were differentially expressed under heat, drought, submergence, and rust stress. In particular, it was found that the greatest number of genes were differentially expressed under rust infection. Consistently, GO and KEGG enrichment analysis of all genes showed that 78 DgWRKY TFs were identified in the plant-pathogen interaction pathway, with 59 of them differentially expressed. Through cis-acting element prediction, 154 RGAs were found to contain W-box elements. Among them, DG6C02319.1 (a member of the LRR-RLK family) was identified as likely to interact with 14 DGWRKYs. Moreover, their expression levels in susceptible plants after rust inoculation were first up-regulated and then down-regulated, while those in the resistant plants were always up-regulated. In general, DgWRKYs responded to both biotic stress and abiotic stress. DgWRKYs and RGAs may synergistically respond to the response of orchardgrass to rust. This study provides meaningful insight into the molecular mechanisms of WRKY proteins in orchardgrass.

10.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 15: 720596, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34566605

RESUMO

Objective: Childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (CECTS), the most common childhood epilepsy, still lacks longitudinal imaging studies involving antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In order to examine the effect of AEDs on cognition and brain activity. We investigated the neuromagnetic activities and cognitive profile in children with CECTS before and after 1 year of treatment. Methods: Fifteen children with CECTS aged 6-12 years underwent high-sampling magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings before treatment and at 1 year after treatment, and 12 completed the cognitive assessment (The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children). Next, magnetic source location and functional connectivity (FC) were investigated in order to characterize interictal neuromagnetic activity in the seven frequency sub-bands, including: delta (1-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), beta (12-30 Hz), gamma (30-80 Hz), ripple (80-250 Hz), and fast ripple (250-500 Hz). Results: After 1 year of treatment, children with CECTS had increased scores on full-scale intelligence quotient, verbal comprehension index (VCI) and perceptual reasoning index (PRI). Alterations of neural activity occurred in specific frequency bands. Source location, in the 30-80 Hz frequency band, was significantly increased in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) after treatment. Moreover, FC analysis demonstrated that after treatment, the connectivity between the PCC and the medial frontal cortex (MFC) was enhanced in the 8-12 Hz frequency band. Additionally, the whole-brain network distribution was more dispersed in the 80-250 Hz frequency band. Conclusion: Intrinsic neural activity has frequency-dependent characteristic. AEDs have impact on regional activity and FC of the default mode network (DMN). Normalization of aberrant DMN in children with CECTS after treatment is likely the reason for improvement of cognitive function.

11.
Nanoscale ; 13(40): 16923-16931, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522934

RESUMO

Immunomagnetic beads have been widely explored as an important analytical tool for the rapid and sensitive detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs). However, their clinical application is seriously hindered by the tedious preparation procedures and heterogeneous nature of CTCs. To this end, a designed multifunctional platform named Fe3O4@TA/CuII superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPMNPs) is expected to have the following features: (i) the formation of a tannic acid-copper (II) ion (TA/CuII) coating which could be accomplished by a one-step method is very simple; (ii) the TA/CuII coating shows high affinity for heterogeneous CTCs and good resistance to nonspecific adhesion of blood cells; (iii) "self-release" of the captured cells could be achieved as the TA/CuII coating gradually degrades in the cell culture environment without any additional interventions. Therefore, the resulting Fe3O4@TA/CuII SPMNPs could capture various CTCs (MCF-7, HepG2 and HeLa cells) with different expression levels of the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM). And the capture efficiency and cell purity can reach 88% and 87%, respectively. In addition, 68% of the captured cells are self-released after 6 h of incubation and most of the released cells show high cell proliferation activity. In particular, Fe3O4@TA/CuII SPMNPs can successfully detect 1-13 CTCs from 1 mL of blood of 14 patients with 6 types of cancers. Hence, we expect that the as-prepared Fe3O4@TA/CuII SPMNPs with simple, efficient, and universal yet cost-efficient characteristics could act as a promising analytical tool for clinical CTC detection.


Assuntos
Células Neoplásicas Circulantes , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Separação Celular , Molécula de Adesão da Célula Epitelial , Células HeLa , Humanos
12.
Epilepsy Behav ; 124: 108276, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547687

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Rolandic epilepsy (RE) is one of the most common forms of epilepsy syndromes in children. The condition is usually accompanied with either unilateral or bilateral centrotemporal epileptic discharge. Despite the term "benign", many studies have reported that children with benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) display a range of pervasive cognitive difficulties. In addition, existing research suggests that unilateral and bilateral centrotemporal spikes may affect cognition through different mechanisms. Consequently, the present study aimed to investigate cognitive impairment and the resting-state network topology of children with benign epilepsy with unilateral centrotemporal spikes (U-BECTS) and with bilateral centrotemporal spikes (B-BECTS). METHODS: This study recruited 14 children with U-BECTS and 14 with B-BECTS. Thereafter, cognition was assessed in 28 children with BECTS and 14 healthy controls, using the fourth edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale (WISC-IV). Additionally, the functional network of the brain was constructed through magnetoencephalography (MEG) to record the resting-state brain magnetic signals of the brain and by computing virtual sensor waveforms at the source level. Moreover, graph theory (GT) analysis was used to assess the properties of the brain network. RESULTS: Children in the B-BECTS group had an earlier onset of epilepsy compared to those in the U-BECTS category. In addition, both the B-BECTS and U-BECTS groups had lower Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ), Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), and Working Memory Index (WMI) scores, compared to the healthy controls although only children in the B-BECTS category had lower Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI) scores. The results also showed that both BECTS groups had increased frontal cortex connectivity in specific frequency bands. Notably, children with B-BECTS showed a more disorderly and randomized network in the 1-4-Hz and 80-250-Hz frequency bands. Moreover, GT analysis showed that children with B-BECTS had lower clustering coefficient and characteristic path length in the 80-250-Hz frequency bands and higher connection strength in the 4-8-Hz frequency bands. On the other hand, the U-BECTS group had a higher clustering coefficient in the 8-12-Hz frequency bands, compared to the healthy controls. Correlation analysis revealed that there were negative correlations between network parameters, clinical characteristics, and neuropsychological data in the U-BECTS category. CONCLUSION: The findings revealed that children with BECTS display a diffuse early cognitive deficit. In addition, resting-state suboptimal network topology may be the mechanism of cognitive impairment in children with BECTS. The study also showed that and children with B-BECTS may be at a higher risk of cognitive impairment.

13.
Front Neurol ; 12: 692126, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413824

RESUMO

Objective: This study aims to investigate the differences between antiepileptic drug (AED) responders and nonresponders among patients with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and to additionally evaluate whether the neuromagnetic signals of the brain neurons were correlated with the response to therapy. Methods: Twenty-four drug-naïve patients were subjected to MEG under six frequency bandwidths during ictal periods. The source location and functional connectivity were analyzed using accumulated source imaging and correlation analysis, respectively. All patients were treated with appropriate AED, at least 1 year after their MEG recordings, their outcome was assessed, and they were consequently divided into responders and nonresponders. Results: The source location of the nonresponders was mainly in the frontal cortex at a frequency range of 8-12 and 30-80 Hz, especially 8-12 Hz, while the source location of the nonresponders was mostly in the medial frontal cortex, which was chosen as the region of interest. The nonresponders showed strong positive local frontal connections and deficient anterior and posterior connections at 80-250 Hz. Conclusion: The frontal cortex and especially the medial frontal cortex at α band might be relevant to AED-nonresponsive CAE patients. The local frontal positive epileptic network at 80-250 Hz in our study might further reveal underlying cerebral abnormalities even before treatment in CAE patients, which could cause them to be nonresponsive to AED. One single mechanism cannot explain AED resistance; the nonresponders may represent a subgroup of CAE who is refractory to several antiepileptic drugs.

14.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 808, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delirium, a disorder of consciousness, often occurs for a period of time during hospitalisation. It is characterised by a disturbance of attention or awareness. Hyperactive delirium may lead to accidental removal of medical equipment, while hypoactive delirium may inhibit patients from participating in nursing interventions, medical treatment, and physical therapy. However, there are limited relevant studies of the strain of care of nurses in China when caring for patients with delirium. This study, thus, aimed to investigate the subjective level of the strain of care experienced by pulmonary and critical care nurses when caring for patients with delirium. METHODS: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study. A survey was conducted with 100 nurses in the Chinese pulmonary and critical care medical (PCCM) department in 2018. The Strain of Care for Delirium Index (SCDI) was used to measure nurses' strain of care. Participants were instructed to rate the degree of perceived difficulty in managing patients who displayed the behaviours listed in the SCDI, on a scale from 1 (quite easy) to 4 (very difficult). The mean ± standard deviation (SD) scores of the ranked difficulty scores were calculated. RESULTS: In our sample, 47 % of the nurses had received delirium-related training previously. The three wards with the highest strain of care scores when caring for patients with delirium were the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ward (3.29 ± 0.72), interstitial lung disease ward (3.11 ± 1.31), and respiratory intensive care unit (3.02 ± 0.78). The three types of patient behaviours associated with the highest degree of nursing strain of care were being uncooperative and difficult to manage (3.37 ± 0.84), pulling out tubes and tearing out dressings (3.33 ± 0.98), and irritability (3.22 ± 0.95). CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to focus on nurses' subjective strain of care when caring for patients with delirium in PCCM departments in China. The findings suggest the need to pay more attention to the working status of Chinese nurses. Further trials with large samples assessing relevant outcomes of patients with delirium are warranted.


Assuntos
Delírio , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital , Cuidados Críticos , Estudos Transversais , Delírio/epidemiologia , Delírio/terapia , Humanos
15.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256529, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428242

RESUMO

Calcium (Ca2+) is an essential nutrient element for plants as it stabilizes the membrane system structure and controls enzyme activity. To investigate the effects of Ca2+ on plant growth and leaf photosynthetic electron transport in oat (Avena sativa) under NaCl stress, oat seeds and plants were cultivated in nutrient solutions with single NaCl treatment and NaCl treatment with CaCl2 amendment. By measuring the seed germination rate, plant growth, Na+ and Cl- accumulation in leaves, ion leakage in seedlings and leaves, prompt chlorophyll a fluorescence (PF) transient (OJIP), delayed chlorophyll a fluorescence (DF), and modulated 820 nm reflection (MR) values of the leaves at different growth phases, we observed that Ca2+ alleviated the inhibition of germination and plant growth and decreased Na+ and Cl- accumulation and ion leakage in the leaves under NaCl stress. NaCl stress changed the curves of the OJIP transient, induced PF intensity at P-step (FP) decrease and PF intensity at J-step (FJ) increase, resulted in obvious K and L bands, and altered the performance index of absorption (PIABS), the absorption of antenna chlorophyll (ABS/RC), electron movement efficiency (ETo/TRo), and potential maximum photosynthetic capacity (FV/FM) values. With the time extension of NaCl stress, I1 and I2 in the DF curve showed a decreasing trend, the lowest values of MR/MRO curve increased, and the highest points of the MR/MRO curve decreased. Compared with NaCl treatment, the extent of change induced by NaCl in the values of OJIP, DF and MR was reduced in the NaCl treatment with CaCl2 amendment. These results revealed that Ca2+ might improve the photosynthetic efficiency and the growth of salt-stressed plants by maintaining the integrity of oxygen-evolving complexes and electron transporters on the side of the PSI receptor and enhancing the relationship between the functional units of the photosynthetic electron transport chain. The findings from this study could be used for improving crop productivity in saline alkali lands.

16.
Epilepsy Behav ; 123: 108235, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411950

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate whether patients with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) and childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) show distinct patterns of white matter (WM) alterations and structural asymmetry compared with healthy controls and the relationship between WM alterations and epilepsy-related clinical variables. METHODS: We used automated fiber quantification to create tract profiles of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) in twenty-six patients with BECTS, twenty-nine patients with CAE, and twenty-four healthy controls. Group differences in FA and MD were quantified at 100 equidistant nodes along the fiber tract and these alterations and epilepsy-related clinical variables were correlated. A lateralization index (LI) representing the structural asymmetry of the fiber tract was computed and compared between both patient groups and controls. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls, the BECTS group showed widespread FA reduction in 43.75% (7/16) and MD elevation in 50% (8/16) of identified fiber tracts, and the CAE group showed regional FA reduction in 31.25% (5/16) and MD elevation in 25% (4/16) of identified fiber tracts. In the BECTS group, FA and MD in the right anterior thalamic radiation positively and negatively correlated with the number of antiepileptic drugs, respectively, and MD in the right arcuate fasciculus (AF) positively correlated with seizure frequency. In the CAE group, the LI values were significantly lower in the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and the AF. CONCLUSION: The two childhood epilepsy syndromes display different patterns of WM alterations and structural asymmetry, suggesting that neuroanatomical differences may underlie the different profiles of BECTS and CAE.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Tipo Ausência , Epilepsia Rolândica , Substância Branca , Anisotropia , Criança , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Epilepsia Tipo Ausência/diagnóstico por imagem , Epilepsia Rolândica/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
17.
J Environ Manage ; 299: 113449, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450301

RESUMO

Biodiversity is declining at an unprecedented rate, and conservation is needed in many places including human-dominated landscapes. Evaluation of conflict risk between biodiversity conservation and human activities is a prerequisite for countries to develop strategies to achieve better conservation outcomes. However, quantitative methods to measure the conflict risk in large-scale areas are still lacking. Here we put forward a quantitative model in large-scale areas and produce the first continuum map of conflict risk in China. Our results show that conflict risk hotspots take up 32.86 % of China's terrestrial area, which may affect 42.98 % of China's population and more than 98 % of threaten vertebrates. Although species richness is high in these hotspot regions, only 10.69 % of them are covered by protected areas. Therefore, alternative conservation measures and proactive spatial planning are needed, especially in regions along the coastlines and around the Sichuan Basin. Especially, extraordinary attentions should be paid to urban agglomerations such as the Pearl River Delta and Yangtze River Delta. Compared to previous studies, our study quantifies the conflict risk of every gird cell, enabling the comparison among any locations. The analysis of 500 times generations shows a low sensitivity of the model as the maximum standard deviation is only 0.017. Furthermore, our model can be applied in other countries or at global scale to provide strategies for conflict governance and biodiversity conservation.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Animais , China , Atividades Humanas , Humanos , Rios
18.
ACS Nano ; 15(9): 15017-15026, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405681

RESUMO

Efficient transition metal oxide electrocatalysts for the alkaline hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) have received intensive attention to energy conversion but are limited by their sluggish water dissociation and unfavorable hydrogen migration and coupling. Herein, systematic density functional theory (DFT) predicts that on representative NiO, the hydroxylation (OH-) and heterointerface coupled with metallic Cu can respectively reduce the energy barrier of water dissociation and facilitate hydrogen spillover. Motivated by theoretical predictions, we subtly designed a delicate strategy to realize the electrochemical OH- modification in KOH with moderate concentration (HOM-NiO) and to channel rapid hydrogen spillover at the heterointerface of HOM-NiO and Cu, ensuring an enhanced HER kinetic. This HOM-NiO/Cu is systematically investigated by in situ XAS and electrochemical simulations, verifying its extraordinary merits for HER including the enhanced water dissociation, alleviated oxophilicity that is advantageous for consecutive adsorptions of water, and accelerated hydrogen spillover, thereby exhibiting superb HER activity with 33 and 310 mV overpotentials at the current densities of 10 and 1000 mA cm-2 in 1.0 M KOH, outperforming the Pt/C. This study might provide a reasonable strategy for the functionalized design of superior electrocatalysts.

19.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 568, 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drought is one of the major environmental stresses resulting in a huge reduction in crop growth and biomass production. Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) has excellent drought tolerance, and it could be used as a model plant to study drought resistance. The root is a very crucial part of plant that plays important roles in plant growth and development, which makes it a focus of research. RESULTS: In this study, we explored the mechanism of drought tolerance of pearl millet by comparing physiological and transcriptomic data under normal condition and drought treatment at three time points (1 h, 3 h and 7 h) in the root during the seedling stage. The relative electrical conductivity went up from 1 h to 7 h in both control and drought treatment groups while the content of malondialdehyde decreased. A total of 2004, 1538 and 605 differentially expressed genes were found at 1 h, 3 h and 7 h respectively and 12 genes showed up-regulation at all time points. Some of these differentially expressed genes were significantly enriched into 'metabolic processes', 'MAPK signaling pathway' and 'plant hormone signal transduction' such as the ABA signal transduction pathway in GO and KEGG enrichment analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Pearl millet was found to have a quick drought response, which may occur before 1 h that contributes to its tolerance against drought stress. These results can provide a theoretical basis to enhance the drought resistance in other plant species.


Assuntos
Pennisetum , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Pennisetum/genética , Plântula/genética , Estresse Fisiológico , Transcriptoma
20.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269058

RESUMO

Spatially controlled preparation of heterostructures composed of layered materials is important in achieving interesting properties. Although vapor-phased deposition methods can prepare vertical and lateral heterostructures, liquid-phased methods, which can enable scalable production and further solution processes, have shown limited controllability. Herein, we demonstrate by using wet chemical methods that metallic Sn0.5Mo0.5S2 nanosheets can be deposited epitaxially on the edges of semiconducting SnS2 nanoplates to form SnS2/Sn0.5Mo0.5S2 lateral heterostructures or coated on both the edges and basal surfaces of SnS2 to give SnS2@Sn0.5Mo0.5S2 core@shell heterostructures. They also showed good light-to-heat conversion ability due to the metallic property of Sn0.5Mo0.5S2. In particular, the core@shell heterostructure showed a higher photothermal conversion efficiency than the lateral counterpart, largely due to its randomly oriented and polycrystalline Sn0.5Mo0.5S2 layers with larger interfacing area for multiple internal light scattering.

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