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1.
Food Chem ; 335: 127602, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739807

RESUMO

Bioactive phenolics primarily contribute to versatile health benefits of pigeon pea. For the first time, an UPLC-QqQ-MS/MS method was developed for the quantitative analysis of eleven bioactive phenolic compounds in pigeon pea natural resources (seeds, leaves, and roots) and in vitro cultures (calli and hairy roots). The proposed method could be achieved within 6 min of running time, and displayed the satisfactory linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, and stability. According to analytical results, the distribution of eleven target compounds in different organs of pigeon pea was clarified. Also, it was surprisingly found that pigeon pea in vitro cultures exhibited superiority in contents of genistin and cajaninstilbene acid as compared with natural resources. Overall, the present work provided a rapid and sensitive analysis approach, which could be useful not only for quality control of pigeon pea natural resources, but also for applicability and safety evaluation of pigeon pea in vitro cultures.

2.
Gene ; 764: 145105, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882333

RESUMO

Sarcoma (SARC) represents a group of highly histological and molecular heterogeneous rare malignant tumors with poor prognosis. There are few proposed classifiers for predicting patient's outcome. The Cancer Proteome Atlas (TPCA) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) databases provide multi-omics datasets that enable a comprehensive investigation for this disease. The proteomic expression profile of SARC patients along with the clinical information was downloaded. 55 proteins were found to be associated with overall survival (OS) of patients using univariate Cox regression analysis. We developed a prognostic risk signature that comprises seven proteins (AMPKALPHA, CHK1, S6, ARID1A, RBM15, ACETYLATUBULINLYS40, and MSH6) with robust predictive performance using multivariate Cox stepwise regression analysis. Additionally, the signature could be an independent prognostic predictor after adjusting for clinicopathological parameters. Patients in high-risk group also have worse progression free intervals (PFI) than that of patients in low-risk group, but not for disease free intervals (DFI). The signature was validated using transcriptomic profile of SARC patients from TCGA. Potential mechanisms between high- and low-risk groups were identified using differentially expressed genes (DEGs) analysis. These DEGs were primarily enriched in RAS and MPAK signaling pathways. The signature protein molecules are candidate biomarkers for SARC, and the analysis of computational biology in tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and immune checkpoint molecules revealed distinctly immune landscapes of high- and low-risk patients. Together, we constructed a prognostic signature for predicting outcomes for SARC integrating proteomic and transcriptomic profiles, this might have value in guiding clinical practice.

3.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 244: 118857, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877850

RESUMO

The valorization, resource generation and the functional characteristic exploration of domestic waste still face enormous challenges. Kiwi peels, a common kind of fruit waste, contain a large amount of phenolic substances, including polyphenols, flavonoids, etc., which can be explored and reused in food and biomedical fields. By ultrasonic assisted extraction technology, we obtained conversional fluorescence kiwi peel phenolic extracts (PE) which possessed gradient magenta fluorescence relying on the content of ethanol in the solution, as well as strong antioxidant activity. Besides, metal ions sensing assay revealed that PE can specifically sense Hg2+ and Cu2+ (LOD: 1.16 and 0.17 µM, respectively) accompanied with a fluorescence conversion from magenta fluorescence to blue. Moreover, employing the prepared PE as fluorescent probes, imaging of HeLa cells can be easily achieved with satisfactory resolution. Additionally, PE was incorporated into the gelatin matrix, successfully fabricating a green, edible degradable film with excellent antioxidant activity.

4.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 244: 118876, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920501

RESUMO

P-nitrophenol (PNP) has been widely applied to industry processing for many purposes, but the persistence and toxicity of residuum may pose risks to human health. To analyze PNP in industrial and agricultural wastewater, a versatile fluorescent probe sensing platform was proposed. In this work, we devised a fluorescence approach that utilized nitrogen, silicon co-doped carbon dots (N,Si-CDs) to monitor PNP originating from the inner filter effect (IFE). The N,Si-CDs were generated in a one-step hydrothermal synthesis, and which possessed outstanding fluorescence signal and water-dispersity. Emission at 441 nm was monitored with excitation at 360 nm using a common spectrofluorometer. The method achieved an exceptionally low limit of detection (LOD) of 0.011 µM. Furthermore, this method not only eliminates the interference from metal ions and acid ions, but also provides a potential application prospect for N,Si-CDs in the field of water monitoring. Analysis of tap and lake water led to 93.30-106.30% recoveries and <1% relative standard deviation at 2.5-25 µM PNP concentrations.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(19)2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998479

RESUMO

With aging, the nervous system gradually undergoes degeneration. Increased oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cell death are considered to be common pathophysiological mechanisms of various neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Autophagy is a cellular basic metabolic process that degrades the aggregated or misfolded proteins and abnormal organelles in cells. The abnormal regulation of neuronal autophagy is accompanied by the accumulation and deposition of irregular proteins, leading to changes in neuron homeostasis and neurodegeneration. Autophagy exhibits both a protective mechanism and a damage pathway related to programmed cell death. Because of its "double-edged sword", autophagy plays an important role in neurological damage and NDDs including AD, PD, HD, OPIDN, and ALS. Melatonin is a neuroendocrine hormone mainly synthesized in the pineal gland and exhibits a wide range of biological functions, such as sleep control, regulating circadian rhythm, immune enhancement, metabolism regulation, antioxidant, anti-aging, and anti-tumor effects. It can prevent cell death, reduce inflammation, block calcium channels, etc. In this review, we briefly discuss the neuroprotective role of melatonin against various NDDs via regulating autophagy, which could be a new field for future translational research and clinical studies to discover preventive or therapeutic agents for many NDDs.

6.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 43(10): 1526-1533, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999163

RESUMO

Imatinib-resistance is a significant concern for Bcr-Abl-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) treatment. Emodin, the predominant compound of traditional medicine rhubarb, was reported to inhibit the multidrug resistance by downregulating P-glycoprotein of K562/ADM cells with overexpression of P-glycoprotein in our previous studies. In the present study, we found that emodin can be a potential inhibitor for the imatinib-resistance in K562/G01 cells which are the imatinib-resistant subcellular line of human chronic myelogenous leukemia cells with overexpression of breakpoint cluster region-abelson (Bcr-Abl) oncoprotein. Emodin greatly enhanced cell sensitivity to imatinib, suppressed resistant cell proliferation and increased potentiated apoptosis induced by imatinib in K562/G01 cells. After treatment of emodin and imatinib together, the levels of p-Bcr-Abl and Bcr-Abl were significantly downregulated. Moreover, Bcr-Abl important downstream target, STAT5 and its phosphorylation were affected. Furthermore, the expression of Bcr-Abl and signal transducers and activators of transcription 5 (STAT5) related molecules, including c-MYC, MCL-1, poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP), Bcl-2 and caspase-3, were changed. Emodin also decreased Src expression and its phosphorylation. More importantly, emodin simultaneously targeted both the ATP-binding and allosteric sites on Bcr-Abl by molecular docking, with higher affinity with the myristoyl-binding site for enhanced Bcr-Abl kinase inhibition. Overall, these data indicated emodin might be an effective therapeutic agent for inhibiting resistance to imatinib in CML treatment.

7.
Small ; : e2003671, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006262

RESUMO

DNA tandem repeats are frequently found in eukaryotic genomes. High-copy DNA repeats can serve as building blocks of complex DNA structures, but the in vitro synthesis of DNA repeats has been challenging due to complicated procedures and the high cost. Here, a new, simple method is developed using the strategy of blocking polymerase chain reaction for highly efficient DNA repeat expansion (BPRE). With BPRE, dsDNA fragments composed of more than 40 copies of the repeat sequence can be quickly produced, while the cost is reduced by at least 90%. As a typical application, reannealing of the dsDNA repeats generates elastic hydrogels, which shows a high capacity for doxycycline absorption and prolonged release.

9.
Dalton Trans ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026012

RESUMO

Six dimetallic lanthanide complexes, [Ln2(L')(acac)4] (1Dy-3Gd) (Ln = Dy (1Dy), Tb (2Tb) and Gd (3Gd)) and [Ln2(L')(tfac)4] (4Dy-6Gd) (Ln = Dy (4Dy), Tb (5Tb) and Gd (6Gd)) (H2L' = 1,9-dichloro-3,7,11,15-tetraaza-1,9(1,3)-dibenzenacyclohexadecaphane-2,10-diene-1,9-diol), have been synthesized by the reaction of lanthanide nitrates with the HL ligand in the presence of acetylacetonate (acac) (or trifluoroacetylacetonate (tfac) and triethylamine (HL = 4-chloro-2,6-bis(-((3-((3-(dimethylamino)propyl)amino)propyl)imino)methyl)phenol). Ln-Assisted modification of the Schiff base HL occurred and led to the formation of a new macrocyclic ligand (H2L'). X-ray crystallographic analysis revealed that the LnIII ions of complexes 1Dy-6Gd are all eight-coordinated in a square antiprismatic geometry with D4d local symmetry. Magnetic measurements of these complexes revealed that 1Dy and 4Dy show single-molecule magnet behaviour with energy barriers of 66.7 and 79.0 K, respectively, under a zero direct magnetic field. The orientations of the magnetic axes and crystal field parameters were obtained from theoretical calculations and an electrostatic model. The magneto-structural correlations of SMMs 1Dy and 4Dy are further discussed in detail.

10.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2020 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has high commercial value, it is routinely adulterated with other oils. The present study investigated the feasibility of rapidly identifying adulterated EVOO using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) relaxometry and machine learning approaches (decision tree, K-nearest neighbor, linear discriminant analysis, support vector machines, and convolutional neural network). RESULTS: LF-NMR spectroscopy effectively distinguished pure EVOO from that which was adulterated with hazelnut oil (HO) and high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO). The applied convolutional neural network (CNN) algorithm had an accuracy of 89.29%, a precision of 81.25%, a recall of 81.25%, and enabled the rapid (two-minute) discrimination of pure EVOO that was adulterated with HO and HOSO in the volumetric ratio range of 10-100%. CONCLUSION: LF-NMR coupled with the CNN algorithm is a viable candidate for rapid EVOO authentication. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

11.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(12): 122301, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016735

RESUMO

Transverse momentum broadening and energy loss of a propagating parton are dictated by the space-time profile of the jet transport coefficient q[over ^] in a dense QCD medium. The spatial gradient of q[over ^] perpendicular to the propagation direction can lead to a drift and asymmetry in parton transverse momentum distribution. Such an asymmetry depends on both the spatial position along the transverse gradient and path length of a propagating parton as shown by numerical solutions of the Boltzmann transport in the simplified form of a drift-diffusion equation. In high-energy heavy-ion collisions, this asymmetry with respect to a plane defined by the beam and trigger particle (photon, hadron, or jet) with a given orientation relative to the event plane is shown to be closely related to the transverse position of the initial jet production in full event-by-event simulations within the linear Boltzmann transport model. Such a gradient tomography can be used to localize the initial jet production position for more detailed study of jet quenching and properties of the quark-gluon plasma along a given propagation path in heavy-ion collisions.

12.
Plant Cell ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037146

RESUMO

Catechyl lignin (C-lignin) is a linear homopolymer of caffeyl alcohol found in the seed coats of diverse plant species. Its properties make it a natural source of carbon fibers and high-value chemicals, but the mechanism of in planta polymerization of caffeyl alcohol remains unclear. In the ornamental plant Cleome hassleriana, lignin biosynthesis in the seed coat switches from guaiacyl (G) lignin to C-lignin at ~12 days after pollination. Here we found that the transcript profile of the laccase gene ChLAC8 parallels the accumulation of C-lignin during seed coat development. Recombinant ChLAC8 oxidizes caffeyl and sinapyl alcohols, generating their corresponding dimers or trimers in vitro, but cannot oxidize coniferyl alcohol. We propose a basis for this substrate preference based on molecular modeling/docking experiments. Suppression of ChLAC8 expression led to significantly reduced C-lignin content in the seed coats of transgenic Cleome plants. Feeding of 13C-caffeyl alcohol to the Arabidopsis thaliana caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (comt) mutant resulted in no incorporation of 13C into C-lignin, but expressing ChLAC8 in this genetic background led to appearance of C-lignin with over 40% label incorporation. These results indicate that ChLAC8 is required for C-lignin polymerization and determines lignin composition when caffeyl alcohol is available.

13.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 122020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044947

RESUMO

Hair cells (HCs) function as important sensory receptors that can detect movement in their immediate environment. HCs in the inner ear can sense acoustic signals, while in aquatic vertebrates HCs can also detect movements, vibrations, and pressure gradients in the surrounding water. Many genes are responsible for the development of HCs, and developmental defects in HCs can lead to hearing loss and other sensory dysfunctions. Here, we found that the solute carrier family 4, member 2b (slc4a2b) gene, which is a member of the anion-exchange family, is expressed in the otic vesicles and lateral line neuromasts in developing zebrafish embryos. An in silico analysis showed that the slc4a2b is evolutionarily conserved, and we found that loss of function of slc4a2b resulted in a decreased number of HCs in zebrafish neuromasts due to increased HC apoptosis. Taken together, we conclude that slc4a2b plays a critical role in the development of HCs in zebrafish.

14.
Clin Transl Sci ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045134

RESUMO

Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKL) is a rare peripheral T-cell lymphoma that predominantly occurs in Asian and South American populations. The treatment of ENKL has been a challenge for a long time. This study was conducted to compare the clinical efficacy and safety of cisplatin, dexamethasone, gemcitabine, and pegaspargase (DDGP) and methotrexate, dexamethasone, ifosfamide, L-asparaginase, and etoposide (SMILE) regimens for relapsed/refractory ENKL and explore the prognostic factors. From October 2014 to July 2019, 54 patients with relapsed/refractory ENKL who received DDGP or SMILE chemotherapy were retrospectively assessed in this study. Thirty-one patients received DDGP chemotherapy and 23 patients received SMILE chemotherapy. A higher complete response rate was observed in patients treated with DDGP regimen (61.3% vs. 30.4%, P = 0.025). The DDGP group (95% confidence interval (CI) of 5-year progression-free survival (PFS): 24.6-66.2%; 95% CI of 5-year overall survival (OS): 8.5-91.7%) was also significantly associated with longer 5-year PFS and 5-year OS (P = 0.008 for 5-year PFS, P = 0.023 for 5-year OS). More serious leucopenia (P = 0.021), neutropenia (P = 0.041), and allergy (P = 0.040) were observed in the SMILE group. Post-treatment Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-DNA status (P = 0.001 for PFS, P = 0.018 for OS) was identified as a significant prognostic factor for PFS and OS in multivariate analysis. The present research suggested that compared with SMILE chemotherapy, DDGP chemotherapy can significantly improve the response and survival of relapsed/refractory ENKL with better tolerance. Post-treatment EBV-DNA status was identified as a significant prognostic factor for PFS and OS in relapsed/refractory ENKL.

15.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045296

RESUMO

The widespread use of nanomaterials poses a great threat to human living environments. Among them, biomass-derived cellulose nanoparticle (CN) is one of the widely used nanomaterials. To date, the toxicity of CNs during embryonic development remains undetermined. In this study, we exposed zebrafish embryos to cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) to evaluate the toxicity of these CNs. Exposure to CNFs or CNCs below 30 mg/ml exhibited no dose-dependent increases in malformation and mortality in zebrafish embryos. Then we demonstrated that CNs were highly enriched in zebrafish embryo via imaging analyses of embryos treated with FITC-coupled CNCs. In addition, we found that CNF or CNC exposure resulted in compromised motor ability of zebrafish larva. Furthermore, it was revealed that the differentiation and the morphogenesis of motor neurons were significantly interrupted. While, blood vessels were normally patterned, suggesting the specific neurotoxicity of these nanomaterials. Transcriptome sequencing assay showed that the neurotoxicity of CNs in the motor neurons might be attributed to the expression alteration of neural genes. In summary, we discovered the neurotoxicity of CNs for the first time.

16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045827

RESUMO

Silybum marianum (SM), a well-known plant used as both a medicine and a food, has been widely used to treat various diseases, especially hepatic diseases. The seeds and fruits of SM contain a flavonolignan complex called silymarin, the active compounds of which include silybin, isosilybin, silychristin, dihydrosilybin, silydianin, and so on. In this review, we thoroughly summarize high-quality publications related to the pharmacological effects and underlying mechanisms of SM. SM has antimicrobial, anticancer, hepatoprotective, cardiovascular-protective, neuroprotective, skin-protective, antidiabetic, and other effects. Importantly, SM also counteracts the toxicities of antibiotics, metals, and pesticides. The diverse pharmacological activities of SM provide scientific evidence supporting its use in both humans and animals. Multiple signaling pathways associated with oxidative stress and inflammation are the common molecular targets of SM. Moreover, the flavonolignans of SM are potential agonists of PPARγ and ABCA1, PTP1B inhibitors, and metal chelators. At the end of the review, the potential and perspectives of SM are discussed, and these insights are expected to facilitate the application of SM and the discovery and development of new drugs. We conclude that SM is an interesting dietary medicine for health enhancement and drug discovery and warrants further investigation.

17.
J Appl Toxicol ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048420

RESUMO

Recently, we developed highly fluorescent Ti3 C2 and Nb2 C Mxene quantum dots (QDs) for labeling of in vitro models. However, the mechanism of the toxicity of the prepared QDs was not explored before. In this study, we addressed the possible mechanism associated with cytotoxicity of the QDs to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Exposure to up to 100 µg/ml Ti3 C2 but not Nb2 C QDs for 24 h significantly induced cytotoxicity. The exposure also increased intracellular Ti and Nb elements, indicating the internalization of both types of QDs. None of the QDs promoted interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-8 releases. Rather, Ti3 C2 QDs significantly reduced IL-6 and IL-8 release, indicating that the toxicity of Ti3 C2 QDs was not due to elevated inflammatory responses. Exposure to Ti3 C2 but not Nb2 C QDs resulted in increased LC3B-II/I ratio and beclin-1 proteins, biomarkers of autophagy, as well as the accumulation of autophagic substance p62. Ti3 C2 QDs also more effectively promoted pro-caspase 3 but not pro-caspase 8 compared with Nb2 C QDs. Furthermore, pre-treatment with autophagic modulators altered the cytotoxicity of Ti3 C2 QDs, which further confirmed the role of autophagic dysfunction in Ti3 C2 QD-induced toxicity to HUVECs. In conclusion, the results from this study suggested that high levels of Ti3 C2 QDs could induce cytotoxicity to HUVECs by inducing the dysfunction of autophagy. Nb2 C QDs appeared to be more biocompatible to HUVECs compared with Ti3 C2 QDs at the same mass concentrations, which suggested a role of composition of Mxene QDs to determine their toxicity to human endothelial cells.

18.
Life Sci ; 262: 118544, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035586

RESUMO

AIMS: Our previous study has demonstrated that high expression of ALDH1B1 promoted osteosarcoma tumor progression and was correlated with unfavorable prognosis in osteosarcoma patients. In the current study, we investigated the underlying mechanism and regulation of ALDH1B1 in osteosarcoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: qRT-PCR assay was applied to detect miR-761 expression. CCK-8, colony formation and EdU assays were conducted to explore the functional role of miR-761/ALDH1B1 axis in osteosarcoma. Bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter assay was utilized to assess the regulation between miR-761 and ALDH1B1. Mechanism experiments were implemented to investigate the underlying molecular mechanism of miR-761/ALDH1B1 axis. KEY FINDINGS: ALDH1B1 was negatively regulated by microRNA-761 (miR-761). Functionally, miR-761 suppressed cell growth, migration, and invasion in osteosarcoma via targeting ALDH1B1 in vitro. Xenograft tumor model demonstrated that miR-761 inhibited osteosarcoma tumor development in vivo through regulating ALDH1B1. Consistently, we showed that miR-761 expression was decreased in osteosarcoma patients and low expression of miR-761 was correlated with worse prognosis in osteosarcoma patients. Mechanistically, we revealed that high expression of ALDH1B1 was significantly associated with enhanced TGF-ß signaling, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and cell adhesion. Furthermore, miR-761 regulated TGF-ß and EMT/cell adhesion in osteosarcoma via targeting ALDH1B1. SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our findings suggest that the oncogenic ALDH1B1 is regulated by miR-761 during osteosarcoma development and progression, which might provide a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic strategy for osteosarcoma treatment.

19.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 15(1): 467, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether using tissue adhesive alone after subcutaneous suture can close the skin incision with safety as well as cosmetic appearance after total hip arthroplasty was not clear. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted. The same surgical methods were consistent throughout the entire study. After implanting prosthesis, the joint capsule was reconstructed. Fascial and subcutaneous layer were respectively closed by continuous running barbed suture. Patients were randomized allocated to group A with octyl-2-cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive alone, to group B with tissue adhesive after continuous subcuticular suture, or to group C with skin staples. Time of closure, drainage, pain, wound complications, and cosmesis were compared. All data were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in drainage, Visual Analog Scale score or early wound complications between the three groups. However, there was significant difference in time of closure (P = 0.013). In pairwise comparison, time of closure in groups A and B was significantly longer than those in group C (P = 0.001 and P = 0.023, respectively); time of closure in group A was significantly shorter than those in group B (P = 0.003). Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale total scores were not significantly different at 6 weeks and 3 months postoperatively (P = 0.078 and P = 0.284, respectively). CONCLUSION: Tissue adhesive without subcuticular suture was similar with a combination of subcuticular suture and tissue adhesive as well skin staples in terms of safety and cosmetic appearance after total hip arthroplasty.

20.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; PP2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055055

RESUMO

In this article, the issues of finite-time synchronization and finite-time adaptive synchronization for the impulsive memristive neural networks (IMNNs) with discontinuous activation functions (DAFs) and hybrid impulsive effects are probed into and elaborated on, where the stabilizing impulses (SIs), inactive impulses (IIs), and destabilizing impulses (DIs) are taken into account, respectively. Not resembling several earlier works, a more extensive range of impulses in the context of impulsive effects has been analyzed without using the known average impulsive interval strategy (AIIS). In light of the theories of differential inclusions and set-valued map, as well as impulsive control, new sufficient criteria with respect to the estimated settling time for synchronization of the related IMNNs are established using two types of switching control approaches, which sufficiently utilize information from not only the SIs, DIs, and DAFs but also the impulse sequences. Two simulation experiments are presented to the efficiency of the proposed results.

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